Chapter Two Interpretations of Umar and His Followers
15. The calamity of Thursday
It was in the eleventh year of hijra during the Prophets illness which had led to his death.
The true fact of this calamity
The authors of Sihah (books of Hadith) and the historians had detailed this event in their books and considered it as one of the true facts.
Al-Bukhari mentioned a tradition narrated by Ubaydillah bin Abdullah bin Masood that ibn Abbas had said: When the Prophet (s) was about to die, there were some men in his house among whom was Umar. The Prophet (s) said: Come on! Let me write you a book that you will never go astray after it. Umar said: The Prophet (s) has been overcome by pain. We have the Qur'an. The Book of Allah suffices us. The men in the house disagreed. Some of them said: Approach the Prophet! Let him write you a book after which you will never go astray. Some of them repeated what Umar had said. When they did much noise and disagreement, the Prophet (s) said to them: Get out! Abdullah bin Masood said: Ibn Abbas often said: It was the great calamity when their clamor and disagreement had prevented the Prophet (s) from writing that book.
 The Prophets death was on Monday; four days after this event.
 In his Sahih, vol.1 chap. Knowledge and vol.4 chap. The sick.
Muslim has mentioned this tradition in his Sahih, vol.2. Ahmad also has mentioned it in his Musnad and so have all the historians but they have changed the wording somehow. The actual word of Umar was the Prophet (s) is raving but they used the Prophet (s) has been overcome by pain in order to soften the horrible statement of Umar.
Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz al-Jawhari mentioned in Kitab as-Saqeefa that ibn Abbas had said: When the Prophet (s) was about to die, he said, while there were some men in the house among them was Umar: Bring me an inkpot and a piece of paper to write you a book after which you will never go astray. Umar said a word which meant that the Prophet (s) had been overcome by pain and then he added: We have the Qur'an. The Book of Allah suffices us. The men in the house disagreed and disputed among them. Some of them said: Approach! Let the Prophet (s) write a book to you. Some others said as Umar had said. When they did much clamor and disagreement, the Prophet (s) became angry and said to them: Get out!
It is clear, out of this tradition, that the historians have quoted the meaning of Umars words and not the exact words he has said.
When the narrators had narrated the exact words of the man, who had opposed the Prophet (s), they did not mention the name of that man. Al-Bukhari said in his Sahih: Qubaysa narrated from ibn Uyayna from Salman al-Ahwal from Saeed bin Jubayr that ibn Abbas had said: Thursdayand what Thursday is! He cried until his tears fell on the ground and then he said: The Prophet (s) had become very ill on Thursday. He said: Bring me a piece of paper to write you a book after which you will never go astray at all. They (the men who were in the Prophets house) disputed whereas no one should dispute before a prophet. They said: The messenger of Allah is raving. The Prophet (s) said: Let me alone! What I am in is better than what you ascribe to me. When he was about to die, he ordered
 Vol.1 p.325.
 As in Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol. 2 p.20 **
** vol.2 p.118.
of three things: Drive the polytheists out of Arabia, reward the delegations as I have rewarded them and I have forgotten the third one.
This is another tradition that has been mentioned by Muslim in his Sahih, by Ahmad in his Musnad and by the rest of narrators. Muslim has mentioned in his Sahih, chap. The will the tradition from another way narrated by Saeed bin Jubayr that ibn Abbas had said: Thursday and what Thursday is! His tears began flowing on his cheeks and then he said: The Prophet (s) said: Bring me a blade and an inkpot (or a tablet and an inkpot) so that I write you a book after which you will not go a stray at all. They said: The messenger of Allah is raving.
He, who has studied the calamity in the Sihah, knows well that the first one, who has said The Prophet (s) is raving was Umar and then the present men, who had adopted his opinion, imitated his situation. You have seen above the saying of ibn Abbas in the first tradition the men in the house disputed. Some of them said: Approach! Let the Prophet (s) write you a book after which you will never go astray and some others said as Umar had said. That is The Prophet (s) is raving.
At-Tabarani mentioned a tradition in his book al-Awsat that Umar had said: When the Prophet (s) became ill, he said: Bring me a piece of paper and an inkpot to write you a book after which you will never go astray at all. The women from behind the curtain said: Do you not hear what the messenger of Allah is saying? I (Umar) said (to the women): You are like the women of Yousuf (Prophet Joseph). If he becomes ill, you press your eyes and if he becomes alright, you ride on his neck. The Prophet (s) said: Let them (the
 Definitely the third thing was the order which the Prophet (s)
wanted to write down to his umma in order not to go astray after that at
all but politics had forced the narrators to pretend that they had
forgotten it as the mufti of the Hanafites (in Soor) Sheikh Abu Sulayman
Haj Dawood ad-Dada has said.
 Vol.1 p.232.
 This tradition with the same wording has been mentioned by Ahmad in his Musnad, vol.1 p.355 and by other scholars of Hadith.
 Kanzol Ummal, vol. 3 p.138.
women) alone. They are better than you.
