Footnotes

  1. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Ibn Hisham, vol. l, p.205.

  2. Historians gave different dates for the Prophet's birth. Some said he was born on the 17th of the month, while others said on the 12th of it.

  3. The year of the Elephant coincided with the year 570 AD.

  4. Nahj al-Balaghah (Peaks of Eloquence) - Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.), Subhi al-Salih, 1st ed., 1967, p.300.

  5. Bihar al-Anwar (Seas of Lights), Shaikh al-Majlisi, vol. 15, Tehran, p.363.

6&7 Al-Wafa bi-Ahwal al-Mustapha (Detailed Account of the Life of the Chosen Prophet), Ibn al-Jowzi, vol. l, p.133; Al-Bihar vol. 15, p.410.

  1. Historians said that Abdul-Muttalib himself chose his son, Abu-Talib to be the guardian of the Prophet (s.a.w.), even though he was neither his elder son nor the wealthiest, but he was the full brother of Abdullah the father of the Prophet (s.a.w.).

  2. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad (Images from the Life of Muhammad), Amin Duwaidar, Dar al-Ma'arif - Egypt, p.76.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Al-Bihar , vol. 16, p.13; Sirat Ibn Hisham, vol. l, p.201 : al-Hamis (The Margin), 1936.

  6. Many historians agreed that Khadijah was not a virgin when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) took her as his wife. She was, they asserted, forty years old. But many other historians had other versions: Ibn Shahr Ashub in his book, Ahmad al-Baladhari and Abul-Qasim al-Kufi in their books; Al-Murtada in his book al-Shafi (The Curer), and Abu-Ja'far in his book al-Talikhis (Summarization) stressed that the Prophet (s.a.w.) married Khadijah and she was a virgin. In the two books of al-Anwar (The Lights) and al-Bida' (The Innovations) it is mentioned that Ruqayyah and Zainab were, in fact, the daughters of Halah, the sister of Khadijah and not Khadijah's. Many historians claim that Ruqayyah and Zainab were the daughters of Khadijah from her previous husband. As far as her age at the time of marriage is concerned historians differed about it. They put her age at 25, 28, 30, 35, 40 and 45 years. The author of the book Kashf al-Ghummah (Removal of Grief) relates on the authority of Abu-Muhammad Abdul-Aziz al-Janabidhi al-Hanbali the author of Ma'alim al-Itrah al-Nabawiyyah (Milestones of the Prophetical Household), on the authority of Ibn Hammad and Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah married Khadijah when she was 28 year old. Her dowery was fixed at 12 ounces of gold.

  7. A'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda (Informing people of the Guides of Righteousness), al-Tabrisi, p.37.

  8. Fiqh al-Sirah (Understanding the Life of the Prophet), Dr. Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti, p.63 quoting from Sahih Muslim (Muslim's book of traditions).

  9. Ibid. For more information see Suwar min. Hayat Muhammad (Images from the Life of Muhammad), Amin Duwaydar, pp. 90-91.

17 The Al-Fujjar war broke out between the Quraish and its allies on one side and the Hawazin on the other side. It lasted about 20 years. The Prophet (s.a.w.) took part in it.

  1. A type of camel that was highly valued.

  2. Muhammad Rasulullah (s.a.w.) (Muhammad the Messenger of Allah), Muhammad Rida, p.37 al-Kutub al-Arabiyyah publishing house, Beirut,

  3. Tahdhib Sirat Ibn Hisham (Revision of History of Ibn Hisham), Abdul-Salam Harun, 3rd ed., 1964, Cairo, p.41.

  4. A'lam al-Wara, p.36.

  5. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 15, (How divine revelation began).

  6. Al-Mizan Exegesis, vol. 18, research based on traditions about ayah 51 of Surah of al-Shura.

  7. Masnad Ibn Hanbal (Book of Traditions by Ibn Hanbal), vol. 2, p.368: Mustdrak al-Hakim (Revision of al-Hakim), vol. 4, p.336; Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh (The complete Book of History); Ibn al-Athir, vol. 2, p.22. al-Istia'b (Comprehension), vol. 2, p.459, and many other books.

