Notes


[^1] - It is worth mentioning that Abu Rabi'a uses the phrase 'narrated to us' whereas the other two reporters have made use of the phrase 'told us'.

[^2] - The letter‘s’ stands for ‘peace be upon him and his progeny’. Though the Sunnite sources suffice to saying ‘peace be upon him’ after mentioning the name of the Prophet (s), omitting ‘and his progeny’, we have intended to mention the whole version of this supplication, whenever we have used the abbreviation‘s’.

[^3] - Sahih Bukhari, vol. 3, p. [^1345]: (Book of the virtues of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s)), tradition no. 3274. Sahih Muslim, vol. 5, p. 12 (Book of the virtues of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s)), tradition no. 2389.

1 - Tahzib al-Tahzib, vol. 5, p. [^272]:

[^5] - Sahih Bukhari, vol. 3, pp. 1343 and 1344, Tradition no. [^3471]: Elsewhere in Sahih Bukhari the same tradition has appeared with a somewhat different wording. See for example the following:

a)  The Prophet entered a garden and ordered me to guard its gate. A man came and asked permission to enter. The Prophet said, "Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise." Behold! It was Abu Bakr. Another man came and asked the permission to enter. The Prophet said, "Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise." Behold! It was 'Umar. Then another man came, asking the permission to enter. The Prophet kept silent for a short while and then said, "Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise with a calamity which will befall him." Behold! It was 'Uthman bin 'Affan. 'Asim, in another narration, said that the Prophet was sitting in a place where there was water, and he was uncovering both his knees or his knee, and when 'Uthman entered, he covered them (or it).

b) While I was with the Prophet in one of the gardens of Medina, a man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me, "Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings that he will enter Paradise." I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was Abu Bakr. I informed him of the glad tidings the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me "Open (the gate) and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise." I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was 'Umar. I informed him of what the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me. "Open (the gate) for him and inform him of the glad tidings, of entering Paradise with a calamity which will befall him. "Behold ! It was 'Uthman, I informed him of what Allah's Apostle had said. He praised Allah and said, "I seek Allah's aid."

[^6] - Sahih Muslim, vol. 5, pp. 20 and 21, tradition no. [^2403]:

[^7] - Sahih Bukhari, vol. 3, pp. 1350 and 1351, tradition no. [^3490]:

[^8] - Sahih Muslim, vol. 5, pp. 19 and 20, tradition no. [^2403]: His version of this tradition is not the same either. See for example the following:

a) Abu Musa Ash'ari reported that he performed ablution in his house and then came out saying: I would remain with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) the whole day long. He came to the mosque, and asked about Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him). They (his Companions) said: He has gone in this direction. He (Abu Musa Ash'ari) said: I followed his steps asking about him until I came to Bi'r Aris (it is a well in the suburb of Medina). I sat by its wooden door until Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had relieved himself and then performed ablution. I went to him and he was sitting with his shanks uncovered hp to the knees and his legs dangl- ing in that well. I offered him salutations. I then came back and sat at the door as if I had been a chamberlain at the door of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) that day. There came Abu Bakr and knocked the door and I said: Who is it? He said: This is Abu Bakr. I said: Wait, please. I went and said: Allah's Messenger, here is Abu Bakr seeking permission. Thereupon he said: Admit him and give him glad tidings of Paradise. I came and I said to Abu Bakr to get in (and also told him) that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was giving him the glad tidings of Paradise. Abu Bakr got in and sat on the right side of Allah's Messenger

(may peace be upon him) and dangled his feet in the well as Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had done, and he uncovered his shanks. I then returned and sat there and I had left my brother as he had been performing ablution and he was to meet me and I said: If Allah would intend goodness for such and such he would intend goodness for his brother and He would bring him. I was thinking this that a person stirred the door. I said: Who is it. He said: This is Umar b., Khattab. I said: Wait. Then I came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), greeted him and said: Here is 'Umar seeking your. permission to get in. Thereupon he said: Let him come in and give him glad tid- ings of Paradise. I came to Umar and said: There is permission for you and glad tidings for you from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) for Paradise. He got in and sat on the left side of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) with his feet dangling in the well. I then returned and sat and said: If Allah would intend goodness for such and such (that is for his brother), He would bring him. And I was contemplating over it that a man stirred the door and I said: Who is it? He said: This is Uthman b. Affan. I said: Wait, please. I then came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and informed him. and he said: Admit him and give him glad tidings (and inform) him of the turmoil which he shall have to face. I came and said: Get in, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) gives you the glad tidings of Paradise along with the trial which you shall have to face. He got in and saw the elevated plan round the well fully occupied. He sat on the other side. Sharik said that Sa'id b. al-Musayyib reported: I drew a conclusion from it that their groves would be (in this very state, the graves of Hadrat Abu Bakr, 'Umar Faruq by the tide of the Holy Prophet [may peace be upon him] and the grave of Hadrat 'Uthman away from their graves). Abu Musa. reported: I set out with the intention (of meeting) Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and came to know that he had gone to the gardens (in the suburb of Medina). I followed him and found him in a garden sitting upon an elevated place round the well with his shanks uncovered which had been dangling in the well. The rest of the hadith is the same but with this variation that there is no mention of the words of Sa'id: all drew a conclusion from it pertaining to their graves."(Sahih Muslim, tradition no, 5911).

