Conclusion

In this work, we have shown that the existence of al-Badaa plays a central role in our way of expecting al-Qa'im (PBUH). Due to the possibility of Badaa, the signs foretold are subject to change, the Imam (PBUH) may reappear at any moment, and our good actions and supplications for the early arrival of the Imam (PBUH) may be answered.

Having faith in al-Badaa by Allah, everyone will keep himself ready all the time to receive the Imam (PBUH).

According to the traditions, awaiting al-Qa'im (PBUH) at any moment is the best deed and the most significant act after the recognition of the Imam (PBUH) and his rights.

Moreover, Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) have urged us to pray to Allah to make the advent of al-Qa'im (PBUH) smooth and to lessen the hardships prior and during his mission. Such instructions are meaningful only when alteration of the characteristics and the time of the aforementioned signs and events are possible.

The signs were not given for the purpose of predicting the time of reappearance, or for encouraging people to search the scientific data to estimate the time of the occurrence of the sign itself. In fact, all the mentioned signs before his arrival may happen miraculously in an unpredictable manner. They remind people only after they occur miraculously.

Once a sign occurs, the believers will realize that it was among the signs foretold, and thus, their faith will be strengthened and their confidence in the coming relief will increase. Moreover, before their occurrence, these prophecies should urge the believers to turn to Allah and supplicate to Him with the hope that He may alleviate or cancel the decreed difficult situations and accommodate an easy and early relief.

Thus, such warnings are, ipso facto constructive if people properly react to them by turning to Allah before the actual manifestation of the signs, instead of trying to predict the time of the occurrence of the signs and waiting for them to happen.

According to the traditions, once Allah allows Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) to reappear, all people around the world, believers and disbelievers likewise, will become aware of him immediately without any ambiguity or doubt. He will be supported by Allah and thus will not need any hidden agenda as apposed to the impostors during the time occultation.

As we discussed, the opposition against Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) is not due to people's failure in identifying him; rather it is due to their disbelief in the original laws of the religion, their overlooking of the transmitted traditions, and their following man-made ideas and opinions in the domain of religion.

If the Imam (PBUH) has not yet started his mission, it is not because certain signs did not take place, but because people have deserted the teachings of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) and have hope in other alternative solutions for their problems. Allah has assigned for people a leader who is ready to relieve them, but they have turned away from him and abandoned him.

The only solution for an early relief is that people of the world come to the understanding that they should turn to Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) and their instructions, which are available to us in the form of Hadith, so that Allah may waive the remaining time of occultation (al- Ghaiba). In the second part of this work, we enumerated some of the instructions of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT) that would help an early relief.

Acting upon these commandments, inter alia, prepares us, makes us worthy of receiving Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH), and paves the way for the implementation of the kingdom of justice over the earth, by leave of Allah.

As discussed, the best and the most important act for the believers after recognition of the Imam (PBUH) is to wait for divine relief. This is the most vrituous struggle (Jihad) and is considered one of the requirements of faith according to the traditions.

The very act of waiting for divine relief is one of the greatest manifestations of relief in our personal lives even before the time of the manifestation of universal relief.

The condition of continuous waiting should be viewed as a major goal in the life of this world, not a secondary or circumstantial issue. Allah wants His servants to realize that they should put all their hope in Him, implore Him for the relief, and constantly expect the relief only through His hand (i.e., the Imam (PBUH)).

A person faithfully living in expectation of Imam al-Mahdi (PBUH) works constantly at improving his spiritual state by acting upon the instructions of Ahl al-Bait (PBUT). Maintaining this state guarantees salvation and growing this behavior in the societies will eventually make people worthy of the universal relief.

… O Allah! Make me of his helpers, ? assistants, adherents, and followers.

Show me what the family of the Muhammad wish and what their enemies are afraid.

