"Allah (Himself) is witness that the re is no god save Him, and (so do) the angels and the men of learning, maintaining His creation injustice. There is no god save Him, the Almighty, the Wise." Holy Qur'an (3:17)
Justice is one of the attributes of Allah, the Exalted and its effects are discerned in all of His acts. Its manifestation can be seen in the world of creation and in the divine legislation and law, as well.
It (Divine Justice) can be seen in the obligations which He assigns upon His servants as can be seen in the Judgement and Punishment Day, and the compensation of the sufferings resulting from them without punishment nor revenge. Thus, the Qur'an talks about Allah, the Almighty's Justice, and man's responsibility of his deeds and, also, refuses the idea of fatalism. The Almighty says:
"Allah enjoins justice and kindness." Holy Qur'an (16:90)
"...and your Lord wrongs no one." Holy Qur'an (18:49)
"...for it (is only) that which it has earned, and against it (only) that which it has deserved." Holy Qur'an (2:286)
"And whoever does good an atom's weight will see it then. And whoever does ill an atom's weight will see it then." Holy Qur'an (99:7-8)
"We have shown him the way whether he be grateful or disbelieving." Holy Qur'an (76:3)
"And pointed out to him the two conspicuous ways." Holy Qur'an (90:10)
"Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea on account of that which men's hands ban wrought,..." Holy Qur'an (41:30)
Different opinions, among the Muslims, appeared in explaining man's acts and their relation with Allah, the Almighty. Even some Islamic schools believe that man has no free will and no option of his own, and all his behaviour and actions are predetermined by Allah, the Almighty. Therefore, he is forced to do what he does and is not free in his acts.
Others say that man has full choice to do whatever he wills, as his will is separate from Allah's will, and that man does whatever he wills and Allah is actually incapable of stopping man from doing what he wills. But, the Imams of Ahlul-Bait refute both of these beliefs and say: Neither Fatalism nor Self-Determination because, man, if he was forced to do what he does, he would not deserve punishment and reward and if man has full choice to do whatever he wills, Allah will not have power over all things. Thus, the following three opinions appeared to explain man's actions:
- Self-Determination or Free will
- Neither Fatalism nor Self-Determination Muhammad bin Ajlan, one of those who lived during the period of Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) narrated the explanation of the Imam (a.s.) regarding man's actions: He said: I asked him (the Imam):
"Did Allah leave His creatures to their affairs? He said: 'Allah is more generous than to leave their affairs to them,' I asked: 'Then did He impose on them their actions? He replied: 'Allah is more just than to compel a servant to do something, then torture him for that. "'(50)
So, man is responsible for his own deeds, and therefore, deserves punishment and reward because man not only owns free will and option, but, also, Allah grants him kindness and help for guidance and salvation from error and misguidance if one chooses the path of guidance. According to the Qur'an's declaration, man is free to choose one of the ways:
"And pointed out to him the two conspicuous ways." "We have shown him the way whether he be grateful or disbelieving."