Chapter fatah, the 48th chapter of the Holy Quran is Madani. As you know that there are two types of chapters (Suras) in the Holy Quran:
1- The chapters that were revealed before the migration of the Holy prophet SAWW to the city of Medina. These are called “Mecci Suras”.
2- Those that were revealed after the migration, are called Medani Suras.
Chapter Fatah which has 29 verses was revealed when the Holy Prophet SAWW after signing the Peace Pact with his enemies at Hodaibiyah (a place at the outskirts of Mecca on its way to Jeddah), was on His way back to Medina. After fighting bitter wars with the people of Mecca in 6 Hijra, he saw in a dream that He is visiting the House of Allah, performing Umra in His House in Mecca, along with a group of His companions and they have no fear of their enemies in their heart. The Holy prophet (PBUH) declared that besides all His enmity with the infidels of Mecca he is going to perform Umra and the Muslims should accompany him. He invited people from the neighboring villages to join Him for the pilgrimage. Many village Bedouins refused to join Him, claiming that Mohammed and His companions wanted to get them into an armed clash with the people of Mecca who were superior to them in terms of weapons and power. They believed that Muslims would not come back alive. Hence the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was able to bring with Himself, only a group of 14,00 people. They all were dressed as pilgrims and had nothing with themselves except a sword and sacrifices. When the people of Mecca received news about the Prophet’s journey they pledged to debar the Holy Prophet (PBUH) from entering into Mecca and declared war against Him. When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was informed that the enemy troops are awaiting Him on His way to Mecca he searched for another way and finally stationed His people at Hodaibiyah, now known as Shumaisiyy, with the determination that he will enter the House of Allah without shedding a single drop of blood. The Holy prophet (PBUH) involved them in negotiations and finally made a peace pact to shun the war for ten years. When he was on His way back home, He was reminded of a great victory, Fatah al-Mobin in the form of revelations.Now the point of discussion is the meaning of the word Fatah al-Mobeen” which is being highlighted in this chapter, and its literal meaning is to manifest victory, which refers to the conquest of Mecca that happened in 8 Hijra, or it refers to the peace treaty of Hodaibiyah in 6 Hijra.
Hence, you will notice two different statements:
Conquest of Mecca
Peace treaty of Hodaibiyah
Allamah Tabatabai, a prominent commentator, writes in his famous commentary, “Al-Mizan” that all the events that have been highlighted in this chapter are someway related to the peace treaty of Hodabia. For example:
1- We see blocking the entry to Mecca by the people of Mecca.
2- Refusal of the people of the suburbs of Medina from going along with the Prophet Mohammed PBUH for performing umra in 6,Hijra.
3-Pledge of Ridwan, an oath declared by the companions of the Prophet Mohammed PBUH under an acacia tree.
Allama Tabatabi’s explanation seems reliable and the other view is not reliable as not a single verse of this chapter refers to the conquest of Mecca; nor does any verse hint about an event that will take two years in future.
Before going into the details I would like to give you the list of Scholars and narrators that support the idea that the true victory in Islam is the peace treaty of Hodaibiyah.
1- Aloosi Baghdadi in Rooh al- maani
2- Jarir Tabari Tafsir-e- Tabari
3- Hafiz Ibn-e-Kasir Tafsir Ibn-e-Kasir
4- Allamah Baghawi Tafsir Ibn-e- Baghawi
5- Allamah Al-Shaukani Fatah Al-Qadeer
6- Thaalibi maliki jawahir Al-Hisaan
7- AlaUddin Al-Baghdadi Tafsir Al-Khazin
8- Abu Ishaq Thalabi Al-Kashf Wal bayan
9- Hashim Bahrani Al-Borhan Fi Tafsir Al-Quran
10- Allamah Qortobi Al Jamay Lay tafsir Al-Quran
11- Abu zaid maliki Tafsir Saalibi
12- Ali ibn-e-Ibrahim Tafsir Al-Qommi
13- Shiekh Al-Haweezi Tafsir noor Al- thaqalain
14-Allamah Naqi naqvi Fasl Al-Khitab
15-Allama Nasir makarim Tafsir-e- namoona
16-Allamah TabaTabai Al-Mizan
17- Mufti shafi Maarif Al-Quran