Chapter 18 : Chapter On the Interpretation of Al-samad, Self-sufficient H 323, Ch. 18, H 1
Ali ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Walid, whose title was Shabab al-Sayrafi from Dawud ibn al-Qasim al- Ja'fari who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu Ja'far al-Thani (the 2nd (a.s.), 'May Allah take my soul in your service, what is the meaning of the word al-Samad?'" The Imam replied, al-Samad means the Lord to Who one turns for help, big or small."
H 324, Ch. 18, h 2
A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu 'Abdallah from Muhammad ibn 'Isa from Yunus ibn 'Abd al-Rahman from al-Hassan ibn al-Sari from Jabir ibn Yazid al-Ju'fi who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu Ja'far (a.s.) a few things about the Oneness of Allah. The Imam replied, "Allah, Holy are Whose names, with which He is mentioned is Exalted and Most High in His Own-self. He is One. In Oneness He is the One and only in Oneness. He then made His creatures to know Him as the only One. He is One, Self-sufficient and the Holy. All things worship Him and He has the knowledge of all things."
Al-Kulayni has said that this is the correct meaning of al-Samad but not what al- Mushabbihah (people who consider Allah similar to certain things) believe. Al-Samad literally means solid as opposed to hallow which applies only to physical objects. Allah, the Most High, is far above such attributes.
Had such attribute applied to Allah, the Most High, it would have contradicted with Allah's statement that says, "There is nothing similar to Him."
In the Ahadith of the scholar, the Imam (a.s.) al-Samad refers to a master whom people consider a recourse or stronghold and such meaning is close to Allah's words, "There is nothing similar to Him." (42:11)
An example of such usage is what abu Talib had expressed in praise of the holy Prophet (s.a.) during his performing Hajj in throwing pebbles onto the pillars of stones that symbolically stand for Satan. He has used the word al-Samad to mean aiming.
An other example is found in the expression of ibn Zabarqan, "Mr Rahibah is but a master and a (al-Samad) recourse."
One more example can be found in the expression of Shaddad ibn Mu'awiyah about Kudhayfah ibn Badr, "Hold it O Hudhayfa, you are a master, ( al-Samad) recourse." There are many such examples in normal usage.
Allah, the Majestic, the Most High, the Master and the Recourse to Who all man and Jinn turn for help in their difficulties and from Him they expect relief.
Chapter 19 : Chapter on Motion and Change H 325, Ch. 19, h 1
Muhammad ibn abu 'Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma'il al-Barmaki from Ali ibn 'Abbass al-Kharazini from al-Hassan ibn Rashid from Ya'qub ibn Ja'far al-Ja'fari, from abu Ibrahim (a.s.) Who has said the following.
"A people was mentioned, before the Imam (a.s.), who believed that Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, comes down to the sky above the earth." The Imam (a.s.) said, "Allah does not come down and He does not need to come down. His sight for near and far is the same. Near does not become far for Him and far does not become near for Him. He does not become needy for any thing but all things need Him and He is generous. There is no Lord except Him.
He is Most Majestic and All-wise. The statement that says Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, comes down to the sky over the earth can only come from those who consider Him to decrease or increase (in size). Besides, all moving objects need something to move it or move because of it. Whoever thinks of Allah as such has caused his own destruction.
Be very careful about the attributes of Allah to have a belief about them that would limit Him through increase or reduction, moving or being moved, removal or His coming down, standing up or sitting down.
Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is far from being described by those who would like to describe Him or being characterized by those who do so or pictured in imagination. Have trust in Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Merciful Who sees you when you get up and when you change positions during prostration."
H 326, Ch. 19, h 2
It is narrated from him (the narrator of the above Hadith), in a marfu' manner, from al-Hassan ibn Rashid from Ya'qub ibn Ja'far from abu Ibrahim (a.s.) who has said the following. "I do not say that he is standing so I would remove Him from His place. I do not limit Him in a place. I do not limit Him by His moving in something with key elements of the body or body parts. I do not limit Him by ascribing the movements of mouth or tongue.
The truth is what Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, Be and it comes into existence through His will without any planning in a soul. He is Self-sufficient and all alone. He does not need any partner who would speak of His kingdom or open the doors of His knowledge."
H 327, Ch. 19, h 3
It is narrated from him (the narrator of the above Hadith) from Muhammad ibn abu 'Abdallah from Muhammad ibn Isma'il from Dawud ibn 'Abdallah from 'Amr ibn Muhammad from 'Isa ibn Yunus who has said the following.
"Ibn abu al-'Awja said to Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) in one of their conversations, 'You spoke of Allah and referred to an unseen.'" The Imam (a.s.) said, "What you said is not proper. How would He be unseen when He is present with His creatures and is closer to them than their jugular vein. He hears their speeches, sees their persons and knows their secrets."
