Chapter 14 : Chapter On Will Power (iradah) It Is of the Attributes of Action (sifat Al-fi'l) and the Rest of the Attributes of Action H 292, Ch. 14, H 1

Muhammad ibn Yahya al-'Attar has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Isa al-Ash'ari from al-Husayn ibn Sa'id al-Ahwazi from an-Nadr ibn Suwayd from 'Asim ibn Hamiyd who has said the following.

"I asked abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), 'Is Allah's will eternal?'"

He replied, Will is always with what is willed. Allah is eternally All-knowing and Allpowerful and then He wills."

H 293, Ch. 14, h 2

Muhammad ibn abu 'Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma'il from al-Husayn ibn al-Hassan from Bakr ibn Salih from Ali ibn Asbat from al-Hassan ibn al-Jahm from Bukayr ibn A'yan who has said the following.

"I asked abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), 'Are the knowledge and the will of Allah different or the same?'"

He replied, "His knowledge is not the same as His will. Consider when you say, 'If Allah wills, I will do this,' and you do not say, "If Allah knows I will do this." Your own words, if Allah wills are proof that Allah has not yet willed it. If He would will what He would do, it happens exactly as He wills. His knowledge is before His will."

H 300, Ch. 14, h 3

Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya who has said the following.

"I asked abu al-Hassan (a.s.), 'Enlighten me about the will of Allah and the will of His creatures.'"

He said, "The will of His creatures comes from what goes in their minds and leads to action. Will of Allah, the Most High, is His inventing and nothing else because Allah does not need to reflect, deliberate or think. Such qualities do not exist with Him. They are the attributes of His creation. Allah's will is His acts and nothing else.

He says to it: Be, and it comes into existence, without any words or utterance of the tongue, any inclination and reflection. His will has no conditions just as His self has no conditions."

H 301, Ch. 14, h 4

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu 'Umayr from 'Umar ibn 'Udhaynah from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following.

"Allah created His Will by Will itself. Then, He created all things by His Will."

H 302, Ch. 14, h 5

A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Muhammad ibn 'Isa from al-Mashriqi Hamzah ibn al-Murtafi' from some of our people who has said the following.

"I was in the presence of abu Ja'far (a.s.) when 'Amr ibn 'Ubayd said, 'May Allah take my soul in your service, what is the meaning of Allah's words, "Whoever becomes subject to my anger he is destroyed." 20:84 What is this anger?'

Abu Ja'far (a.s.) replied, "O 'Amr, His anger is His punishment. O 'Amr, whoever thinks Allah changes from one state to another, has ascribed to Allah the attributes of His creatures. Nothing can provoke Allah, the Sublime, to change Him."

H 303, Ch. 14, h 6

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-'Abbass ibn 'Amr from Hisham ibn al- Hakam who has narrated the following in the debate with the atheist who asked abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) (See Hadith Nos.225 - 6 and 297 -2).

"Does Allah become pleased and displeased?" Abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) replied, "Yes, but not like that which is found in His creatures. In His creatures the pleasure is a state (hal), which enters into him and changes him from one state to another. The creatures are hollow, active and compound with entrance in them. Nothing can enter into our Creator. Because He is One, a single self, a single meaning.

His pleasure is His reward and His anger is His punishment without anything entering in Him to motivate and change Him from one state to another because these are of the attributes of His creatures who are weak and needy."

H 304, Ch. 14, h 7

A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from ibn abu 'Umayr from ibn 'Udhaynah from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) who has said, "The will is created."

Summery Statements on the Attributes of His self

Sifat al-Dhat and the Attributes of His Actions Sifat al-Fi'1

For every two attributes which you attribute to Allah (e.g. The Creator, The Sustainer), of which each has its own separate being, (i.e. The Creator achieves its being, as an attribute of Allah' through something which Allah creates, and The Sustainer achieves its being, as an attribute of Allah, through a created being which He sustains), these attributes are attributes of (His) action.

(Because if two attributes are separate in being, obviously each of them differs in their being with the thing with which they are attributed, and therefore both the attribute and the attributed have their own being.

Therefore, in order to distinguish an attribute of action from an attribute of essence, it is always necessary to compare that attribute with another one. If we perceives these two to be independent of each other in being, then both of them are attributes of action).

The explanation (and proof) of this sentence is that you prove (establish), in respect of His Being, what He intends to do and what He does not intend, what pleases Him and what displeases Him, what He likes and what He dislikes. If the intention had been the attribute of His essence like the attribute of knowledge and power, His not intending (for something) would have been its contradiction.

Similarly, if His liking for something had been the attribute of His essence, His dislike (of something) would have been its contradiction. Do you not see, we do not find in His Being anything which He does not know and anything over which He has no power?