  8. Al-Kamil, vol. 2, p.24. al-Bihar, vol. 18, p.164. Fiqh al-Sirah, Sheikh Muhammad al-Ghazali, p.102.

25&26. This tradition is related by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan (Practices) and al-Dala'il (The Signs); Al-Tha'labi and al-Tabari in their Qur'anic exegesis of Surah of al-Shua'ra'. Al-Tabari in his History, vol. 2, p.217. Ibn al-Athir in al-Kamil, vol. 2, p.22; Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah (Life of the Prophet), vol. l, p.381: Ahmed bin Hanbal, vol. l, p. 11 and p.59; al-Nisa'i in al-Khasa'is (Attributes), p.6, Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, Tradition No. 6008, and other books. It is related in slightly different words.

27&28. Al-Rasul (The Messenger), Sa'id Hawwa, vol. l, pp. 93-94-95.

  1. Sirat al-Rasul (Life of the Messenger), Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili, pp. 41-42.

  2. Ibid.

  3. Al-Tha'labi quoted it, in his exegesis, from Muqatil, Abdullah bin Abbas, al-Qasam bin Mahdarah and Ata' bin Dinar: Also see: Khazanat al-Adab (Treasure of Literature), al-Baghdadi, vol. l, p.261: Tarikh Ibn Kuthayr (History of Ibn Kuthayr), vol. 2, p.42. al-Isabah (The hit), vol. 4, p.116; Al-Mawahib (talents), vol. l, p.61: Al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, vol. l, p.305: Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Zaini Dahlan; Hamish al-Halabiyyah (Margin on the Life of the Prophet), vol. l, p.91 and p.211. Commenteries on Nahj al-Balaghah, Ibn Abul-Hadid, vol. 3, p.306...etc.

  4. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad, p.151.

  5. Ibid, p.157: Sirat al-Rasul, p.43.

  6. Sabil al-Huda wa al-Rashad (Path of Enlightment and Guidance), vol. 2, Ch. 15., p.476.

  7. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad, p.156, quoting from al-Bukhari and Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 18.

  8. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad, p.185. Sirat al-Rasul, pp. 44-45.

  9. Tabaqat Ibn Sa'd (The Groups - Ibn Sa'd), vol. l, p. 173 and p.192. Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 22. al-Rowd al-Anif (The Fresh Garden), vol. l, p.231; Khazanat al-Adab al-Baghdadi, vol. l, p.252; Tarikh Ibn Kuthair. vol. 3, p.84.

  10. In the third year after the rise of the Prophet (s.a.w.) to prophethood. Other dates were also given by historians.

  11. Muhammad Rasul Allah, p. 111. Kashf al-Ghummah, vol. l, p.16; Tarikh at-Tabari, vol. 2, p.222; Tarikh Ibn 'Asakir (History of Ibn 'Asakir), vol. l, p. 284; Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol. 2, p.622; Tarikh Ibn Kuthair, vol. 3, p. 122.

  12. Al-Wafa bi-Ahwal al-Mustafa, vol. 1. p.311; Sirat Ibn Hisham, vol. 3, p.60.

  13. Muhammad Rasul Allah, p.113.

  14. A'lam al-Wara bi-'Alam al-Huda.

  15. Al-Wafa bi-Ahwal al-Mustafa, vol. l, p.334. al-Mizan Exegesis, vol. 9, Surah of al-Anfal.

  16. Ibid.

  17. I'lam al-Wara bi 'Alam al-Huda, p.59.

  18. Al-Mizan Exegesis. Research based on traditions. vol. 9, pp. 79.

  19. Ibid, p.81.

  20. Ibid, p.80.

  21. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, pp. 107-109; Rawdat al-Kafai (Garden of al-Kafi), p.339.

  22. A'yan al-Shi'a (Outstanding Shi'ite Personalities), vol. 3, 3rd ed., p.155.

  23. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19. Rawdat al-Kafi, p.339.

  24. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Ibn Hisham, vol. l, p.145.

  25. The Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.) married Um Salamah after the death of her husband in Madinah.

  26. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Ibn Hisham, vol. 2, p. 112-113.