You see here that they have not obeyed the order of the Prophet (s). If they had done, they would have been safe from deviation. Would that they had been satisfied with disobeying the Prophet (s) only and had not rejected his order when they said: The Book of Allah suffices us as if he did not know the position of the Book of Allah among them or as if they were more aware of the Book and its values than him! And would that they were satisfied with all that and they did not surprised him with their horrible word the messenger of Allah is raving while he was about to die! What a word it was that they wanted to farewell their prophet with! They did not obey him pretending that the Book of Allah sufficed! Had they not heard the Book of Allah announcing day and night: and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back. Qur'an, 59:7 and as if they, when saying: the messenger of Allah is raving had not read the sayings of Allah: Most surely it is the Word of an honored messenger. The processor of strength, having an honorable place with the Lord of the Dominion. One (to be) obeyed, and faithful in trust. And your companion is not gone mad. Qur'an, 81:19-22 and Most surely, it is the Word brought by an honored Messenger. And it is not the word of a poet; little is it that you believe. Nor the word of a soothsayer; little is it that you mind. It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. Qur'an,69:40-43 and Your companion does not err, nor does he go astray. Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him. Qur'an, 53:2-5
They knew that the Prophet (s) wanted to certify the caliphate of Ali (s) and the infallible imams of his progeny especially with a written covenant and therefore they prevented him from writing that book as the second caliph Umar had confessed later on through an argument between him and ibn Abbas.
If you ponder on the saying of the Prophet (s) Come on! Let me write you a book after which you will never go astray and on his saying in the tradition of Thaqalayn: I have left to you what if you keep to, you will never go astray; the Book of Allah and my progeny
 Sharh Nahjol Balagha, vol.3 p.114.
you will know that the purpose of the two sayings is the same. The Prophet (s), during his illness, wanted to write them the details of what he had ordered them of in the tradition of Thaqalayn.
The Prophet (s) had given up writing that book because the horrible word of those men had forced him to give up that for there would be no use of his book. It would cause sedition and disagreement after him for they would dispute whether his book was out of his raving or not. They disagreed and disputed and caused much clamor before him and so he had nothing to do except to say: Get out! If he had insisted on writing that book, they would have persisted in their saying the messenger of Allah is raving and then their followers would try their best to prove that the Prophet (s) had really been raving and they would fabricate many stories and tales to refute that book and to refute whoever believed in it.
Therefore wisdom had led the Prophet (s) to give up writing that book lest those people and their followers would open a gap to criticize prophethood, Allah forbid! The Prophet (s) had found that Imam Ali (s) and his followers would submit to the content of that book whether it had been written or not and that the others would not regard nor would they do according to it whether it had been written or not. Hence wisdom determined to give up that book for it would lead to opposition and sedition.
The excuses of the resistants
Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri, through some of the murajaats (arguments) between him and me in Egypt in 1329 A.H. and after that, has justified that event by saying: The Prophet (s), when ordering his companions to bring a paper and an inkpot, might not intend to write anything but he just wanted to inform them only and then Allah inspired Umar from among the companions with the intent of the Prophet (s) and so he prevented the others from bringing the paper and the inkpot. Hence we have to consider this prevention of Umar as one of his assents to his god and one of his charismata, may Allah be pleased with him. Thus some of the scholars have said. But it is fair to say that the saying of the Prophet (s) you will never go astray after it refutes that situation (of Umar) because the Prophets saying is a conditional statement which
means: if you bring me a paper and an inkpot and let me write you the book, you will never go astray after that at all. Definitely informing of such a thing just for mere informing to test the others is a kind of clear lying which we have to exalt the prophets far above especially in a time when not bringing the paper and the inkpot would be better than bringing them. This justification is weak from other sides and so we have to find another justification.
What we can say is that the matter was not a compulsory order that it could not be argued and the arguer would be disobedient but it was a matter of consultation. The companions often discussed some of those orders with the Prophet (s) and especially Umar who knew that he was always in conformity with the benefits and he was inspired by Allah. Umar, due to his kindness to the Prophet (s), wanted to cause no tiredness to the Prophet (s) when he would dictate that book while he was ill; therefore Umar thought that not bringing the paper and the inkpot would be better.
Or Umar might fear that the Prophet (s) would write some things that people would be unable to carry out and so they would deserve punishment due to that for the orders of the Prophet (s) would be compulsory and would not be interpreted in another way.
Or he might fear that the hypocrites would criticize that book because the Prophet (s) was ill when he wrote it and then it would cause sedition; therefore Umar said: The book of Allah suffices us for Allah has said: (We have not neglected anything in the book) and (This day have I perfected for you your religion) as if Umar was certain that the umma would not go astray because Allah had perfected the religion for it (the umma) and completed His favor on it.
This is the justification of the ulama. The saying of the Prophet (s) you will never go astray is decisive and compulsory because trying to assure what prevents deviation, if one is able to, is compulsory no doubt. The Prophets anger and his saying to the companions get out when they did not obey his order was another evidence showing that the matter was compulsory and it was not a matter of consultation.
