His Birth and His Death

His Birth:

Traditionalists and historians know that al- Sâdiq, peace be on him, was born on the seventeen the of Rabi’ al- Awal in the year 80 (A.H.) or in the year 83 (A.H.) Both years are famous for them.

But, we have already mentioned that al- Sâdiq, peace be on him, one time, said to al- Manstir:” Now, I am over seventy years of age.” It was reported on the authority of Mohammed b. al- RabT’, the chamberlain of alMansflr, when he brought him at night to al- Mansür and he said about him:” He was over seventy years of age.” Al- Majlisy, may his grave be fragrant, reported on the authority of Mohammed b. Sa’ id, who said:” He (al- Sâdiq), peace be on him, died at the age of seventy- one.” This report, as you see, does not suit the second report, nor the first one, because they agreed that he was died in the year 148 (A.H.).

So his birth was three years or more before the year 80 (A.H.).

For this reason, there are three reports about his death; the middle of them is the report of 80 years of age. And maybe this report is the first of them.

His Death:

It was said: Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, died on the twenty- fifth of Shawal. And it was said: in the middle of Rajab. The first report is more famous. The historians of the two parties (Sunna and ShVa) agreed that he died in the year 148 (A.H.) as we have already said.

Also the ShT’te writers agreed that al- MansUr assassinated him with poison. It was said that the poison was in the grapes. Also al- Kaf’amy mentioned that in his book ‘al- Musbah.’

Also some Sunni writers have mentioned his death with poison in their books such as Is’âful Raghibin, Nur al- Absâr, Tadhkiratul Khawas, alSwâ’iqul Muhriqa, and so on.

During Death:

When al- Sadiq, peace be on him, was about to die, he ordered some men to bring all his relatives. When they came and sat around him, he opened

his eyes and said:” Indeed, our intercession will not include those who scorn the prayers.”[1]

And this shows us that al- Sadiq, peace be on him, gave great importance to prayers. The hours of death did not busy our Imam, peace be on him, from this advice. That is because he was the Imam who paid a great attention to the affairs of the Muslim community to guide it to righteousness till the last breath of his life. And the prayers were the most important thing for which he drew the attention of Muslims.

I think that al- Sâdiq, peace be on him, ordered his relatives to go on praying because people would depend on them in getting righteousness and guidance. So, his will would be stronger on their tongues and because they were the family of the prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. In other Words, he ordered his relatives to go on praying so as not to depend on the intercession of the Prophet because of their nearness from him even if they neglected some rules of the Islamic Law. So, al- Sadiq wanted to draw their attention to the point that their nearness from the Prophet did not avail them unless they carried out the obligations of Allah.

Al- Sâdiq’s wife, Urn Harnida,[2] was astonished at that condition because death did not make him forget this advice. So, she wept when she remembered his condition.[3]

Also during death, al- Sâdiq, peace be on him divided his property among his blood relatives. Moreover, he gave al- Hasan b. al- Aftas seventy dinars. So, his woman slave, Salima said to him:” Why do you give the man who wanted to kilt you with the sword?” He said:” Do you want me not to be among those about whom Allah, the Great and Almighty, said:” And those who join that which Allah has bidden to be joined and have awe of their Lord and fear the evil reckonin.”[4]

“Yes, Salima, Allah has created Paradise and made its smell good, its smell is found from the march of two thousand years, and those who disobey their parents and abandon their blood relatives do not find its smelt.’ [5]

Also this guides us to the importance of keeping close relations with our blood relatives after the prayers. Al- Sâdiq explained the dangers of the abandonment of the blood relatives.

1 Bihar al- Anwar: 47/2/5. Mahasin al- Barqy: 1/80.
2 She was the mother of al- K5zim, peace be on him.
3 Mahasin Al- Barqy: 1/80/6.
4 Al- Ra’d: 21.
5 Al- Manaqib: 4/273. Al- Shaykh al- Tusy, Al- Ghayba, 128.

Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, not only urged Muslims to keep close relations with their blood relatives but also urged them to keep such relations with those who want to kill them. These are the high, Prophetic ethics.

After Death:

After al- Sadiq, peace be on him, had died, his son al- Kazim, peace be ott him, shrouded him with two garments from Shata,’[1] which he wore when he performed the hajj, with a shirt of his, with a turban belonged to ‘Ali b. al- Husayn (peace be on him), and with a garment which he bought for forty dinars.[2]

al- Kazim ordered a man to tight the house where Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, lived till he was sent to Iraq as Abu Abd Allah, peace be on him, had done before in the house where his father al- Bâqir, peace be on him, hived.[3]

When al- Sadiq, peace be on him, was carried on his bed and was taken out of his house to be buried at al- BaqT’ (graveyard), Abu Hurayra[4] said:” I (the author) say: And they already began to carry him on the upper part of their BACKs and the shoulders of his carriers. Do you know what are you carrying to the ground?”