Ibn abu al-'Awja then said, "Is He everywhere? If He is in the heavens, how can He, at the same time, be on earth and when He would be on earth then how can He be in the heavens at the same time.?" The Imam (a.s.) said, "You spoke only of a creature that with changing place any other place becomes occupied with it and another place is vacated from him and does not know what has happened to the place where he used to be.
Allah's position is great. He is the king Who has full account of all things. No place is without Him and He does not occupy any place. He is nearer to one place than the other place."
H 328, Ch. 19, h 4
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn 'Isa who has said the following.
"I wrote to Imam abu al-Hassan, Ali ibn Muhammad (a.s.) to clarify a question. May Allah take my soul in your service, O my master, it is narrated to us that Allah is in one place and not in another place on 'Arsh, (the Throne) resting.
He comes down to the sky above the earth every night during the last half of the night. It is narrated that He comes down at the ninth evening of the month of Dhul Hajj and then He returns back to His place. Certain individuals among your friends have said that if He would be found in certain places and not in other places the air must have come in contact with Him and would surround Him because air is a thin form of body that surrounds everything proportionate to its size.
How then the air would surround Allah, the Most Holy and the Most High, According to this assumption? The Imam replied in writing, "He has the knowledge of this. He is the best One in having the true measurements of all things. You must, However, note that His being in the sky over the earth is just as He on the Throne. All things to Him are the same in the matters of His knowledge and power, domination and control."
Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Kufi has narrated from Muhammad ibn 'Isa a similar Hadith About the words of Allah "There is not a single place wherein any secret counsel can take place between any three people without God being the fourth, . . ." (58:7).
H 329, Ch. 19, h 5
It is narrated from him (the narrator of the above Haddith) from a group of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ya'qub ibn yazid from ibn abu 'Umayr from ibn 'Udhaynah from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.
It is about the words of Allah "There is not a single place wherein any secret counsel can take place between any three people without God being the fourth, nor five people without His being the sixth. . ." (58:7). "He is One, the One only in His Own-self. He is different from His creatures and as such He has said about His Own-Self. He has control over all things through His presence, control and power.
Nothing as small as an atom in the heavens or earth is absent from Him, not even things smaller or bigger. It is all through His control and knowledge not by His-self. It is because the places are limited by the four boundaries. If it would be by Hisself it would limit Him."
About the words of Allah
The Beneficent God is dominant over the Throne (of the realm) (20:5)
H 330, Ch. 19, h 6
Ali ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al- Hassan ibn Musa al-Khashshab from a few of his people from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who (the narrator) has said the following.
"A person asked the Imam about the words of Allah, "The Beneficent God is dominant over the Throne (of the realm) (20:5)" The Imam said, "Allah established His control over all things. No one thing is closer to Him than any other thing."
H 331, Ch. 19, h 7
Sahl through the same chain of narrators has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Maridin the following.
"A person asked Imam abu 'Abdallah about the words of Allah, "The Beneficent God is dominant over the Throne (of the realm) (20:5)." The Imam said, "He established His control in all things.
H 332, Ch. 19, h 8
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn al- Husayn from Safwan ibn Yahya from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) the following about the words of Allah.
"The Beneficent God is dominant over the Throne (of the realm)." (20:5) "No single thing is closer to Him than any other thing. The far is not far for Him and the close is not closer to Him. All are the same to Him."
H 333, Ch. 19, h 9
It is narrated from him (narrator of previous Hadith) from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa'id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from 'Asim ibn Humayd from abu Basir from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.
"Whoever may think that Allah is from things or in the things or on the things he has become an atheist." I asked the Imam (a.s.), "Please explain to me." The Imam said, "I intend thereby His being contained, held or being preceded." In another Hadith it said, "Whoever would believe that Allah is from things he has considered Him as created. Whoever would think that He is in things he has considered Him as surrounded. Whoever thinks that He is on things he has considered Him as being carried."
About the words of Allah
"It is God who is the Lord of the heavens and is the Lord on earth. He is All-wise and Allknowing." (43:84)
H 334, Ch. 19, h 10
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu 'Umayr from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following.
"Abu Shakir al-Daysani said, 'In the Quran there is a verse that says what we say.' I asked, "What is that?" He replied, " It is God who is the Lord of the heavens and is the Lord on earth. He is All-wise and All-knowing (43:84)." I did not know the answer? During Hajj I mentioned it to Imam abu 'Abdallah who said this.
"This is the statement of a wicked atheist. When you go back say to him, 'What is your name in Basra? He will say so and so. Ask, "What is your name in al-Kufah? He will say so and so. Say in the same way is our Lord in the heavens. He is the king in the heavens and the Lord on earth. He is the Lord in oceans and on land and in all places. "The narrator has said, "I came back, went to abu Shakir and explained to him the answer. He said, "This (answer) is brought from al- Hijaz."