If you say: if the matter was compulsory, the Prophet (s) would not
give it up just because the companions opposed him as he had not given up informing of the mission in spite of the opposition of the unbelievers. The answer is that writing that book was not compulsory to the Prophet (s) after his companions had opposed him and this did not mean that bringing the paper and the inkpot was not compulsory especially when the Prophet (s) ordered them and declared to them that the book would save them from deviation. The fact is that a command is compulsory to the commanded one and not to the commander especially if the benefit of that command concerns the commanded one; therefore compulsoriness of this order concerned the companions and not the Prophet (s).
It might be compulsory to the Prophet (s) too but it became not so when the companions disobeyed him and said the messenger of Allah is raving for the book, after that, would not lead save to sedition.
Some scholars might justify that Umar and those, who had assisted him, did not understand from the Prophets saying that the book would be the cause of saving every individual of the umma from deviation that no one would go astray after that at all. They understood from the saying you will not go astray that the whole umma all in all would not go astray and deviation would not reach every individual in the umma after writing that book. They knew that it was impossible for the whole umma to go astray; therefore they thought that writing that book was not necessary. They thought that the Prophet (s) just wanted to attract their attention to the matter due to his kindness and mercifulness. They opposed the Prophet (s) thinking that the matter was not necessary but it was out of his kindness and mercifulness so they wanted not to tire the Prophet (s) when they refused to bring the paper and the inkpot. This is all what has been said to justify this doing. But he, who ponders on this justification, will find it far away from the truth because the Prophets saying you will not go astray means that the matter is necessary as we have said besides that his being angry with them means that they have left an obligatory order. The Prophet (s) has ordered them to get out in spite of his great patience and this is an evidence showing that they have left the most obligatory and the most useful thing as it has been known of his great morals.
It would be better, when talking about this event, to say: it was a matter that took place unlike their conducts. It was a slip and a stumble of them which we do not know a way to justify. Allah is the Guide to the straight path.
Sheikh Saleem al-Bishri tried his best to justify this resistance and to find an excuse for those resistants but he did not find a way to that. Rather his knowledge and fairness refused save to refute these trifles. He was not satisfied in refuting them with one evidence yet he examined all the evidences he could get. May Allah reward him for what he has done.
Refuting the excuses in other ways
As we have had other evidences to refute those justifications, I liked at that time to offer these evidences to him (Sheikh al-Bishri) and asked him to judge on them.
You (Sheikh al-Bishri) said: they (who defended Umar) said that the Prophet (s), when he had ordered his companions to bring a paper and an inkpot, might have not intended to write anything but he just wanted to test them.
I say, in addition to what you have said: this event took place while the Prophet (s) was about to die. The time was not a time of testing; rather it was a time of warning and advising the umma. One, who was about to die, would be away from fun and jesting. He would be busy with himself, with his important affairs and the important affairs of his relatives, especially if he was a prophet.
If he, throughout his life, could not test his people, then how would he be able, at the time of dying, to test them?
When the companions disputed and did much clamor before him, the Prophet (s) ordered them to get out. This showed that he had become angry with them. If the resistants were right, the Prophet (s) would accept that from them and he would be pleased with them!
He, who studied this tradition and especially their saying the messenger of Allah is raving, would be certain that those companions were aware that the Prophet (s) had intended to declare something that they had hated; therefore they surprised him with
that horrible word and they disputed and made much ado before him.
The crying of ibn Abbas for this event and his considering it as a calamity was another evidence refuting this justification.
Those, who justified the event, said: Umar was always right in perceiving the benefits and he was inspired by Allah. This nonsense could never be listened to because it showed that the right in that event was on the side of Umar and not on the side of the Prophet (s) and it showed that Umars inspiration was more truthful than the revelation that had been revealed to the Prophet (s) by Allah.
They also said: Umar wanted to relieve the Prophet (s) from the tiredness that he would get if he dedicated that book while he was ill. It was definitely that writing the book would make the Prophets heart delighted because he would be certain that his umma would be safe from deviation.
The order and the divine will of the Prophet (s) must be obeyed. The Prophet (s) wanted the companions to bring him a piece of paper and an inkpot to write a book and the companions had no right to disobey him or to oppose his will. Allah said: And it behooves not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have any choice in their matter when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he surely strays off a manifest straying. Qur'an, 33:36
The resistance of the companions and their disputes and clamors before the Prophet (s) were more tiresome to him than dictating that book. So how did the one, who pitied the Prophet (s) for being tired because of dictating the book, resist him and surprise him by saying: the messenger of Allah is raving?
They said: Umar thought that not bringing the paper and the inkpot was better although the Prophet (s) had ordered of that. Did Umar think that the Prophet (s) ordered of something which was better to be neglected?
Odder than that was their saying: Umar might fear that the Prophet (s) would write some things that people would not be able to carry out and then they would deserve punishment because of not carrying
How did Umar fear that whereas the Prophet (s) had said: you will never go astray at all? Did they think that Umar was more aware of the ends than the Prophet (s) and more compassionate and more careful for the umma? Certainly not!
They also said: Umar might fear that the hypocrites would consider the book as untrue because the Prophet (s) was ill when he wrote it and this would cause a sedition.