Such are the attributes of His essence (Self), which are everlasting. We can never attribute to Allah power and (its opposite) weakness. (Similarly, we can neither attribute to Him knowledge and [its opposite] ignorance and stupidity, nor can we attribute to Him wisdom and 1 its opposite] error. Nor can we attribute to Him honor and [its opposite] disgrace). It is permissible to say, "He (Allah) loves him who obeys Him and hates him who disobeys Him.

He favors him who obeys Him and is hostile to him who disobeys Him. And verily, He is pleased and He is also displeased. It is also permissible to say in the invocations: 'O my Allah, be pleased with me and do not be angry at me. Favor me and do not be hostile to me.'"

But it is not permissible to say, "Allah has power to know and has no power not to know. He has power to possess and has no power not to possess. He has power to be powerful and wise, and has no power to be otherwise, i.e. without power and wisdom. He has power to be generous and has no power to be not generous. He has power to be forgiving and has no power to be not forgiving."

It is also not permissible to say, "Allah intended to be the Nourishing, the Everlasting, the Mighty, the Wise, the Possessor, the all-knowing, the all- Powerful." Since these are the attributes of His essence while intention is among His attributes of action.

"Do you not see that it is said; "Allah intended this and did not intend that." Every Attribute of His essence negates its opposite in respect of Him. He is called: "The Living, the Allknowing, the All-hearing, the All-seeing, the All-mighty, the All-wise, the Rich, the King, the Clement, the Just and the Generous." The opposite of knowledge is ignorance.

The opposite of power is inability. The opposite of life is death. The opposite of honor is humiliation. The opposite of wisdom is error. The opposite of clemency is haste and ignorance. The opposite of justice is oppression and tyranny. (So, by proving any of His essential attributes its opposite is negated.)

Chapter 15 : Chapter On the Coming into the Existence of the Names of Allah H 305, Ch. 15, h 1

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Salih ibn abu Hammad from al-Husayn ibn Yazid from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn abu Hamzah from Ibrahim ibn 'Umar from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), who has said the following.

"Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, created a name with letters that had no sound. He created it with the word that would not be spoken. He created it with a personality that had no body. It had a similarity that is not described. He created it with color that is colorless. Diameters were negated from it. Limitations were distanced away from it. The feel of all Mutawahhim (intuitive sense) is curtained from it.

It is hidden but not covered. He placed it to be a perfect word consisting of four parts together. No one of them is before the other. From these He made public only three names because people desperately needed them. One of them is kept out of public sight. This is the protected and treasured name.

The names that became public is Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. He, the Most Glorious, for each of these made four subservient key elements that formed twelve key elements. Then for each key element He created thirty key elements to indicate an action ascribed to the four key elements.

He, therefore, is Al-Rahman (The All compassionate); al-Rahim (The All merciful); al-Malik (The King); al-Quddus (The Holy); al-Khaliq (The Creator); al-Bari' (The Maker); al- Musawwir (The Fashioner); al-Hayy (The Ever living); al-Qayyum (The Self-subsistent).

Neither slumber nor sleep seizes Him. Al-'Alim (The All-knowing); al-Khabir (The Allaware); as-Sami' (The All-hearing); al-Basir (The All-seeing); al-Hakim (The All-wise); al-'Aziz (The All-Majestic); al-Jabbar (The All-compeller); al-Mutakabbir (The Allsublime); al-'Aliyy (The Most High); al-'Azim (The All-Great); al-Muqtadir (The All- Dominant); al-Qadir (The All-capable);

Al-Salam (The All peaceable); al-Mu'min (The Allprotector); al-Muhaymin (The All-preserver); al-Munshi' (The All-inventor) al-Badi' (The All-originator); al-Rafi' (The Exalter); al-Jalil (The Majestic); al-Karim (The Generous); al- Raziq (The All-provider); al-Muhyi (The Bestower of Life); al-Mumit (The Inflictor of death); al-Ba'ith (The Resurrector); al-Warith (The Inheriter).

These names in addition to the (Asma' al-Husna) beautiful names make them three hundred sixty names. Such is the ratio of these three names. These three names are key element names. Only one name is kept out of public sight, protected and treasured with these three names. Thus, Allah has said, "Say, call Allah or al-Rahman. Call whichever you call. For Him there are beautiful names. (17:110)

from each were . I by letter, nor expressed by word, nor manifested by baby, nor indicated by similitude, nor emblazoned by colour. Negated from Annit are all dimensions, removed from it all limits, inaccessible is it to the sensations of every sensate being, and veiled is it without any veil. Allah made it one all comprehensive Word, with four constituents contiguous, immediate, without one being after the other.

Three out of the four were made manifest, since creation was most in need of them, and one has been concealed, the ineffable, the occult Name. Of the (three) Names that have been made manifest, their manifestation is Allah'-the Hallowed, the Exalted. To each one of these (three) Names, Allah, the Exalted, subordinated four 'Supports'. Thus, they have all become twelve 'supports' in number.