  27. Al-Wafa bi-Ahwal al-Mustafa (Detailed Accounts of the Chosen Prophet), Ibn al-Jawzi, vol. l, p.254.

  28. Bihar al-Anwar (Seas of Lights), Sheikh al-Majlisi, vol. 19, pp. 124-125.

  29. Muhammad Rasul Allah (Muhammad the Messenger Of Allah), Muhammad Rida, p.136.

  30. Muhammad al-Mathal al-Kamil (Muhammad the Perfect Example), Muhammad Jad al-Mawla, p.313, Beirut-1972.

  31. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Dahlan, vol. 2, p.150 " Fraternization of the Muhajirin and the Ansar".

  32. Sahih al-Tirmithi (Al-Tirmithi's Book of Traditions), vol. 2, p.299, on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar; Mustadrak al-Sahihain (Revision of the Authentic Two Books of Traditions), vol. 3, p.14.; Al-Riyad (The Gardens), al-Muhib al-Tabari, vol. 2, p.167; Al-Tabaqat (The Classes), vol. 3, part 1, p.13. For more information see: Fada'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah (Excellences of the Five i.e. the Prophet (s.a.w ), Fatimah, Ali, Hassan and Hussein (upon whom be the blessings of Allah) from the six Books of Traditions), vol. l, pp. 318-333, Sayyid al-Fayruzabadi.

  33. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, p.130; Al-Mizan (Exegesis of Qur'an), vol. 9, Surah of al-Anfal, p.142. A research based on traditions, p.143.

  34. Al-Rasul (The Messenger of Allah), Sa'id Hawwah, vol. l, 3rd ed., p.223. al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan, p.170.

  35. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad (Images from the Life of Muhammad), p.264. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan, p.175.

  36. Vol. 2, pp. 147-148.

  37. Lamahat fi al-Thaqafal al-Islamiyyah (Glimpses from Islamic culture), Umar Awda al-Khatib, p.287, 1st edition, 1973, Beirut.

  38. Tamarisk's embres remain red-hot for a long time

  39. Al-Haras is a kind of bush with long thorns.

  40. Al-Bihar, vol. 19, p.218; Al-Mizan, exegesis of the surah of al-An'fal.

  41. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyya (Life of the Prophet), Ibn Hisham, vol. 3, p. 68.

  42. Al-Irshad, Sheikh al-Mufid, p.56, al-Haidariyyah press, Najaf, 3rd ed., 1973.

  43. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Dahlan, vol. 2, pp. 67; Al-Irshad, Shaikh al-Mufid, p.58.

  44. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 2, pp. 6-7. "Expedition of al-Khandaq."

  45. Ibid.

  46. Mustadrak al-Sahihayn (Supplement to the Two Authentic Books of Traditions), vol. 2, p.32, on the authority of Sufyan al-Thawri. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi related it also in Tarikh Baghdad (History of Baghdad), vol. 13, p.19.

  47. Fiqh al-Sirah (Understanding the Life of the Prophet (s.a.w.)), al-Ghazali, p. 330.

  48. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad (Images from the Life of Muhammad), Amin Duwaidar, p.429. And Fqh al-Sirah, al-Ghazali, p.330.

77 See "Suwar min Hayat Muhammad", p.453 and al-Sirah, Dahlan, vol. 2, p.8, and al-Sirah, Ibn Husham, and other books.

  1. Sirat al-Rasul, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili, "Truce of al-Hudaibiyyah".

  2. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 20, expedition of al-Hudaibiyyah and the pledge of al-Ridwan.

  3. Majma' al-Bayan (Qur'anic Exegesis ), Allama al-Tabarsi, commentary of the sura of al-Fath.

  4. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 2, p.357; Suwar min Hayat Muhammad, al-Hudaibiyyah pact.

  5. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah (Life of the Prophet), Ibn Hisham, vol. 3, p. 349, Beirut Edition, Dar Ihhya' al-Turath al-Arabi.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p.22, Beirut Edition, Dar Ihhya' al-Turath al-Arabi.

  8. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 20, the chapter of the Prophet's correspondence with the kings.