This was impossible because the Prophet (s) had said: you will never go astray. He had confirmed that the book would save the umma from deviation; then how would it be a cause for sedition if the hypocrites criticized it?
If Umar was afraid that the hypocrites might consider the book as untrue; then why did he lead them to that when he resisted and said: The messenger of Allah is raving?
As for their saying when interpreting Umars saying the Book of Allah suffices us according to these two verses: We have not neglected anything in the Book and This day have I perfected for you your religion is not right because these two verses do not refer to being safe from deviation and they do not assure guidance to people. How could it be possible for them to leave that book and to depend on these two verses? If the existence of the Qur'an would save the umma from deviation, then this deviation and disagreement among the Muslims would not have taken place!
 The Prophet (s) did not say: I want to write the legal verdicts
so that one might say: The book of Allah suffices us to understand the
verdicts. If we supposed that the Prophet (s) wanted to write the
verdicts, then writing them might be the cause to save the umma from
deviation and hence no one would be excusable in neglecting that book
and pretending to be satisfied with the Qur'an. In fact if that book had
nothing except to save from deviation only, it would not be permissible
to leave it depending on the Qur'an.
You know well that the umma is in necessary need of the sacred Sunna and it cannot do without it to depend on the Qur'an only because concluding the verdicts from the Qur'an is not easy for every one. If the Qur'an has sufficed without the Sunna, Allah would have not ordered the Prophet (s) to explain it to the people. Allah has said:
They said in their last justification: Umar did not understand from the Prophets saying that that book would be the cause to save every individual of the umma from deviation but he understood that it would be a cause that would prevent the umma as whole from going astray and he (Umar), may Allah be pleased with him, knew that the umma would not get together on deviation at all whether that book had been written or not and therefore he resisted the Prophet (s) on that day.
I say, in addition to what you have said: Umar was not of that kind that he would not understand from the tradition what had been clear to all of the people because every one had understood that if that book had been written, it would have been a perfect cause to save every individual from going astray. It is this meaning which is understood by the people.
Umar knew well that the Prophet (s) had not feared for his umma to get together on deviation because he often heard the Prophet (s) saying: My umma does not get together on deviation nor on error and A group of my umma will still keep to the truth. Allah has said: Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with Me. Qur'an, 24:55 There are many clear texts in the Qur'an and the Sunna showing that the umma as whole will not gather together on deviation. Hence it was not reasonable that Umar or other than Umar might think that the Prophet (s) had feared for the umma to be deviate all in all. It behooved Umar to understand from the tradition what came to mind and not what the Qur'an and the Sunna had denied!
The Prophet (s) became angry and said to the companions: Get out! This meant that what they had resisted was one of the necessary obligations which they had to follow. If the resistance of
(and We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to
men what has been revealed to them) 16:44.
 The author addresses Sheikh al-Bishri.
Umar was because he had misunderstood the Prophets saying as they, who defended him, pretended, then the Prophet (s) would have removed his misunderstanding and would have declared his (the Prophets) intent to the companions. In fact if the Prophet (s) could have convinced them of what he had ordered them, he would not have got them out of his house. The weeping and sadness of ibn Abbas is one of the clearest evidences that prove what we have said.
Indeed this calamity can never be excused. If it was, as you said, a slip and a stumble, it would be easy but it was the disaster that had broken the back! In fact the resistants were among those who believed in ijtihad against the clear text and in this event they had practiced ijtihad before the text of the Prophet (s). They had their own opinions and Allah had His own opinion!
Sheikh al-Bishri admires what we have said
When Sheikh al-Bishri read our speech in refuting those excuses, he replied to it saying: You have closed the way before the justifiers, controlled their routes and separated between them and their intents. There is no doubt about what you have mentioned and there is nothing leading to suspect a bit of what you have declared
16. Treaty of al-Hudaybiya
On the day of al-Hudaybiya the Prophet (s) preferred peace to war and he ordered of that as Allah had revealed to him. The benefit of Islam required that treaty of peace but that benefit was unknown by the Prophets companions and so some of his companions denied the treaty and resisted the Prophet (s) openly. The Prophet (s) paid no attention to their resistance and he went on carrying what he had ordered by Allah and then the end was of the best ends of the conquerors.
The event in details
The Prophet (s) left Medina on Monday, the first of Thul Qada in the sixth year of hijra to offer the minor hajj. He feared that Quraysh might wage a war against him or they might prevent him from
 Al-Hudaybiya is a village about nine miles from Mecca.
offering the hajj to the Kaaba as they had done before. He called out the people to offer the minor hajj with him. One thousand and four hundred men of the Muhajireen, the Ansar and other tribesmen followed him. Among them there were two hundred knights. He took with him (al-hadiy) seventy camels as gift to the Kaaba. He did not take with him weapons except the weapons that travelers might take with them; swords and water-skins. When the Prophet (s) and his companions reached Thul Hulayfa, they marked (al-hadiy) the camels and they became in the state of ritual consecration (ihram) so that the people would know that he and his companions had come as pilgrims and not warriors.