b) Abu Musa al-Ash'ari reported that while Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) was in one of the gardens of Medina, reclining against a pillow and fixing a stick in a mud, that a person came asking for the gate to be opened, whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and, lo, it was Abu Bakr. I opened (the gate) for him and gave him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then another person asked for the door to be opened, whereupon he said: Open it and give him the glad tidings of Piradise. He said: I went away and, lo, it was 'Umar. I opened it for him and gave him the glad tidings of Paradise. Then still another man asked for the door to be opened, and thereupon Allaah's Prophet (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Open it and give him the glad tidings of Paradise after a trial would afflict him. I went and, lo, it was 'Uthman b. 'Affan. 1 opened the door and gave him the glad tidings of Paradise and informed him (what the Prophet had said). Thereupon he said: O Allaah, grant me steadfastness. Allaah is one Whose help is to be sought.(Sahih Muslim tradition, no. 5909).

[^9] - MIzan al-Itidal, vol. 3, p. 372 and Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 4, p. [^10] - Murji'a was a group of Muslims who believed that committing a sin is not harmful as long as one is faithful.

[^11] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 7, pp. 129-[^130]: Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 5, p. 65.

[^12] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 2, p. 357 and Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 3, p. [^13] - Sahih Muslim, vol. [^5]: Pp. 18-19, tradition, no. 2402. Another version of this tradition has also been reported by Muslim in his Sahih. See: A'isha reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in. It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered). Then 'Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state. Then 'Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sat down and he set right his clothes. Mubammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day. He ('Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, A'isha said : Abu Bakr entered aind you did not stir and did not observe much

care (in arranging your clothes), then 'Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then 'Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty (Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Tradition, Number 5906).

[^14] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 5, p. [^111]:

[^15] - Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4, p. [^102]:

[^16] - Al-Isti'ab, vol. 2, p. [^117]:

[^17] - Al-Kashif, vol. 2, p. [^301]:

[^18] - Wafiyat al-A'ayan, vol. 4, p. [^178]:

[^19] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 4, p. [^204]:

[^20] - واعلم أن أدنى ما كتمت وأخف ما احتملت أن آنست وحشة الظالم وسهلت له طريق الغي  بدنوك منه حين دنوت وإجابتك له حين دعيت، فما أخوفني أن تكون تبوء بإثمك غدا مع الخونة، وأن تسأل عما أخذت بإعانتك على ظلم الظلمة، إنك أخذت ما ليس لك ممن أعطاك ودنوت ممن لم يرد على أحد حقا ولم ترد باطلا حين أدناك. وأحببت من حاد الله أوليس بدعائه إياك حين دعاك جعلوك قطبا أداروا بك رحى مظالمهم وجسرا يعبرون عليك إلى بلاياهم وسلما إلى ضلالتهم، داعيا إلى غيهم، سالكا سبيلهم، يدخلون بك الشك على العلماء ويقتادون بك قلوب الجهال إليهم، فلم يبلغ أخص وزرائهم ولا أقوى أعوانهم إلا دون ما بلغت من إصلاح فسادهم واختلاف الخاصة والعامة إليهم. فما أقل ما أعطوك في قدر ما أخذوا منك. وما أيسر ما عمروا لك، فكيف ما خربوا عليك. فانظر لنفسك فإنه لا ينظر لها غيرك وحاسبها حساب رجل مسؤول.

وانظر كيف شكرك لمن غذاك بنعمه صغيرا وكبيرا. فما أخوفني أن تكون كما قال الله في كتابه: " فخلف من بعدهم خلف ورثوا الكتاب يأخذون عرض هذا الأدنى ويقولون سيغفر لنا " إنك لست في دار مقام. أنت في دار قد آذنت برحيل، فما بقاء المرء بعد قرنائه. طوبى لمن كان في الدنيا على وجل، يا بؤس لمن يموت وتبقى ذنوبه من بعده.

