Renouncing the Polytheists
The polytheists, who stuck to worshipping idols, persisted in their belief and in carrying on with their rituals. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) made up his mind to prevent them from performing their rituals around the sacred House of Allah. They had the lewd habit of circumambulating the House stark naked. There was no need by now to allow such obscene practices after the glorious victory of Islam, the destruction of the idols and the acceptance of Islam into Mecca.
In the 9th year of Hijra, during the occasion of hajj, the surah of al-Tawbah was revealed, which eliminated the remaining traces of polytheism and put an end to their presence in Mecca. The Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.) ordered Abu Bakr to communicate the chapter to the remaining polytheists, who would come to perform hajj according to their unpleasant traditional way.
Abu Bakr was half-way to his destination when the Faithful archangel Jibril (a.s.) ascended to order the Messenger (s.a.w.) to send Imam Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.) on the assignment instead. Immediately, the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.) sent a letter to Abu Bakr asking him to hand the first letter, containing al-Tawbah chapter, to Imam Ali (a.s.). Abu Bakr complied with the order of the Prophet (s.a.w.) but sadly returned to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) and asked: "Was something revealed concerning me?"
"No", the Prophet (s.a.w.) replied, "but I was my self ordered to communicate this message, or a man from my household".(103)
Imam Ali(a.s.) headed for Mecca. At Mina, he stopped and recited the holy chapter, then he called at the top of his voice:
"No one is allowed to enter the Ka'ba other than faithful souls nor a naked one is allowed to circumambulate the House. Anyone with whom the Prophet of Allah has made a covenant of amnesty, his covenant is valid right to the end of the stated time. But as for who is without such a covenant make with him a covenant of 4 months time".(l04)
By this announcement the last page of polytheism at Mecca was turned over. The Ka'ba returned to Allah. Inside it, none apart from Allah was served, nor any rites other than Islam's were performed.
EVENT OF MUBAHALAH
After Allah grated a great victory to His Prophet over the Quraish at Mecca that fell without a flight, and then He helped him in the battle of Hunain over the infidels of al-Ta'if, people began to enter the religion of Allah in multitudes with Arab chieftains coming to the Prophet and proclaiming their conversion to Islam.
The Messenger of Allah sent messages to kings and heads of states including the two superpowers of the age, Persia and Byzantine, inviting them to the truth of Islam. Among those invited to the Almighty's final Messenger to mankind, were the Christians of Najran in Yemen, who not only refused to accept Islam but decided to come to Madinah and challenge the Prophet regarding their deviated belief in the Trinity, the crucifixion of Prophet Jesus (a.s.), and their claim that he was the son of Allah.
In Madinah, the Prophet presented them with proofs and facts about Islam and cited references from the previously revealed. Scriptures including the Torah and the Evangel. In the end the two parties decided to meet at an open place and invoke divine curse and punishment upon the lying side.
In response, Allah the Almighty revealed the following verses accepting their challenge for Mubahalah, which means to invoke Allah's curse upon the lying side when two parties are contesting for truth:
"And those that dispute with you concerning this after the knowledge that has come to you, say 'Come now, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us earnestly pray for Allah's curse upon the liars’".
Holy Qur'an (3:60)
The Christian elders came to the venue with their whole flock, and the Prophet as ordered by Allah came with his immediate family-members, namely: daughter Fatimah, son-in law Ali and their two children, Hasan and Hussein. Never had the Christians seen such enlightenment visages before. The moment the Chief-Priest beheld Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.) and his noble family, he was filled with awe. He realized that without doubt truth was with this blessed group of five, and most surely Allah will respond to Muhammad (s.a.w.) and his family' s invocation if they choose to curse and destroy the Christians of Najran.
Thus the Christians backed away from the challenge of Mubalahah, and Wisely came to terms with the Prophet, pledging to pay an annual tribute to the Muslims.