Amen, O the Lord of truth, O the possessor of majesty and bounty, O the most merciful![^1]

[^1]The last part of the supplication after Ziyarat Aal-e-Yasin, Which is a Qudsi Hadith narrated by Imam al- Mahdi (PBUH). See Mafatih al-Jinan, p. 525 (The first Ziyarat of Sahib al-Amr); Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 53, p. 173.

Indices:

Cited Verses of the Quran 2:98

Gabriel and Michael, and Allah is the enemy of the disbelievers. 39

2:148 Wherever you are, Allah shall bring you together. Certainly Allah has power over all things.28

Surely, Allah shall never fail to keep the promised event.

5

Say, 'If you truly love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. For Allah is forgiving, most merciful.'"40 and the orphans 37

And the Jews said, "The hand of Allah is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, His hands are outstretched.10

5:101 O you who believe! Ask not questions about things which, if made plain to you, may cause your dislike.26

6:42 Before you We sent towards many nations, and We afflicted them with suffering and adversity, that they might beseech (Us) in humility.49

6:158 ... On the day that certain signs of your Lord do come, no one would benefit from believing in (that sign) if he did not believe (in that) before, or such belief is no good for him. Say, "Wait! We too are waiting."21

Satans guardians for those who do not to believe.

You await and I too am awaiting

7:128 The earth is Allah's. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills, and the end is for the watchful.4

7:187 None but He shall manifest it at its time. It is heavy for the heavens and the earth. It will not come to you except suddenly.14

8:5

Just as your Lord ordered you out of your house in truth.

51

But Allah was not to punish them while you were among them; nor was He to punish them while they ask for forgiveness.11 But what plea have they that Allah should not punish them when they keep out (men) from the Sacred Mosque?11

(Their manner) is like the manner of the People of Pharaoh and of those before them. They rejected the Signs of Allah, and Allah caught them for their sins; for Allah is strong and strict in punishment.

That is because Allah will never change the bounty that He hath bestowed on a people until they change that which is in their souls (from obedience to disobedience), and (that is) because Allah is He Who hears and knows (all things).50

If there are twenty tolerant among you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred (like them) among you, they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve.12

Now, Allah lightened your (burden) for He knew that there is a weakness in you. Thus, if there are a hundred tolerant among you, they will overcome two hundred, and if there are a thousand (like them) among you, they will overcome two thousands by leave of 12Allah. And Allah is with those who are patient.

10:98 Why had not there been a township (among those We decreed to destroy) whose people would accept faith so that their faith should have profited them, except for the People of Jonah (Yunus)? When they believed, We removed from them the chastisement of ignominy in the life of this world, and permitted them to enjoy (their life) for a while.12

11:93 and watch for I too am watching with you 44

13:39 Allah erases whatever He wills and establishes (likewise), and with Him is the Mother-Book.10

14:19- If He so wills, He removes you and brings in a new Creation. Nor is 20that (at all) difficult for Allah.11

16:1

The command of Allah came. Therefore, do not hasten it

51

17:71 On the day that We shall call every group with their (respective) Imam.32

17:108 Glory to our Lord! Truly the promise of our Lord is a fulfilled one! 18:29 Thus let him who will, believe (it), and let him who will, reject (it). 21:37 Man is a creature of haste. I shall soon show you My signs. So hasten not!51

21:105 And indeed We wrote in the Psalm (Zabur) after the reminder that My righteous servants shall inherit the earth.4

22:47 And Allah shall never break His promise.

5

24:55 Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers on earth as He made rulers before them, that He will most certainly establish for them their religion that He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange. They worship Me and they do not associate anything with Me.4

25:77 My Lord would have not concerned Himself with you if it were not for your call (upon Him).13

28:68 Your Lord creates whatever He wills, and He chooses. No choice have they (in creation or in leadership as per traditions). Glory to Allah! And far is He above the partners they ascribe!10

30:41 Corruption prevailed on the land and the sea because of what men's 47hand have earned.

