Single and Dual Forms

  1. What is a singular noun?

  2. What is a dual noun?

  3. How is a dual noun formed?

  4. Are there some exceptions to this rule?

  5. How are maqsūr nouns made dual?

  6. How are mamdūd nouns made dual?

  7. A singular noun is a noun that indicates one person, one animal, or one thing. For example: نجَّار (a carpenter).

  8. A dual noun is a noun that indicates two people, two animals, or two things. For example: نحَّاران (two carpenters).

  9. A noun is put into the dual form by giving the last syllable a fathah and adding the dual letters which are:

• An alif and nūn that has a kasrah if the noun is in the nominative state. For example: جاءَ وَلدَانِ (two boys came)

• A yā' and nūn that has a kasrah if the noun is in the accusative or genitive case. For example: اسطدتُ عُصفرَینِ (I hunted two sparrows)

  1. Yes, there are some exceptions to this rule. The exceptions are maqsūr nouns and mamdūd nouns.

  2. A maqsūr noun has two cases:

• If it ends in a straight alif - the alif should be changed to a wāw and then the dual letters should be added. For example: عصا (cane) becomes عَصَو which becomes عَصَوانِ (two canes).

• If it ends in an alif maqsūrah - the alif should be changed to a yā' and then the dual letters should be added. For example: فتیَ (young man) becomes فَتي which becomes فَتَیَانِ (two young men).

  1. A mamdūd noun has two cases:

• If the hamzah is a feminine hamzah - the hamzah should be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For example: خَصراء (green) becomes خَضراوَ which becomes خَضراوانِ.

• If the hamzah is not a feminine hamzah - the hamzah can either remain or be changed into a wāw with a fathah and then the dual letters should be added. For example سماء (sky) becomes سماء or سَماوَ which becomes سَماءَانِ or سَماوَانِ (two skies).