Then he and his companions went on and after he passed some of the way, he knew that Khalid bin al-Waleed was in al-Ghameem (a place near Mecca) with two hundred knights from Quraysh. At the head of them was Akrima bin Abu Jahl. The Prophet (s) told his companions of that and ordered them to take the right way in order to avoid the way of Khalid and his men. They moved around al-Hamdh and Khalid did not notice them until he saw the black dust of their army. Khalid and his knights came near to the Prophet (s) and his companions. The Prophet (s) ordered Abbad bin Bishr to be with his knights opposite to Khalid.
The time of Dhuhr prayer came. The Prophet (s) offered the prayer with his companions. The polytheists said: Muhammad and his companions have given you the opportunity to overcome them. Khalid said: Yes, they were in inadvertence. If we had attacked
 It was also mentioned that they were more and it was mentioned
that they were less. The Prophet (s) took with him his wife Umm Salama
(may Allah be pleased with her). Many of the nomads had not followed
him. They were hypocrites whom Allah had dispraised in the Sura of
al-Fath which had been revealed after this event: (and Allah is wroth
with them and has cursed them and prepared hell for them, and evil is
Among those, who went with him, were al-Mugheera bin Shuba and ibn Salool, who had paid homage to him under the tree in al-Hydaybaiya.
 Umar said to the Prophet (s): O messenger of Allah, you fear Abu Sufyan and his companions. Why do you not take weapons with you? The Prophet (s) said: I do not take weapons with me while I am going to offer the hajj.
 A place near al-Hudaybiya.
them, we would have overcome them. But after a short time they will have another prayer which is more beloved to them than themselves and their children. Then Allah revealed to the Prophet (s): And when you are among them and keep up the prayer for them, let a party of them stand up with you, and let them take their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves let them go to your rear, and let another party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their precautions and their arms; (for) those who disbelieve desire that you may be careless of your arms and your luggage, so that they may then turn upon you with a sudden united attack, and there is no blame on you, if you are annoyed with rain or if you are sick, that you lay down your arms, and take your precautions; surely Allah has prepared a disgraceful chastisement for the unbelievers. Then when you have finished the prayer, remember Allah standing and sitting and reclining; but when you are secure (from danger) keep up prayer; surely prayer is a timed ordinance for the believers. And be not weak hearted in pursuit of the enemy; if you suffer pain, then surely they (too) suffer pain as you suffer pain, and you hope from Allah what they do not hope; and Allah is Knowing, Wise. Qur'an, 4:102-104
Then the Prophet (s) offered Asr prayer with his companions as fear prayer which was legislated by these previous verses. (And Allah turned back the unbelievers in their rage; they did not obtain any advantage).
17. Aggressiveness of Quraysh and the wisdom of the Prophet (s)
When the Prophet (s) came to al-Hudaybiya, he got much harm from the polytheists. He and his companions faced rudeness, disgust, hatred and open enmity from them. Also the polytheists got from the Prophets companions like that and more for they did according the saying of Allah: (and let them find in you hardness). But the Prophet (s), due to his patience that Allah had granted to him, tolerated the polytheists with his wisdom, which was a part of his nature, and his high morals with which Allah had preferred him to the rest of the prophets and messengers (s).
The polytheists prevented him from entering Mecca in a rude and offensive way but he did not become angry nor was his patience provoked. He dealt with those harsh people with leniency and indifference. He said humble words about them full of highness that made them see him above the stars and see themselves under the ground. His words were full of pity and advice to them and full of divine wisdom that moved their hearts in spite of their hardness and harshness and also were full of warning and threatening to uproot them if they kept on their way.
Here are some of the Prophets sayings to ponder on them and to find out the Prophets aims. The Prophet (s) said: Woe unto Quraysh! The war has exhausted them. What will they lose if they let me alone with the Arabs? If the Arabs kill me, it will be the wish of them (Quraysh) and if Allah makes me prevail over them, they will become Muslims honorably and if they refused (to be Muslims), they will fight me with their full power! What does Quraysh think? By Allah, Whom there is no god but, I will still fight for the sake of what my god has sent me to until Allah makes it prevail or this neck is cut!
He said attracting them towards his great morals and favors: I swear by Him, in Whose hand my soul is, that if Quraysh invites me today for a plan, in which they ask me for keeping relations of kinship, I will respond to them.
He declared his mercifulness through these wise and compassionate words and then he gathered his companions to consult them for fighting Quraysh if Quraysh would insist on preventing him from visiting the Kaaba. Most of his companions or perhaps all of them were ready to fight Quraysh and other than Quraysh. They were zealous for that. During that enthusiasm, al-Miqdad rose expressing the situation of the all. He said: O messenger of Allah, we do not say to you as the Israelites have said to Prophet Moses (s): So go thou and thy Lord and fight! We will sit here but we say: go, you and your Lord, and fight; we will fight with you. O messenger of Allah, by Allah, if you take us to Bard al-Ghamad, we will go with you even if
 It was one of the impenetrable forts in Yemen. Marching towards
that fort did mean that they would face inevitable death because the
fort was very strong and defended.
The fort, whose inhabitants were polytheists, was surrounded by mountains and the ways leading to it were very rough.
just one of us will remain alive. The Prophet (s) became delighted to hear that. They paid him homage and promised him to support him until the last breath. They were one thousand and four hundred men. Among them was the head of the hypocrites; ibn Salool. No one had refrained from paying homage to him except a man called al-Jadd bin Qays al-Ansari.
Fright of the polytheists and request for peace
As soon as Quraysh homage (the homage of ar-Radhwan) their hearts shook and their chests were filled with fright
 Al-Halabi said in his Seera: The historians, who had recorded
the history of the battle of al-Hudaybiya, mentioned that Quraysh had
sent a message to ibn Salool while he was with the Prophet (s). They
said to him: You can enter Mecca, if you like, and circumambulate the
Kaaba. His son Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) said to him: O
father, for the sake of Allah, do not shame us everywhere. How will you
circumambulate the Kaaba while the Prophet (s) will not? Then he refused
to do that and said: I will not circumambulate the House until the
Prophet (s) will do. When the Prophet (s) knew of that, he thanked Ibn
Salool and asked Allah to be pleased with him. So ibn Salool was one of
those who had paid homage to the Prophet (s) under the tree. Hence no
one of those, who were with the Prophet (s) in al-Hudaybiya, had
refrained from paying homage to the Prophet (s) except al-Jadd bin Qays
al-Ansary according to all of the historians.
 Al-Halabi said in his Seera that Salama bin al-Aqwa had said: We have promised the Prophet (s) to die for him and none of us has refrained from that save al-Jadd bin Qays. He has stuck to the armpit of his camel to hide himself from people.
 This homage had been paid to the Prophet (s) under a tree; therefore it had been called the homage of the tree and it also had been called the homage of ar-Radhwan (pleasedness of Allah with the believers) due to the saying of Allah: (Certainly Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree) and His saying at the end of the sura: (Allah has promised those among them who believe and do good, forgiveness and a great reward).
Blessed were those who had kept to faith and good doings until they met their Lord Who had been pleased with them and praised them in His Book and promised them with forgiveness and great reward. Allah said: (And if you desire Allah and His Messenger and the latter abode, then surely Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a mighty reward) and ((As for) those who say: Our Lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them, saying: Fear not, nor be grieved, and receive good news of the garden which you were promised). The
especially after Akrima bin Abu Jahl with five hundred knights had attacked the Muslims and the Prophet (s), as mentioned in al-Kashshaf, had sent to him some of his companions who had defeated him and his men and forced them to retreat until they resorted to the walls of Mecca. Ibn Abbas said: Allah has made the Muslims defeat Akrima and his men with stones until they entered into the house and then they knew that they would not be able to stand against Muhammad (s) and his companions.
Then the wise people of Quraysh were obliged to request the Prophet (s) for peace. They had known before that the Prophet (s) had said: I swear by Him, in Whose hand my soul is, that if Quraysh invites me today for a plan, in which they ask me for keeping relations of kinship, I will respond to them so they sent to the Prophet (s) some of their notables, at the head of whom was Suhayl bin Amr bin Abd Widd al-Aamiry to represent all of Quraysh before the Prophet (s) to ask for a truce on some conditions which they had put. The conditions were too oppressive for the Muslims and so they refused them but the polytheists of Quraysh insisted on them resorting to the promise the Prophet (s) had promised to respond to them if whenever they asked him for a matter of kinship. The Prophet (s) had been ordered by Allah to grant this promise and to act according to it. He had accepted their heavy conditions because he obeyed the revelation of Allah and according to the advantage that Allah had been aware of. Later on all the Muslims knew that advantage. You will see the details in a coming chapter inshallah.
Umar disdains the conditions of the truce
When peace was determined with those conditions by the two sides, Umar bin al-Khattab became too angry and zealotry occupied his mind. He came to Abu Bakr while he was flamed up with rage. He said to Abu Bakr: O Abu Bakr, is he not the messenger of Allah?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, he is.
Umar said: Are we not Muslims?
sincere believers are far above all the false traditions the fabricators
have fabricated against them for the holy verses of the Qur'an refute
all these false traditions.
 As in al-Halabis Seera and other books of history.
Abu Bakr said: Yes, we are!
Umar said: Are they not polytheists?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, they are?
Umar said: Then why do we submit to their conditions?
Abu Bakr said: O man, he is the messenger of Allah and he does never disobey his Lord, Who supports him. Keep to him, follow him and obey him until you die. I witness that he is the messenger of Allah
Muslim mentioned in his Sahih, vol.2 chap. the Truce of al-Hudaybiya that Umar had said to the Prophet (s): Are we not on the truth and are they not on the untruth?
The Prophet (s) said: Yes.
Umar said: Then why do we submit to their conditions and com back (without offering the hajj) before Allah has judged between us and them?
The Prophet (s) said: O ibn al-Khattab, I am the messenger of Allah and Allah will never neglect me at all.
Umar became too angry and went to Abu Bakr saying to him: Are we not on the truth and are they not on the untruth?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, we are.
Umar said: Are our killed ones not in Paradise and are their killed ones not in Hell?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, they are.
Umar said: Then why do we submit to them and do not defend our religion?
Abu Bakr said: O ibn al-Khattab, he is the messenger of Allah and Allah will never neglect him at all. Many other scholars have mentioned this tradition in their books.
Al-Bukhari mentioned in his Sahih that Umar had said to the
 Woe! As if Umar doubted the prophethood of the Prophet (s)!
 vol.2 p.81.
Prophet (s): Are you not really the messenger of Allah?
The Prophet (s) said: Yes, I am.
Umar said: Are we not on the truth and is our enemy not on the untruth?
The Prophet (s) said: Yes, we are.
Umar said: Then why do we submit to them and do not defend our religion?
The Prophet (s) said: I am the messenger of Allah. I do not disobey Him and He will support me.
Umar said: Have you not told us that we would circumambulate the Kaaba?
The Prophet (s) said: Yes, I have; but have I told you that we would circumambulate the Kaaba this year?
Umar said: No, you have not.
The Prophet (s) said: You will come to the Kaaba and you will circumambulate it.
Umar came to Abu Bakr and said to him: O Abu Bakr, is he not really the prophet of Allah?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, he is.
Umar said: Are we not on the truth and is not our enemy on the untruth?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, we are.
Umar said: Then why do we submit and do not defend our religion?
Abu Bakr said: O man, he is the messenger of Allah. He does not
 The Prophets saying I do not disobey Him confirms what we have
said that the Prophet (s) has been ordered by Allah to carry out the
truce as it has been taken place.
 In the year of al-Fat~h (the conquest) when the Prophet (s) took the key of Mecca, he sent for Umar. When he came, the Prophet (s) said to him: O Umar, it is this that I have said to you. In the farewell hajj (al-wada) when the Prophet (s) stopped at Arafa, he sent for Umar too and said to him: It is this that I have said to you.
disobey his Lord and Allah will support him. Keep to him and follow him. By Allah, he is on the truth.
Umar said: Has he not told us that we would go to the Kaaba and would circumambulate it?
Abu Bakr said: Yes, he has, but has he told you that you would circumambulate the Kaaba this year?
Umar said: No, he has not.
He said: You will visit the Kaaba and you will circumambulate it.
Umar said: I did many things for that.
When the Prophet (s) finished writing the book of the truce, he said to his companions: Go and slaughter the sacrifices and then cut your hair. The narrator added: By Allah, no one of them moved to carry out the Prophets order. The Prophet (s) repeated that for three times. When no one of them did that, the Prophet (s) came into his tent and then he went out without talking to anyone of them. He slaughtered a camel and then he asked a companion to cut his hair. When the companions saw that, they began to slaughter the sacrifices and then they cut each others hair until they were about to kill each other. Ahmad bin Hanbal mentioned this tradition in his Musnad from al-Musawwir bin Makhrama and Marwan bin al-Hakam. Al-Halabi in his Seera and many other historians, when talking about the truce of al-Hudaybiya, mentioned that Umar had debated with the Prophet (s) on that day. Then Abu Ubayda bin al-Jarrah said to him: O ibn al-Khattab (Umar), do you not hear what the Prophet (s) is saying? We resort to Allah from the evil of the Satan! Al-Halabi and other historians mentioned that the Prophet (s) had said to Umar on that day: O Umar, I myself have agreed so why have you not agreed? They also mentioned that Umar often said after that: I am still keeping on fasting, praying, paying charities
 Abu Bakrs saying he does not disobey his Lord showed that Abu
Bakr was aware that the Prophet (s) had been ordered by Allah to
conclude the agreement of peace.
 This word of Umar showed clearly the great doings he had done to spoil the peace and because of that Umar and his followers did not obey the Prophet (s) when he ordered them to slaughter the sacrifices until he repeated his order for three times. You will see the details later on inshallah.
and setting slaves free so that my speech I have said to the Prophet (s) may be forgiven
Carrying out the treaty of peace
The Prophet (s) on that day did not pay any attention to the resistance of those people for he had been ordered by Allah to do that. The treaty of peace was too heavy because of its oppressive conditions. The Prophet (s) sent for Imam Ali (s) to write the form of the treaty. He said to Imam Ali (s): Write: in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the merciful. Suhayl bin Amr said: We do not know this. Let him write: in the name of You, O Allah. The Muslims began clamoring and said: No, by Allah, he will not write except what the messenger of Allah has said. But the Prophet (s) stopped the dispute by saying to Imam Ali (s): Write: in the name of You, O Allah. Imam Ali (s) wrote the book as the Prophet (s) had ordered him. Then the Prophet (s) said to him: Write: This is what Muhammad, the messenger of Allah, has agreed on with Suhayl bin Amr. Suhayl said: If we have regarded you as the messenger of Allah, we will not have fought you or prevented you from the House (the Kaaba). But let him write: this is what Muhammad bin Abdullah has agreed on with Suhayl bin Amr. The Muslims broke out shouting and denying what Suhayl had said. They refused that and insisted on writing what the Prophet (s) had said. Sedition was about to take place. The Prophet (s) said: I am Muhammad the messenger of Allah even if you do not believe in me. And I am Muhammad bin Abdullah. O Ali, write: This is what Muhammad bin Abdullah has agreed on with Suhayl bin Amr. Imam Ali (s) wrote it unwillingly. The Prophet (s) said to him: O Abul Hasan (Ali), you will be in the same situation one day or he said to him: O Abul Hasan, you will receive the same and you will respond while you are oppressed.
The conditions of the truce required that the Prophet (s) and his companions were to go back from al-Hudaybiya to Medina and in the next year the people of Quraysh were to go out of Mecca so that the Prophet (s) and his companions would enter it and would stay there
 This saying of the Prophet (s) has been considered by all of the Muslims as one of the signs of prophethood and one of the signs of Islam. The details have mentioned in al-Halabis Seera, ad-Dahlanis Seera and other books of history.
for three days. The Prophet (s) and his companions had to come with no weapons except swords in the sheaths. The war between them had to stop for ten years during which people would live peacefully. They had to avoid provoking each other. Whoever of (other tribes of) the Arabs wanted to conclude peace with Muhammad, could do that and whoever wanted to ally with Quraysh could do that. The two sides had not to have hidden grudge in their hearts against each other. They had to refrain from robbery and treason. If any one of Quraysh, who believed in Muhammad (s), resorted to Muhammad (s) without permission of his master, he must be returned to his master and if some one of Muhammads companions resorted to Quraysh after having apostatized, Quraysh would not have to return him to Muhammad (s). The Muslims said: Glory be to Allah! How do we return a Muslim, who resorts to us, to the polytheists of Quraysh? The Muslims found it too difficult to accept this condition. They said: O messenger of Allah, do you accept this condition against yourself? He said: Yes, I do. He, who leaves us after having apostatized, let Allah do away with him and he, who comes to us after being a Muslim and we return him to them, Allah will grant him deliverance.
While the Prophet (s) and Suhayl bin Amr were writing the treaty with the agreed upon conditions, Abu Jandal al-Aass bin Suhayl bin Amr (the son of Suhayl bin Amr) came to the Muslims trailing with his ties. Abu Jandal had become a Muslim in Mecca some time ago but his father had prevented him from immigrating to Medina. He tied him and put him in prison. When Abu Jandal heard that the Prophet (s) and his companions had come to al-Hudaybiya, he played a trick to get out of prison. He took a way between the mountains until he came to the Muslims who became pleased to
 Due to other traditions mentioned by the historians the period
of the truce was two years or four years.
 The tribe of Khuzaa concluded a treaty with the Prophet (s). They had been before the allies of the Prophets grandfather Abdul Muttalib. The tribe of Bakr allied with Quraysh. Then a war took place between Khuzaa and Bakr, in which Quraysh supported their ally (the tribe of Bakr) against the Prophets ally (the tribe of Khuzaa) and hence Quraysh broke the treaty of al-Hudaybiya with the Prophet (s) and then the Prophet (s) declared to invade Quraysh. The result of that invasion was the great victory and the significant conquest of Mecca.
receive him. But his father Suhayl dragged him with his clothes and hit him on the face severely while saying to the Prophet (s): O Muhammad, this is the first one whom I will ask you to return to me. The Prophet (s) said to him: We have not finished writing the treaty yet. Suhayl said: Then I will not make peace with you. The Prophet (s) said to him: Let him be my resorter then! he said: I will not. The Prophet (s) said: You are to do that. He said: I will not do. Mukriz bin Hafs and Huwaytib bin Abdul Uzza, who were notable men of Quraysh, said to the Prophet (s): O Muhammad, we will protect him for you. They took Abu Jandal into a pavilion and took his father away from him. Then Suhayl said: O Muhammad, the matter between me and you has been concluded and completed before my son came to you. The Prophet (s) said: You are right. Then the Prophet (s) said to Abu Jandal: Be patient and wait for the reward of Allah. The treaty of peace has been concluded before you came and we do not betray. We requested your father concerning you but he refused. Allah will grant you and the weak like you with deliverance.
Here Umar jumped to Abu Jandal tempting him to kill his father and trying to give him a sword. Umar said, as mentioned in ad-Dahlanis Seera and other books: I wished he had taken the sword and struck his father. He said to Abu Jandal: One may kill his father. By Allah, if we had met our fathers, we would have killed them. But Abu Jandal did not respond to Umar in killing his father because he feared to cause sedition and he obeyed the Prophet (s) when he had ordered him to be patient and to wait for the reward of Allah. He said to Umar: Why do you yourself not kill him? Umar said: The Prophet (s) has forbidden us from killing him and other than him.
 The Muslims began weeping for him.
 If Suhayl had been killed on that day, sedition would have occurred between the Muslims and Quraysh the evil of which would have spread everywhere.
 No doubt that when Umar tempted Abu Jandal to kill his father, he objected to the Prophet (s), who had ordered Abu Jandal to be patient and to expect the deliverance of Allah.
 This was another objection to the Prophet (s), who had forbidden his companions from killing Suhayl and other than Syhayl but Umar had tempted Abu Jandal to kill Suhayl.