احذر فقد نبئت. بادر فقد أجلت. إنك تعامل من لا يجهل. وإن الذي يحفظ عليك لا يغفل. تجهز فقد دنا منك سفر بعيد وداو ذنبك فقد دخله سقم شديد.

ولا تحسب أني أردت توبيخك وتعنيفك وتعييرك ، لكني أردت أن ينعش الله ما [قد] فات من رأيك ويرد إليك ما عزب من دينك وذكرت قول الله تعالى في كتابه: " وذكر فإن الذكرى تنفع المؤمنين ".

أغفلت ذكر من مضى من أسنانك وأقرانك وبقيت بعدهم كقرن أعضب.

أنظر هل ابتلوا بمثل ما ابتليت، أم هل وقعوا في مثل ما وقعت فيه، أم هل تراهم ذكرت خيرا أهملوه (6) وعلمت شيئا جهلوه، بل حظيت (7) بما حل من حالك في صدور العامة وكلفهم بك، إذ صاروا يقتدون برأيك ويعملون بأمرك. إن أحللت أحلوا وإن حرمت حرموا وليس ذلك عندك ولكن أظهرهم عليك رغبتهم فيما لديك، ذهاب علمائهم وغلبة الجهل عليك وعليهم وحب الرئاسة وطلب الدنيا منك ومنهم أما ترى ما أنت فيه من الجهل والغرة وما الناس فيه من البلاء والفتنة، قد ابتليتهم وفتنتهم بالشغل عن مكاسبهم مما رأوا، فتاقت نفوسهم إلى أن يبلغوا من العلم ما بلغت، أو يدركوا به مثل الذي أدركت، فوقعوا منك في بحر لا يدرك عمقه وفي بلاء لا يقدر قدره. فالله لنا ولك وهو المستعان.

أما بعد فأعرض عن كل ما أنت فيه حتى تلحق بالصالحين الذين دفنوا في أسمالهم ، لاصقة بطونهم بظهورهم، ليس بينهم وبين الله حجاب ولا تفتنهم الدنيا ولا يفتنون بها، رغبوا فطلبوا فما لبثوا أن لحقوا. فإذا كانت الدنيا

تبلغ من مثلك هذا المبلغ مع كبر سنك ورسوخ علمك وحضور أجلك، فكيف يسلم الحدث في سنه، الجاهل في علمه المأفون في رأيه ، المدخول في عقله. إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون. على من المعول؟

وعند من المستعتب؟ نشكو إلى الله بثنا وما نرى فيك ونحتسب عند الله مصيبتنا بك.

فانظر كيف شكرك لمن غذاك بنعمه صغيرا وكبيرا، وكيف إعظامك لمن جعلك بدينه في الناس جميلا، وكيف صيانتك لكسوة من جعلك بكسوته في الناس ستيرا، وكيف قربك أو بعدك ممن أمرك أن تكون منه قريبا ذليلا. مالك لا تنتبه من نعستك وتستقيل من عثرتك فتقول. والله ما قمت لله مقاما واحد أحييت به له دينا أو أمت له فيه باطلا، فهذا شكرك من استحملك. ما أخوفني أن تكون كمن قال الله تعالى في كتابه:

" أضاعوا الصلاة واتبعوا الشهوات فسوف يلقون غيا" استحملك كتابه واستودعك علمه فأضعتها، فنحمد الله الذي عافانا مما ابتلاك به والسلام ( Tuhaf al-Uqul 'an Al al-Rasul, pp. 274 – 277 and Ihya al-Ulum, vol. 2, p. 143 ).

[^21] - Sahih Muslim, vol. 5, p. 33 and 34, tradition no. [^2417]: Another version of this tradition is also reported by Muslim. See: Abu Huraira reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was upon the mountain of Hira,' and there were along with him Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman. 'Ali, Talha, 'Zubair, that the mountain stirred; thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said : Be calm, there is none upon you but a Prophet, a Fiddle (the testifier of truth) and a Martyr.(Book 31, Number 5942). Bukhari has also narrated traditions of this kind. See for example:

a) Allah's Apostle ascended the (mountain) of Uhud with Abu Bakr and 'Uthman and it shook. Allah's Apostle said, "Be calm, O Uhud!" I think he stroked it with his foot and added, "There is none on you but a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs." (The two martyrs were Umar and Uthman) (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book 57, Number 46).

b) The Prophet once climbed the mountain of Uhud with Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman. The mountain shook with them. The Prophet said (to the mountain), "Be firm, O Uhud! For on you there are no more than a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs. (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book 57, Number 24)

c) The Prophet ascended the mountain of Uhud and he was accompanied by Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman. The mountain shook beneath them. The Prophet hit it with his foot and said, "O Uhud ! Be firm, for on you there is none but a Prophet, a Siddiq and a martyr. (Vol. 5, Book 57, Number 35)

