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Notes


[^1] He is graduate student of International Relations at Ritsumeikan University and also lecturer at History Department of Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

[^2] PBUH stands for Peace Be Upon Him, that is to honor Mohamed the Prophet. However in the following texts it does not put in again.

[^3] Sufi is Islamic teachings which focus on emotional aspect of Islam. Sufi becomes feature of Islam in Indonesia because it has similar characters to former religions of Hind and Buda. Sufi has become major issue between both Islamic groups. At first Muhammadiyah refused sufi and then she accepted some dimensions of Sufi.

[^4] It means Muhammadiyah assume that they follow the straight true of Islam by referring directly to Islamic sources of Koran and Haditst.

[^5] Ijtihad is a religious interpretation of Islam in conjunction to the advancement of the worldly life. Ijtihad should be conducted by capable Moslem thinker and it is difficult to classify them, especially when Islamic civilization reduced its influences. That is why the gate of ijtihad was closed in Sunni countries in where salaf movement took a place. The gate of ijtihad is never closed in Shiite sect such as in Iran.

[^6] Muktamar is conference held regularly each five years.

[^7] Tareqat is a kind of practical Sufi to divide with philosophical Sufi. Actually Islam has developed some tareqat groups which consists of both practical and philosophical aspects of Sufi.