Then Allah created thirty Names in respect of every support according to (His different) actions. These names are: Al-Rahman (The All-compassionate); ar-Rahim (The All-merciful); al-Malik (The Lord); al-Quddus (The All-holy); al-Khiliq (The Creator); al-B&ri' ( The Maker); al-Musawwir (The Fashioner);

al-.Hayy (The Ever living); al-Qayyam (The Selfsubsistent); 'Whom slumber seize Him not, neither sleep'; al- !41im ( The All-knowing); al-Khabur ( The All-aware); as- Sami ' ( The Allhearing); al-Basir (The All-seeing); al-Hakim (The All-wise); al->lziz (The All-mighty); al-Jabbar (The All-compeller); al-Mutakabbir (The All-sublime); al-Aliyy (The All-high); al-!Azim (The All-glorious); al-Muqtadir ( The All-omnipotent); al-Qddir ( The All-powerful); as-Saldm (The All-peaceable);

al-Mu'min (The All-faithful); al-Muhaymin (The All-preserver); al-Munshi' (The All-evolver) al-Badi' (The All-originator);ar-Rafi' (The Exalter);al-Jalil (The Majestic);al-Karim (The Generous); ar-R§ziq (The All-sustainer); al- MuRyi (The Bestower of Life); al-Mumit (The Inflictor of death); al-Ba'ith (The Resurrector); al-W6rith (The Inheriter).

"These names along with the other Beautiful and Good Names come to a total of three hundred and sixty names. They all branch forth from the original three which are the three supports. And that one ineffable occult name became concealed through these three names.

This is what Allah, the Sublime, has said, 'Say, call upon Allah, or call upon 'ar-Rahmdn' (the Compassionate); whichsoever you call upon, to Him (alone) belongs the name most Beautiful. ' (al-Isrd', 17: 110)"

Al-'Allamah al-Majlisi has said the following about the above Hadith, "Among its narrators, there are unknown people. The Hadith itself is not clear. Its meaning is an indefinable secret. No one knows its interpretation except Allah and those firmly rooted in knowledge.

Therefore, to remain silent in its interpretation and to confess failure in understanding its meaning is most righteous, worthwhile and suitable to precaution. (Mir'at al-'uqul, vol.2, p.24)

H 306, Ch. 15, h 2

Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from al-Husayn ibn 'Abdallah from Muhammad ibn 'Abdallah and Musa ibn 'Umar and al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn 'Uthman from ibn Sinan who has said the following. "I asked abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.), 'Did Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, know Himself before He created the creation?'"

The Imam (a.s.) replied, "Yes, He knew Himself." I further asked, "Did He see and hear His Own Self?" The Imam replied, "Allah did not need such things because He did not ask or demand it. He is His Own self and His Own self is He. His power is dominant and He does not need to name His Own self. He chose His Own name for the sake of others so they can call Him.

Until one is not called by means of his names he is not recognized. The fist name He chose for His Own self was al-'Ali al-'Azim (the Most High, the Great) because He is above all things. It then means that Allah and His name al-'Ali al-'Azim is His. The Most High, He is above all things.

H 307, Ch. 15, h 3

It is narrated through the same chain of narrators (as in the above Hadith) from Muhammad ibn Sinan who has said the following.

"I asked the Imam, (perhaps abu al-Hassan al-Rida) about the name (of Allah), 'What is it?' The Imam replied, "It is an attribute of the attributes of (Allah)."

H 308, Ch. 15, h 4 Muhammad ibn abu 'Abdallah has narrated from Muhammad ibn Isma'il from some of his people from Bakr ibn Salih from Ali ibn Salih from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid ibn Yazid from 'Abd al-A'la from abu 'Abdallah (a.s.), who has said the following.

"The name of Allah is something other than Allah Himself. Every thing that is called a thing is created except Allah. Whatever is expressed by the tongue or is worked out by hands are all created. The word Allah is one example of names and an end for naming. The end is different from the thing for which it is. The end is describable is created.

The Maker of things is not describable by the limits of the fact behind the name. He did not become, so His becoming a being would have been recognized through the making of what is other than Him. He did not end up where there was another's end. Do not ever move away from understanding this rule. This is the true and pure believe in the Oneness of Allah. Observe it, acknowledge it and understand it by the permission of Allah.

Those who think they understand Allah by means of covering, form or examples they become polytheists because his covering, form and example are not Him. He is only One and One alone. How can one form a belief in His Oneness by thinking that one may know Him through things other than Him.

One comes to know Allah only by Allah His Own self. One who can not know Him by His Own self he has not known Him. He only comes to know some thing else. There is nothing between the Creator and the created. All is the Creator of things but not from a thing that was there already. Allah's names are His names but He is different from His Own names and the names are other than Him."