Chapter 20 : Chapter About Al-'arsh and Al-kursi H 335, Ch. 20, H 1
A number of our people have narrated from Ahamad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi, in a marfu' manner, who has said the following.
"Jathaliq, a christian scholar, asked Imam Ali (a.s.) saying, 'Tell me about Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. Does He carry the 'Arsh or 'Arsh carries Him?" Imam Ali (a.s.) replied, "Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is the One Who carries and has lifted the 'Arsh, the heavens and earth and all that is between them from banishment. 'Allah (God) prevents the heavens and the earth from falling apart. If they do fall apart, then, no one besides Him can restore them. He is All-forbearing and All-forgiving.
(35:41)' He then asked, "Tell me about His words, 'The angels will be around the heavens and on that day eight of them will carry the Throne of your Lord above all the creatures (69:17).' "How has He said it. You just said that He carries the heavens, earth and all that is between them."
Asked the man. Amirul Mu'minin then said, "Allah, the Most High, created al-'Arsh (the Throne) from four lights. From a red wherefrom the redness became red, a green light from which the greenness became green, a yellow light whereby the yellowness became yellow.
He created it from a white light wherefrom is white and it is knowledge which Allah has made the carriers to carry and that is the light of His greatness. With His greatness and His light He has given sight to the hearts of believers. Because of His greatness and light the ignorant ones have become His enemies.
Through His greatness and light all those in heavens and on earth, all His creatures seek to reach Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, by means of their various deeds and mixed religions. All that is carried Allah carries them with the light of His greatness and power. They are not able to do any benefit, or harm, death or life or resurrection.
All things are carried. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, preserves them from banishment and has control over both of them (heavens and earth).
He is the life of all things, the light of all things. Glorious is He, the Most High, far above what they say about Him. He is far high above them with Greatness."
He then said tell me about Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, where is He? Amirul Mu'minin said, "He is here. He is there, above, below, encompassing us and with us as He has said.
'There is not a single place wherein any secret counsel can take place between any three people without God being the fourth, nor five people without His being the sixth nor any gathering of more or less people, wherever it may be, without His being with them . . .'
(58:7). The al-Kursi contains the heavens and the earth and all that is between them and below the soil. If you would say anything loud, He knows the secrets and hidden as mentioned in His words, "The heavens and the earth are under His dominion (contained in His al-Kursi).
He does not experience fatigue in preserving them both. He is the High, and the Greatest.' (2:255) Thus, those who carry al-'Arsh (the throne) are the scholars whom Allah has made to carry His knowledge.
There is nothing that Allah has created in the heavens and the earth that is out of these four that He has shown to those whom he chosen. He showed them to His friend Ibrahim (s.a.). "Also, We showed (Abraham) the kingdom of the heavens and the earth to strengthen his faith." (6:75) How would the carriers of al-'Arsh (the Throne) carry Allah when with life from Him their hearts receive life and with His light they found guidance to know Him."
H 336, Ch. 20, h 2
Ahmad ibn Idris from Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya who has said the following.
"Abu Qurrah, the narrator of Hadith asked for help to meet Imam Ali abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.). I requested the Imam (a.s.) to meet him and he agreed. Abu Qurrah asked the Imam about the lawful and unlawful matters and then said, "Do you affirm that Allah is carried?" Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) replied, "Every thing in an objective case is related to another thing and is dependent. Being carried is the name for verbal defect.
On the other hand, carrier is in a subjective case and it verbally is a word to convey praises and so is the expression of one who says, "Above, below, upper and lower." Allah has said, 'For Him there are beautiful names, thus, call Him through those names.' He (Allah) has not said anywhere in His books that He is al-Mahmul (Being carried) He has, in fact, said that He is the carrier in the sea and on land and the preserver of the heavens and earth from banishment.
Al-Mahmul, (being carried) are things other than Allah. It is never heard from any one who believed in Allah and His greatness saying in his prayers Ya Mahmul, (O the one being carried,)." Abu Qurrah then said, "He Himself has said, 'The angels will be around the heavens and on that day eight of them will carry the Throne of your Lord above all the creatures.' (69:17) Also He has said, "Those who carry the Throne (al-'Arsh)."
Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) then said, "Al-'Arsh (the Throne) is not Allah. Al-'Arsh is the name of knowledge and power. In al-'Arsh there is everything. Besides, He has ascribed carrying to things other than His Own-self. It is ascribed to a creature among His creatures. This is because He has made His creatures to worship Him through carrying His al-'Arsh (the Throne) and they are the carrier of His knowledge.
There is a creature, who speaks of His praise around His al-'Arsh (the Throne) and act according to His knowledge and the angels write down the deeds of His servants. He has made those on earth to worship Him in the form of Tawaf (walking around) His house.
Allah has control over al-'Arsh (the Throne) as He has said, "Allah carries al-'Arsh, those who carry it and those around it, preserves them, keeps them together and is the guardian of all souls and above and over all things." It is not permissible to say, "He is carried.
He is below." It would be the only expression that would not make any sense. Thus, both the word and meaning would be destroyed." Abu Qurrah than said, "Do you then consider a false Hadith the Hadith that says, "When Allah becomes angry His anger becomes known to the angels who carry al-'Arsh. They at such time feel the weight of His anger on their shoulders.
