Chapter 29 : Chapter On Good and Evil H 393, Ch. 29, H 1

It is narrated from a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ibn Mahbub and Ali ibn al-Hakam from Mu'wiyah ibn Wahab from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

" Who sent it to Moses and revealed it in the Torah, "I Ahmad ibn Muhammad the Lord Allah. There is no lord but I. I have created the creatures and created the good and made to run through the hands of those whom I love.

Fortunate are those through whose hands I have made the good to run. I am Allah. There is no Lord other than I. I created the creatures and created Evil and made it to run through the hands of whoever I wanted. Unfortunate, therefore, are those through whose hands I have made Evil to run.

H 394, Ch. 29, h 2

It is narrated from a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from his father from ibn abu 'Umayr from Muhammad ibn Hakim from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said that he heard Imam abu Ja'far (a.s.) say the following.

"In some of the things that Allah has revealed through His books is, 'I am Allah. There is no lord other than I. I created the Good and Evil. Fortunate are those through whose hands I have made the Good to run and unfortunate are those through whose hands I have made the Evil to run and unfortunate are those who say, "How is this and how is that."

H 395, Ch. 29, h 3

It is narrated from Ali ibn Ibrahim from Muhammad ibn 'Isa from Yunus from Bakkar from Kardam, from Mufaddal ibn 'Umar and 'Abdul Mu'min al- Ansari from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, "I am Allah. There is no lord other than I the creator of good and evil. Fortunate are those through whose hands I made the Good to run and unfortunate are those through whose hands I have made the Evil to run and unfortunate are those who say, "How is this and how is that." Yunus has said, "It means those who deny this fact instead of having proper understanding in it."

Chapter 30 : Chapter on Predestination, Fate and the Middle road in between H 396, Ch. 30, h 1

It is narrated from Ali ibn Muhammad from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ishaq ibn Muhammad and others (in a marfu' manner) who have said the following .

"Once in Kufa, after Amirul Mu'minin's return from Siffin a man came to him and sat with his legs folded underneath in front of the Imam (a.s.) and said, "O Amirul Mu'minin, tell us about our journey against the people of Sham (Syria) was it because of Allah's determining it to be so?"

Chapter 31 : Chapter on Predestination, Fate and the Middle road in between H 397, Ch. 31, h 1

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ishaq ibn Muhammad and others, in a marfu' manner, who have said the following.

"Once in Kufa, after Amirul Mu'minin's return from Siffin, a man came to him and sat with his legs folded underneath in front of the Imam (a.s.) and said, "O Amirul Mu'minin, tell us about our journey against the people of Sham (Syria).

Was it because of Allah's decree and determination or not?" Amir al-Mu'minin said, "Yes, O Shaykh, every hill that you climbed and every valley that you traversed was because of the decree and the determination of Allah." The Shaykh then said, "Will my tiring efforts be counted in the sight of Allah, O Amir al-Mu'minin?" The Imam said, "Be patient, O Shaykh.

I swear to Allah that He will grant you a great reward for your journey wherever you traveled, for your stay wherever you rested and for your return when you were headed back. In none of these conditions that you went through you were coerced or compelled."

The Shaykh then said, "How would we not be considered compelled or coerced when all of our journey, rest and return were because if the decree and determination of Allah?" The Imam said, "Do You think it was all due to unavoidable decree and binding determination? Had it been so all the reward, punishment, commandments, orders and warnings from Allah would remain invalid and meaningless.

The promise and warnings would fall apart. No one could blame the sinners and no one would praise the people of good deeds. The sinners could have been more deserving than the people of good deeds and the latter ones could have deserved more punishment. Such can only be the belief of the idol worshippers, the enemies of the Beneficent and of the party of Satan and determinist of this nation (Ummah) and her Zoarastarians.

"Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has obligated people on the basis of their freedom and choice and has prohibited as a warning. He rewards a great deal for very little of deeds. Disobedience to Him is not due to His weakness or His defeat. Obedience to Him is not for compulsion and coercion.

He has not given (the power to people) in the absolute sense. He has not created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them without a purpose. He has not sent the messengers and the prophets to warn and promise people just to play a joke. Such could only be the belief of the unbelievers. Woe is for the unbelievers to suffer in the fire."