A Rock felt off the lofty top of a hillrise.

Al- Sâdiq, peace be on him, was buried at al- Baqi’ (graveyard). He was buried near his father al- Baqir and his grandfathers al- Hasan and Zayn at‘Abidin. He was the last Imam to be buried at al- BaqT’ because his Sons were buried in Iraq except al- Rida, who was buried in Khorasلn.

His Kunya and His Surname:

His Kunya was Abu Abd Allah, Abu Isrna’Tt, and Abu Mflsa. The first Kunya was the most famous one. He was surnamed al- Sâdiq, al- Fâdit, atQâ’lm, al- Kâfit, al- Munjy, and the like. The first surname was the most famous one.

His grandfather Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, surnamed him al- Sadiq. The report about this surname has been mentioned in many books such as al- Kharâ’it Wal- Jarâ’ih, al- Bihâr, vol.11, Kifayatut Athar by ‘Ati b. Mohammed b. ‘Ati al- Khazaz. In the last book, the author has mentioned a tong tradition concerning the surname ‘al-

1   A village in Egypt.
2   Al-Kafi 1/475/8.
3   Ibid
4   Apparently, He was al- ‘Ajaly. Bin SharUshtlb regarded him as one of the combatant poets of aid al Bayt.

Sadiq’ on the authority of Abu Hurayra on the authority of the companions of the Prophet, may Allah btess him and his family, who said:” And Altah will bring out the wortd of the truth and the tongue of truthfulness from his BACKbone namely the BACKbone of Mohammed al- Bftqir.” So, b. Mas’fld said to him:” Allah’s Prophet, what is his name?” He (the Prophet) said:” He will be catted Ja’far. He wilt be truthful in his words and actions. Whoever defames him is like him who defames me. And whoever disobeys him isjust like him who disobeys me.”

He (al- Sadiq) was very famous for this surname. So, it became like the name for him. It was enough to mention this surname instead of his real name. People knew him when one called with this surname. For this reason we have made this surname (i.e. al-Sftdiq) the title of our book.

Also his Kunya Abu Abd Allah became as a name for him. It is enough to mention it in stead of his real name and his surname, especially in the traditions.

His Characteristics:

In the book ‘al- Manaqib’, about the characteristics of al- Sadiq, bin ShahrfishUb said:” He (al- Sadiq), peace be on him, was of medium height, of bright face, of black curly hair, of tong nose, of little hair in both sides of the forehead, and of soft skin. There was a black mole on his cheek. And there was redness on his body.

His Visitation:

There is a great reward for the person who visits the believer in Allah whether this believer is living or dead, as many traditions denote that. So, the reward for the person who visits Amir al- Mu’minin is greater. Moreover, to visit the graves of the prophets and of their successors is to commemorate them, to praise their favor, to unite the hearts for them, and to urge people to follow their acts. That is what all the wise of nations hail to commemorate the laudable deeds of the great figures and to renew the memory of their favors and to urge people to follow their example. Besides, to visit the graves of the Prophet and the Imams is to embody the Laws of Allah, the Exalted, which are of the piety of the hearts.

There are two kinds of tradition about the reward which the person gets when he visits his grave: traditions about the visitation of the graves of the Imams in general and traditions about the visitation of the grave of alSadiq in particular.

The first kind of traditions is very many. Some of them are:

Al- RidS, peace be on him, said:” Indeed there is a promiSe between every Imam and his followers. To fulfill this promise is to visit their

graves. So, whoever visits their graves with good intention, they will be his intercessors on the Day of Resurrection.”’[1]

Imam ‘Ali, peace be on him, said:” Complete (your hajj) with the visitation of (the grave) of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, when you go to the Scared House, for to leave it is estrangement. And Allah has ordered to do that. And complete (your haaj) with the visitation of the graves which Allah has ordered you to visit and to seek livelihood near them.”[2]

Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, said:” Whoever visits the Imam whose obedience is a must and grays four ruk’as near his grave, Allah wilt write hajj and ‘Umra for him.”[3] And there are many traditions of this kind. The writers of the books of the visitations have mentioned many of them.

Also the second kind of tradition is very many. Some of them are:

Al- Sadiq, peace be on him, said:” Whoever visits me, Allah wilt forgive him his sins and never dies poor.”[4]

Al- ‘Askary, peace be on him, said:” Whoever visits Ja’far or his father, his eye will never complain (of any illness), no illness will hit him, and wilt not die inflicted.”[5]

* * * * * * * *

1 Wasa’iI Al- Shi’a: 5/253/5.
2 Ibid: 5/255/10.
3 Ibid: 5/260/25.
4 Al- Shaykh al- Mufid, aI- Muqni’a, 73.
5 Wasa’il al- Shi’a: 5/426.