They then bow down in prostration. When Allah's anger goes away it becomes light and the angels return to their places." Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) said, "Tell me about Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. From the time He condemned Satan until today is He not angry with Satan? When did He become happy with Satan? As you say He is still angry with Satan, his friend and followers.
How would you dare speak of your Lord as under going changes from one condition to another condition and that what happens to the creatures happens to Him also. He is the Most Glorious, the Most High. He does not banish with those who banish and does not change with those who change. He is not replaced with those who are replaced. The creatures are under His guardianship and they all are dependent on Him. He is Self-sufficient and independent of others."
H 337, Ch. 20, h 3
Muhammad ibn Isma'il has narrated from Fadl ibn Shadhan from Hammad ibn 'Isa from Rabi'i ibn 'Abdallah from Fudayl ibn Yasar who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, "His al-Kursi (the Throne) encompasses the heavens and earth." He said, "O Fudayl everything is the al-Kursi (the Throne), the heavens and earth everything is in al-Kursi."
H 338, Ch. 20, h 4
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from al-Hajjal form Tha'labah ibn Maymun from Zurarah ibn 'a'yun who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), 'The heavens and the earth are (contained in His al- Kursi) under His dominion . . .' (2:255) Do the heavens and earth contain the al-Kursi or that the latter contains the former?" He said that it is al-Kursi that contains the heavens and earth and all things are contained in al-Kursi."
H 339, Ch. 20, h 5
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Sa'id from Fudala ibn Ayyub from 'Abdallah ibn Bukayr from Zurara ibn 'Ayun who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, 'The heavens and the earth are (contained in His al-Kursi) under His dominion.. . .' (2:255) Do the heavens and earth contain the al-Kursi or that the latter contains the former?" He said that all things are contained in al- Kursi."
H 340, Ch. 20, h 6
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl from abu Hamza from Imam abu 'abdallah (a.s.) who said the following.
"The carriers of al-'Arsh (the Throne), al-'Arsh and al-'Ilm (knowledge) are eight. Four of these are from us and the rest are whoever Allah will chose."
H 341, Ch. 20, h 7
Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub from 'Abd al- Rahman ibn Kathir from Dawud al-Ruqyy who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, '. . . His Throne existed on water . . . (11:8).'" The Imam asked, "What do they say about it?" I said, "They say that al-'Arsh (the Throne) was on the water and the Lord was on top of it." The Imam then said, "They have said a lie. Whoever would think that way he has considered Allah as being carried and has described Him with the qualities of the creatures which involves that the thing that carries Him is stronger than Him."
I then asked, may Allah take my soul for your service, please explain it to me." The Imam then said, "Allah made water to carry His religion and His knowledge before there were the earth, the heavens, the Jinns, the human beings, the sun and the moon. When Allah willed to create the creatures He spread them before His-self and said to them, "Who is you Lord? The first ones who spoke were the Holy Prophet and Amirul Mu'minin Ali (a.s.) and the Imams (a.s.).
They all said, "You are our Lord." He then made them to carry the religion and the knowledge. Then He spoke to the angels, "These are the carriers of My religion and knowledge, My trustees in My people and they are responsible (or questions will be asked about them).
Then Allah spoke to the children of Adam, "Acknowledge that Allah is the Lord and acknowledge that these people are the authorities (of Allah) among you and that obedience to them is obligatory. They said, "O our Lord, we acknowledge." Allah then told the angels, "Bear witness to this."
The angels said, "We bear witness so that they, tomorrow will not say, 'We were not aware of this or say that our forefathers have worshipped idols before us and we were only their offspring. Will You then destroy us just because what the followers of falsehood have done?" O Dawud, our authority over them was strongly stressed up on at the time of the covenant."
Chapter 21 : Chapter on al-Ruh, the Spirit H 342, Ch. 21, h 1
It is narrated from a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from ibn abu 'Umayr from 'Udhayna from al-Ahwal who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the spirit (Ruh) which was in Adam as indicated in the Holy Quran, 'When it is properly shaped and I have blown My Spirit into it (15:29).'" Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) replied, "This is a created spirit and the spirit in Jesus is created."
H 343, Ch. 21, h 2
It is narrated from a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from al- Hajjal from Tha'laba from Himran who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, 'The spirit from Him'. Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) replied, "It is the spirit (Ruh) from Allah created in Adam and Jesus."
H 344, Ch. 21, h 3
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Qasin ibn 'Urwa from 'Abd al-Hamid al- Ta'i from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, 'I have blown My Spirit into it (15:29)'" The Imam (a.s.) replied, "The spirit has motion like winds. It is called spirit (Ruh) because the word is a derivative of Rih (wind).
This derivative is selected because the spirits are similar or are of the genus of the Rih (wind). He has given His own possessive case because He selected it from among the other spirits just as He has said about a House from among the houses 'My house' and to a messenger from among the messengers 'My friend' and so on. All such things are created, invented, newly produced and are cherished by the Lord."
H 345, Ch. 21, h 4
It is narrated from a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from 'Abdallah ibn Bahr from abu Ayyub al-Khazzan from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following.
"I asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about what people narrate that Allah created Adam in Hisown form." The Imam (a.s.) replied, "It is created and newly invented form. Allah selected and chose it over the other various forms and gave His-own possessive case just like He has done so about Ka'bah and the spirit saying, 'My house' 'I have blown My spirit in Him.'"