[^22] - See, al-Shifa and its commentary Nasim al-Riyad, vol. 3, p. [^23] - Al-Du'afa wa al-Matrukun, p. [^51]:

[^24] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 1, pp. 379-[^380]:

[^25] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 1, p. [^280]:

[^26] - Ibid, p. [^281]:

[^27] - Umda al-Qari, vol. 1, p. 8,

[^28] - Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 1, p. 139 and 130, tradition, no, [^113]:

[^29] - Al-Mustadrak als al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 106, tradition, no, [^30] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 5, p. 476 and Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 8, p. [^31] - Tadrib al-Rawi, vol. 1, pp. 278 and [^279]:

[^32] - Al-Mustadrala al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 616, tradition, no. [^33] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 3, p. 18 and Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 3, p. [^34] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 8, pp. 307-[^309]: See also other Sunni sources.

[^35] -Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 6, p. [^79]:

[^36] - Ibid, vol. 4, p. [^434]:

[^37] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 3, pp. 110 and [^111]:

[^38] - Ibid, vol. 5, p. 201 and [^202]: Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 4, p. 103 and 104.

[^39] - Fayd al-Qadir, vol. 5, p. [^589]:

[^40] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 6, p. 372, Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 9, p. 452, Taqrib al-Tahdib, vol. 2, p. [^174]:

[^41] - Al-Mughni fi al-Du'afa, vol. 2, p. [^388]:

[^42] - See the above mentioned works and also al-Mizan, vol. 5, p. 504 and Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 4, pp. 589-[^590]:

[^43] - Fayz al-Qadir, vol. 1, p. [^589]:

[^44] - Al-Mustadrak al al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 103, tradition, no. [^45] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 1, pp. 253 and [^254]:

[^46] - Talkhis al-Mustadr ala al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. [^97]:

[^47] - Sunan Abu Dawood, vol. 3, pp. 213 -214, tradition, no. [^4636]:

[^48] - Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, tradition, no. [^4439]:

[^49] - Ibid, vol. 3, p. 109, tradition, no. [^4551]:

[^50] - Majma'a al-Zawaed, vol. 9, p. 51 and Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 11, p. [^51] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 8, p. [^97]:

[^52] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 5, pp. 349-[^351]:

[^53] - Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 1, p.293, tradition no. [^33099]:

[^54] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 3, p. 2:

[^55] - Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 3, p. [^113]:

[^56] - Al-Khasaes al-Kubra, vol. 2, p. [^438]:

[^57] - Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 9, pp. 340 and [^341]:

[^58] - Umda al-Qari, vol. 16, pp. 176 -[^177]:

[^59] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 3, pp. 434 and [^435]:

[^60] - LIsan al-Mizan, vol. 3, pp. 227 and [^228]:

[^61] - It has to mentioned that Musnad Abd al-Wahhab Kilabi contains Musnad Demishq.

[^62] - Tarikah Baghadad, vol. 9, p. [^348]:

[^63] - Al-Mawdu'at, vol. 1, pp. 301 and [^302]:

[^64] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 1, pp. 301 and [^302]:

[^65] - Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 3, pp. 238 and [^239]:

[^66] = Ibid, p. [^250]:

[^67] - The army that was dispatched to Tabuk is called Jaish al-Usra. This is because this army was dispatched at a time of prevalence of famine, drought and scarcity of food.

[^68] - Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 5, p. 297, tradition, no. [^3798]:

[^69] - Al-Jami'a al-Saghir, vol. 2, p. 9, tradition, no. [^4412]:

[^70] - Tahdib al-Tahdib, vol. 10, p. [^63]:

[^71] - Al-Ilal al-Mutanahiya, vol. 1, pp. 255 and [^256]:

[^72] - Mizan al-Itidal, vol. 6, p. [^386]:

[^73] - Fayz al-Qadir, vol. 4, p. [^25]:

[^74] - Ta'arikh Baghadad, vol. 5, p. [^207]:

[^75] - Al-Mawdu'at, vol. 1, p. [^251]:

[^76] - Mizan al-itidal, vol. 5, p. [^144]:

[^77] - Al-Lu'ali al-Masnu'a, vol. 1, pp. 292 and [^293]:

[^78] - Al-Mawdu'at, vol. 1, pp. 302 and [^303]:

[^79] - Mizan al-Itidal, vo. 1, pp. 160 and [^161]:

[^80] - Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 1, p. [^169]: