1- Ahmad Sudqi Ad-Dajani, Paper entitled 'The Development of the Concepts of Democracy in the Modern Arab Thought', in The Crisis of Democracy in the Arab Homeland (Arabic reference), p. 115 (Beirut: Arab Unity Studies Centre, 1984).

2- Rifa'a At-Tahtawi (1801-73) was the first to campaign for interaction with the European civilization with the objective of borrowing from it that, which does not conflict with the established values and principles of the Islamic Shari’ah. A graduate of Al-Azhar, the well-known Islamic university in Cairo, he was appointed as an Imam to the Egyptian regiment that was dispatched by Muhammad Ali to France. Although sent there as an Imam and not as a student, and as a descendant of an ancient family with a strong tradition of Islamic knowledge, he threw himself into study with enthusiasm. He acquired a precise knowledge of the French language and read books on ancient history, Greek philosophy and mythology, geography, mathematics and logic and, most importantly, the French thought of the 18th century - Voltaire, Rousseau's Contrat Social (Social Contract) and other works. Returning home after five years, he diagnosed the illness of the ummah (community) as being due to lack of freedom and suggested multi-party democracy as a remedy. At-Tahtawi criticized those who opposed the idea of taking knowledge from Europe, saying: 'such people are deluded; for civilizations are turns and phases. These sciences were once Islamic when we were at the apex of our civilization. Europe took them from us and developed them further. It is now our duty to learn from them just as they learned from our ancestors.' A. Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939 (Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 69, and R. S. Ahmad, Ad-Din Wa'd-Dawla Wath-Thawra (Religion, State and Revolution), (Al-Dar Al-Sharkiyah, 1989), p. 1:

3- Ibid., p. 121, quoting Lewis Awad's The History of Modern Egyptian Thought (Arabic reference).

4- Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939, op. cit., pp. 70-[^1]:

5- Ahmad Sudqi Ad-Dajani, op. cit., p. [^121]:

6- Faruq Abdessalam, Al-Ahzab As-Siyasiyyah fi'l-Islam (Cairo: Qalyoob Publishing House, 1978).

7- Ahmad Sudqi Ad-Dajani, op. cit., pp. 122-[^3]:

8- Rachid Ghannouchi, 'The Conflict Between the West and Islam, The Tunisian Case: Reality and Prospects', a Lecture at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 9 May 1995, translated by Azzam Tamimi.

9- Charles A. Micaub, Leon Carl Brown and Clement Henry Moore, Tunis, the Politics of Modernisation (London: Pall Mall Press), p. [^10]:

10- Khairuddin At-Tunisi, Aqwam Al-Masalik Fi Taqwim Al-Mamalik (Tunis, 1972), p. [^185]:

11- Ahmad Sudqi Ad-Dajani, op. cit., p. [^123]:

12- R. S. Ahmad, Ad-Din Wa'd-Dawlah Wath-Thawrah, op. cit., pp. 44-[^7]:

13- Abdulbasit Hasan, Jamal Ad-Din Al-Afghani (Cairo, 1982), pp. 267-[^8]:


Publications, 1988), p. 187.

Al-Arabi, 1991). See also Ahmad Sudqi Ad-Dajani, op. cit., p. 124.

cit., p. 228.

p. 9.

of Islamic Political Thought), (Beirut: Ar-Risala, 1984), p. 48.

cit., p. 360.

Today), Arabic reference (Beirut: Ar-Risalah, n.d.), p. 226.

House in London, 26 May 1995.

reference (Beirut: Ar-Risalah, n.d.), p. 185.

al-Imam Hasan al-Banna (Cairo: Dar al-Shabab, [n.d.]), pp. 389-93.

l-Isti'mar al-Gharbi ([n.p.], 1991), pp. 206-9.


(Yale, 1985), p. 85.

Al-Arabi, 1980), pp. 14-15.

(Islam in the Face of Contemporary Challenges). Trans. by Khalil Al-Hamidi (Kuwait: Dar Al-Qalam, 1971), pp. 249-52.

(Beirut: Ar- Risala, 1978), p. 187.

cit., p. 250.

op. cit., p. 73.



cit., p. 371.

Dar Al-Fikr, 1991).

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  1. Hasan Al-Banna, Mushkilatuna (Our Problems), in: Majmu'at Rasa'il