Allah has not assigned unto any man two hearts within his body

38

He increases in the creation what He wills, for Allah has power over 11all things. 35:11 Nor is an individual's life prolonged, nor does anything decrease from his life span, except that it is (made appear) in a book. Verily, all this is easy for Allah.11

35:16- If He so wills, He removes you and brings in a new Creation. Nor is 17that (at all) difficult for Allah.11 40:60 Call on Me so that I answer you.

But Allah has made you love the Faith and has made it beautiful in your hearts, and He has made you hate disbelief, wickedness, and rebellion. Such indeed are those who grow in righteousness40 Verily that which you are promised is true.

51:54 So turn away from them, and you are not blameworthy 51:55 And remind, for reminding benefits the believers. 55:29 Every day He brings in a (new) matter/situation.

57:17 Know that Allah shall give life to the earth after its death!

58:22 You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, but love those who opposed Allah and His Apostle, even though they were their fathers, their sons, their brothers, or their kindred...39 They love those who migrate towards them

40

Then, when it is knocked in Naqur, that day will be a tough day, far 15from easy for the disbelievers.

Cited Shi'a References

al-Amali (1 vol., 680 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al-Saduq (d. 381 AH)......................................................71

al-Amali (1 vol., 737 pg.), Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi (d. 460 AH) 69, 77

37,

al-Ghaiba (1 vol., 314 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Ja'far al-Nu'mani (d. 418 AH)12, 16, 37, 44, 50, 52, 54, 58, 82, 92, 95, 96

al-Ghaiba (1 vol., 479 pg.), Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Tusi (d. 460 AH) 28, 48, 54, 85, 95

13,

al-Ihtijaj (1 vol., 500 pg.), Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib al-Tabresi (d. ~550 AH) ....................................46, 48, 52, 65, 84, 85

al-Irshad (2 vol., 737 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nu'man al-Mufid (d. 413 AH)................................................13, 45

al-Kafi (8 vol., 4340 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ya'qub Ibn Is'haq al-Kulaini (d. 329 AH)13, 24, 28, 42, 47, 54, 58, 59, 62, 69, 73, 76, 80, 95, 96

al-Khisal (1 vol., 652 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al- Saduq (d. 381 AH)...........................................79

al-Mahasin (1 vol., 644 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Khalid al-Burqi (d. 274 AH) 73 al-Tawhid (1 vol., 444 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al- Saduq (d. 381 AH)...........................................24

Bihar al-Anwar (107 vol., 38942 pg.), Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi (d. 1110 AH)12, 13, 15, 16, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 89, 90, 92, 95, 96, 99, 103

Ilal al-Sharaye' (1 vol., 610 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al-Saduq (d. 381 AH).......................................47

Jamal al-Usbu' (1 vol., 541 pg.), Sayyid Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Ja'far Ibn Tawus (d. 664 AH) ...........................................................92

Kamal al-Din (1 vol., 681 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al- Saduq (d. 381 AH)31, 39, 41, 42, 43, 48, 52, 61, 64, 80, 84, 85 Kanz al-Fawa'id (2 vol., 588 pg.), Abu al-Futuh Muhammad Ibn Ali Karajaki (d. 449 AH)......................................................75

Ma'ani al-Akhbar (1 vol., 413 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al-Saduq (d. 381 AH).......................................60

Mafatih al-Jinan (1 vol., 603 pg.), Shaikh Abbas al-Qummi (d. 1359 AH) 92, 99, 103 89,

Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih (4 vol., 2191 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Babwaih al-Qummi al-Saduq (d. 381 AH)......64

Mustadrak al-Wasa'il (18 vol., 8571 pg.), Mira Husain al-Nuri (d. 1320 AH) 61, 72, 73, 75, 90

Mustadrak Safinat al Bihar (10 vol., 5436 pg.), Shaikh Ali al-Namazi (d. 1384 AH) ..................................................................60 Nahj al-Balagha (1 vol., 185 pg.), Sayyid Muhammad Ibn Husain al-Radhi (d.