The Shaykh then recited the following lines that he compose at the spot. You are the Imam for whose obedience we do hope for Salvation a day from the Beneficent, and forgiveness Explain you did our issue that was vague May your Lord reward the good with good.

H 398, Ch. 31, h 2

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu'alla ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Washsha' from Hammad ibn 'Uthman from abu Basir from Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), who has said the following.

"Whoever would think that Allah orders people to commit sins he has ascribed lies to Allah and whoever would think and say good and evil are from Allah he would have ascribed lies to Allah. (See also Hadith No 6 below).

H 399, Ch. 31, h 3

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu'alla ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Washsha' from abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) who has said the following.

"I asked the Imam, 'Has Allah left all the matters to people?'" The Imam said, "Allah is by far Exalted above such things." I then asked, "Has He compelled them to commit sins?" The Imam (a.s.) said, "Allah's justice and His judgement is far above such things." The Imam further said, "Allah has said, 'O son of Adam, I have more priority to your good deeds than yourself and you are of more priority to your bad deeds than I. You commit sins with the power that I have given to you."

H 400, Ch. 31, h 4

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Isma'il ibn Marrar from Yunus ibn 'Abd al- Rahman who has said that abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) said to me the following.

"O Yunus, do not say what pre-determinists say. The pre-determinists do not say what people of paradise say nor what people of hell say or what Satan says. The people of paradise say, "All praise is due to Allah for His guiding us. We would have never been guided without Allah's guiding us." The people of hell say, "Lord, our misfortune overwhelmed us and we became lost" Satan said, "My Lord for your making me to rebel . . ."

H 401, Ch. 31, h 5

I then said, "I swear to Allah that I do not say what they say but I only say that there will be nothing unless Allah would want, will, measure and decree." The Imam (a.s.) said, "O Yunus, it is not that way, there will be nothing unless Allah would want, will, measure and decree. O 4."

H 402, Ch. 31, h 6

Through the above chain of narrators it is narrated from Yunus from Sa'dan, in a marfu' manner, from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"Allah has not granted any bounties to a person but that He holds him justifiably responsible for it. He gives them bounties and gives them power, which justifies His holding them responsible for their duties. He gives smaller degrees of responsibilities to those who are of lesser degrees of capabilities. One who has received bounties from Allah He has provided ease for him, thus, the justification is what is for him to what is against him.

Then it is for him to help the needy in optional ways. One on whom Allah has bestowed favors, He has made him noble in his house and beautiful in his form. This is enough justification for the duty of praising Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, on his part of the deal and that he must not boast over the others to hold back the rights of the needy because of his respectability and beauty in his form."

Chapter 32 : Chapter on Differences in Justifying Divine Authority among People H 403, Ch. 32, h 1

Muhammad ibn abu 'Abdallah has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat from al- Husayn ibn Zayd from Durust ibn abu Mansur from whoever he narrated from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), who has said, "There are six things in which the people have no doing. They are knowing, ignorance, consent, anger, sleeping and waking up."

Chapter 33 : Chapter on Allah's Authorities and Means of Justification of Accountability in People H 404, Ch. 33, h 1

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from abu Sha'ba al- Mahamili from Durust ibn abu Mansur from Burayd ibn Mu'awiya from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"People do not owe to Allah to know. It is up to Allah to make them know. Once Allah would make them know then people are responsible to accept."

H 405, Ch. 33, h 2

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from al-Hajjal from Tha'laba ibn Maymun from 'Abd al-A'la ibn 'A'yun who has said the following. "I asked abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), 'If a person does not know will he be held responsible?" The Imam (a.s.) said, "No, he will not be held responsible."

H 406, Ch. 33, h 3

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from ibn Faddal from Dawud ibn Farqad from abu al-Hassan Zakariyya from abu 'Abdallah who has said the following.

"Whatever Allah has kept hidden from people they will not be held responsible for it."

H 407, Ch. 33, h 4

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ali ibn al- Hakam from Aban al-Ahmar from Hamza ibn al-Tayyar from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"The Imam (a.s.) said to me. 'Write it down. He dictated to me the following. "It is of our Hadith that Allah will, justifiably, hold people accountable for what He has given and made known to them. Allah then sent His messengers to them and sent down books up on them in which He has commanded and prohibited them.

He has commanded them to perform prayers and fast. The holy Prophet (s.a.) remained sleeping until the time for prayer expired and Allah said, "I make you sleep and wake you up. When you wake up then perform the prayer so that they would learn if such thing would happen to them what to do. It is not the way that they say, 'If one remains asleep (at the time of prayer) one is destroyed.'

In the same way is fasting. I cause you to become ill and when I give you good health then you will make up for the fast that you missed during your illness." Abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) then said, "In the same way if you would look at all things you will find that Allah has caused no constrictions to anyone. You will not find anyone against whom Allah may not have enough justification to hold him accountable with His wish therein.

I do not say that they can do whatever they wish." The Imam (a.s.) then said, "Allah guides and misleads." He further said, "People are not ordered in what they are not capable for. For every thing that people are ordered to do they have the capability for it and anything for which they are not capable is removed and lifted up from them but there is not much good in people."

He then recited from the Holy Quran: "People who are weak or sick and those who do not have the means to take part in the fighting are exempt from this duty . . ." (They are accountable for the duty) "Righteous people shall not be blamed. God is All-forgiving and All-merciful." (9:91) as well as "Those who come to you, (Muhammad), asking to be taken to the battle . . ." (9:92) They are relieved of the duty because they do not have the means."

Chapter 34 : Chapter on The Issue that Guidance is from Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High H 408, Ch. 34, h 1

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa from Muhammad ibn Isma'il from Isma'il al-Sarraj from ibn Maskan from Thabit in Sa'id who has said the following.

"Abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) said, 'O Thabit, why would you bother about people. Leave them alone and do not call anyone to accept your faith. I swear by Allah that even if all the people in the heavens and earth would come together to guide a person whom Allah wants not to guide they will never be able to guide him.

If all the people in the heavens and earth would come together to misguide a person whom Allah wants to guide, they will never be able to misguide him. Leave the people alone. Let no one say, 'O my uncle, my brother, the son of my uncle and my neighbor.' When Allah wants good for a person He cleanses his spirit. He then would not hear any lawful thing but that he knows it and no unlawful thing but that he dislikes it. Then Allah places a word in his heart with which He organizes all his affairs."

H 409, Ch. 34, h 2

Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim has narrated from his father from ibn abu 'Umayr from Muhammad ibn Humran from Sulayman ibn Khalid from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"When Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, wants good for a person He places a point of light in his heart and opens the ears of his heart and assigns an angel to support him. When He wants bad fortune for a person He places a dark black spot in his heart, closes the ears of his heart and assigns a Satan to mislead him.

The Imam (a.s.) then recited the following verse of the Holy Quran. "Allah (God) will open the hearts of whomever He wants to guide to Islam, but He will constrict the chest of one whom He has led astray, as though he was climbing high up into the sky. . . ." (6:125)

H 410, Ch. 34, h 3

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from Ali ibn 'Uqba from his father who has said the following.

"I heard abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) saying, 'Leave your affairs to Allah and do not leave them to the people. Whatever would be for Allah it will be for Him. Whatever would be for people it will not rise up to Allah. Do not quarrel people about your faith because quarrelling sickens the heart.

Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, said to His Prophet (s.a.) "(Muhammad), you cannot guide whomever you love, but Allah (God) guides whomever He wants and knows best those who seek guidance (28:56). (Muhammad), do you force people to have faith?" (10:99).

Leave the people alone because people learn from people and you have learned from the Holy Prophet (s.a.). I heard my father (a.s.) saying, "When Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, writes for a person to enter in this faith he will do so faster than the flight of a bird to its nest."

H 411, Ch. 34, h 4

Abu Ali al-Ash'ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya from Muhammad ibn Marwan from Fudayl ibn Yasar the following.

"I asked abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), 'Can we invite people to this faith?'" The Imam Said, "No, do not invite them, O Fudayl. When Allah wants good for a servant of His, He orders an angel, to grab him by his neck and then enters him in this faith compelled or willing."

The end of the books on Intelligence, Knowledge and Oneness of Allah of the book, al-Kafi, followed by the book, al-Hujja in the second volume of the book, al-Kafi by al-Shaykh abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (May Allah grant him blessings).

The End of Part 3