6. CONCLUSION

As discussed, there has been a shifting paradigm from state to human security. Yet, the dilemma continues as who are responsible to promote security to the people. In other words, the idea of human security does not ignore the importance of state entities. Rather, it holds the perspective that in the long run human security is essential to the well-being of the state itself. One entity cannot exist in a sustainably secure state of being without the other.  When the people of a country suffer from a lack of safety, health, and overall well-being - in other words, when as individuals and groups they do not experience a state of being secure- then the country as a whole, including its sovereignty and ability to protect against outside threats, is put at risk. When there is poor health among the populace-not only their physical and mental health, but also poor economic and social health- then the health of the nation itself is also threatened. Providing protection and security to the people is thus seen as an essential means of providing security to the state.

The human security approach tells us that peace can no longer be defined as the absence of war. What is more important is the quality of life for people. The contribution of religion, in this paper - Islam, has helped to empower human (ummah). It also suggests that ummah is about the survival of people (human race). Thus, it is concluded that human security is universal because it cuts across national boundaries, etc. Malaysia’ Islam Hadhari provides one of the empirical evidences about the important roles played by religion in human security thus help to bridge the gap between the western concept of human security and the Asian concept of human security.