[^1] Malik ,Hafeez , SirSayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernism in India and Pakistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980)

[^2] . Notably theAligarh College, established in 1881, which became a university in 1920 and which remained the mainstay of Muslim education in the Indian subcontinent until [^1947]:

[^3] . “Proceedings of the First Meeting of the Scientific Society”,Ghazipur , January 9, 1864, published inFikr-o-Nazar , April (1963),Aligarh , pp. 8-[^11]:

[^4] .Malik ,Hafeez (1980), SirSayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernism in India and Pakistan, Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 88-[^89]:

[^5] . Panipat i,Shaikh Mu hammad Ismical (1976),Maktub at-e SirSayyid ,(Letters of SirSayyid Ahmad, henceforth Letters), 2 vols.,Majlis -eTaraqi -eAdab , Lahore, vol. 1, p. [^413]: Ahmad Khan’s letters toNawab Mohsin al-Mulk , andMawlaviMahdi Ali Khan, written from England, were first published in SirSayyid’s journalTahdh ib al-lkhl aq, under the general title of SafarNamah -eMus afr an-e London.

[^6] . Ahmad Khan’s letter of July 28, 1869, to the Secretary of State (George Douglas Campbell, the Eighth Duke of Argyll, 1823-1900), in Panipat i,Shaikh Mu hammad Ismical (ed., 1993) Letters to and from SirSyed Ahmad Khan, Board for Advancement of Literature, Lahore, pp. 3-[^5]:

[^7] . “One can easily live here in one hundred and fifty rupees per month, except when one has to go for visits. It costs four hundred rupees a month just for the coaches! And this will only fetch a one-horse carriage with occasional two horse carriages. Last nightMahmud was invited to the house of an Englishman, he spent two hours there, he went there in a pathetic horse carriage, the like of which one can fetch inBenaras for two or threeannas (one rupee had sixteenannas ); it cost seven shillings, i.e. seven and a half rupees...”Ahmad Khan’s letter of June 18, 1869 to Nawab Mahdi . Letters, op. cit, vol. 1, pp. 421-22, my translation.

[^8] .Panipati ,Shaikh MuhammadIsma icl (ed. 1961),Mus afr an-e London,Majlis Taraqi -eAdab , Lahore, p. [^184]:

[^9] . Letters, op. cit. vol. 1, p. [^431]:

[^10] .Published by Trubner & Co., [^1870]: In London, Khan had to borrowRs . 3,000; the book cost himRs . 3,948; the sale of 20 copies and donations from friends in India brought backRs . 1,691.(Letters, op. cit.) Ahmad Khan’s book was a fitting rejoinder to Muir’s outburst against the Prophet of Islam. He undertook a point-by-point refutation of the main arguments in twelve essays which start with the “Historical Geography of Arabia” and end with “On the Birth and Childhood of Mohammed”. Interestingly, Ahmad Khan produced his own genealogy on the back of the large size sheet which contains the genealogy of the Prophet, tracing it back to the Prophet of Islam through his daughter Fatima. This book has been reprinted many times. The one I have used was reprinted by Premier Book House in 1968 in Lahore. The title page states that the “original English text of these essays has been revised and corrected by a friend” and author’s name is given asSyed Ahmed KhanBahador , C.S.I. The Urdu version was published in 1887 asKhutbat al- Ahmdia fi bl Arabwa Seeratul Mu hammadia ,Aligarh .

[^11] .Iskandar an i, Mu h ammad b. Ahmad (1297/1880),Kash al-Asrar can al-Nuraniyya al-Qur abniyya fi-mayata callaqu bi al-Ajram as-Samawiyya wa al-Ar diyya wa al-Hayawan atwa al-Nabatwa al-Jawahir al-Maacdaniyya , 3 vols. Cairo.

[^12] . Al-Iskandar ani, Muhammad b. Ahmad (1300/1883),Tiby an al-Asr ar al-Rabb aniyya fbil-Nabatwa bl Maacdinwa bl-Khaw sas al-Hawywaniyyah , Damascus.

[^13] . The 1857 effort to gain independence from the British rule was called “mutiny” by the British; its Urdu equivalent,Gadar , was used by some pro-British writers for this heroic effort which failed due to many reasons, including treason by Muslims and Hindus loyal to the British.

[^14] . See Panipat i,Maulana Muhammadlsm ical (ed., 1963),Maqalat -e SirSayyid , 16vols., Majlis-eTaraqqi-e Adad , Lahore, [henceforthMaq alat], vol. 2, pp. 199-[^200]:

[^15] . ibid.

[^16] . ibid.

[^17] . For a discussion on Ahmad Khan’s reinterpretations, see Troll, C.W. (1979),Sayyid Ahmad Khan:A Reinterpretation of Muslim Theology, Oxford University Press, Karachi.