406 AH) .....................................................62, 97 Qurb al-Isnad (1 vol., 175 pg.), Abdullah Ibn Ja'far Himyari al-Qummi (d. ~310 AH) ............................................................77, 81 Tafsir al-Ayyashi (2 vol., 741 pg.), Muhammad Ibn Mas'ud Ibn Muhammad al- Ayyashi (d. 320 AH) ...........................35, 39, 90

Tafsir al-Imam (1 vol., 677 pg.), pupils of Imam Hasan al-Askari (PBUH) (d. 260 AH) ...........................................................68

Tafsir al-Qummi (2 vol., 843 pg.), Ali Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Hashim al-Qummi (d. 307 AH) ...............................................35, 39, 70

Tafsir Furat (1 vol., 577 pg.), Furat Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Furat al-Kufi (d. ~300 AH) .........................................................................72

Ta'wil al-Ayat al-Dhahira (1 vol., 825 pg.), Sayyid Ali al-Husain al-Astarabadi (d. 940 AH)................................................70, 95

Tuhaf al-Uqul (1 vol., 515 pg.), Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Sh'uba al-Harrani (d. ~360 AH)..............................................78, 79

Uddat al-Da'i (1 vol., 329 pg.), Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Fahd al-Hilli (d. 841 AH) ...........................................................23

Wasa'il al-Shia (29 vol., 14000 pg.), Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Hurr al-'Amili (d. 1104 AH)............................59, 60, 64, 71, 74

Cited Sunni References

al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa (1 vol.), Ibn Hajar al-Haithami al-Makki (d. 974 AH) 25 Musnad (6 vol.), Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 241 AH)25 Sahih (5 vol.), Muhmmad Ibn Isa al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 AH) Sunan (2 vol.), Muhammad Ibn Yazid Ibn Maja (d. 273 AH)

Sunan (2 vol.), Abu Dawud, Sulaiman Ibn Ash'ath al-Sajistani (d. 275 AH) 9 Tafsir Durr al-Manthur (8 vol.), Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abi Bakr al-Suyuti (d. 911 AH) ----------------------------------------------9, 25

Cited Traditions by the Infallibles' Names

1 Abu al-Qasim, Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah (PBUH&HF), The Apostle of Allah (52 BH ~ 11 AH)8, 25, 63, 64, 67, 69, 73, 74, 78

2 Abu al-Hasan, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (PBUH), al-Murtadha (23 BH ~ 40 AH) 20, 25, 52, 61, 64, 70, 79, 96

6 Abu Muhammad, Ali Ibn al-Husain (PBUH), al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abidin (38 ~ 95 AH) .................................................61, 83, 92

7 Abu Ja'far, Muhammad Ibn Ali (PBUH), al-Baqir (57 ~ 114 AH) 28, 33, 37, 47, 59, 69, 70, 72, 80

8 Abu Abd Allah, Ja'far Ibn Muhammad (PBUH), al-Sadiq (83 ~ 148 AH) 15, 24, 28, 30, 31, 39, 41, 44, 45, 49, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 69, 71, 73, 74, 76, 77, 79, 82, 85, 90, 91, 94, 95, 96

9 Abu Ibrahim, Musa Ibn Ja'far (PBUH), al-Kadhim (128 ~ 183 AH) 23, 78

I0 Abu al-Hasan, Ali Ibn Musa (PBUH), al-Ridha (148 ~ 203 AH) 54, 63, 66, 69, 81

I1 Abu Ja'far, Muhammad Ibn Ali (PBUH), al-Jawad, al-Taqi (195 ~ 220 AH)

.............................................................16, 40, 51 I3 Abu Muhammad, Hasan Ibn Ali (PBUH), al-Askari (232 ~ 260 AH)

42, I4 Abu al-Qasim, Hujjat Ibn al-Hasan (PBUH), al-Qa'im, al-Muntadhar, al- Mahdi (255 AH, alive and awaiting)46, 47, 60, 65, 85, 97, 103