  9. Ibid, and Fiqh al-Sirah, al-Ghazali.

  10. Bihar al-Anwar, chapter of the liberation of Mecca, vol. 21.

  11. Muhammad Rasool Allah, Muhammad Rida, p.304, and al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan, p.77 with slightly different words.

  12. Sirat al-Rasool, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin al-Amili, the Liberation of Mecca.

  13. Al-Mizan, vol. 20, exegesis of surah of al-Nasr. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 21, Liberation of Mecca.

  14. Al-Mizan, vol. 20, surah of al-Nasr.

  15. Al-Bihar, vol. 21, Liberation of Mecca; Hayat Muhammad, Muhammad Hussein Haikal, Liberation of Mecca.

  16. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan. p.86; Al-Mizan, p.20, exegesis of surah of al-Nasr.

  17. Al-Bihar, vol. 21, Liberation of Mecca; Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan, p.87 and Al-Mizan, p.20, exegesis of surah of al-Nasr.

  18. Al-Bihar, vol. 21, Liberation of Mecca. Suwar min Hayat Muhammad, liberation of Mecca.

  19. Al-Kashshaf, al-Zamakhshari, exegesis of the verse: "And say: The truth has come and the falsehood has vanished: surely falsehood is a vanishing (thing)". (Holy Qur'an (7:81))

  20. Sirat al-Rasool (s.a.w.), Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, quoted from al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah; Al-Ma'arif (Knowledge), Ibn Qutaibah; Al-Mizan, Sayyid al-Tabatabai', vol. l0, exegesis of ayah 25 of surah of al-Tawbah.

  21. Sirat al-Rasool, Sayyid al-Amin, p.127. Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Dahlan, p.110, in different words.

  22. Al-Mizan, vol. 10, exegesis of ayah 25 of surah of al-Tawbah and the following study based on traditions, p.231.

  23. Fi Dhilal al-Qur'an, vol. 10, Sayyid Qutb, exegesis of ayah 25 of surah of al-Tawbah.

  24. Sirat al-Rasool, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, p.132.

  25. Masnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, p.330; Khas'is al-Nisa'i p.14; Tabaqat Ibn a'd, vol. 3, p.14; Hilyat al-Awliya', vol. 7 p.195; Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 7 p.452; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p.154; Al-Irshad, Sheikh al-Mufid, expedition of Tabook, and many other references.

  26. Khasa'is al-Nisa'i, p.20, Sahih al-Tirmithi, vol. 2, p.283; Musnad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 13, p.283; Al-Dur Al-Manthoor, al-Suyooti; Tafsir Bin Jarir, vol. 10, p.46; Mustadrak Al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p.51, and others. For more information, see Fada'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah, vol. 2, p.343-57.

  27. Hayat Muhammed, Muhammed Hussein Haikal; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 21, Chapter of how surah of al-Bara'ah was revealed.

  28. Al-Irshad, Sheikh al-Mufid, the valedictory hajj; Hayat Muhammad, Muhammad Hussein Haikal.

  29. Tuhafal-'Ugool an Asl al-Rasool, Ibn Shu'bah al-Harrani, 5th edition, 1974, p.39.

  30. Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah (Burning Thunderbolts), quoted from al-Tirmidhi, al-Nisa'i, and Ahmad bin Hanbal; Ahmad bin Ahnabal, in his book of traditions, mentioned it and said that it was reported by thirty companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.); al-Nisa'i, in his book, al-Khasa'is, reported it through many chains of transmission; Ibn Majah related it in his book of traditions, in the chapter which spoke about the merits of the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.), p.12. It was reported also by: Mustadrak al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p.116. al-Irsahd, Sheikh al-Mufid. Al-Tabarani, quoting Zaid bin Arqam; Al-Fakhr al-Razi in his exegesis of the ayah "O The Messenger deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord;..." (Holy Qur'an 5:67); Hilyat al-Awliya' vol. 5, p.26; Tarikh Baghdad, al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, vol. 7, p.377, reported by Abu Hurairah; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. l, p.48. For more information see "Al-Ghadir", vol. l, where this version was reported by 110 companions of the Prophet (s.a.w ) and 84 Muslims of later generations.

  31. Manaqab al-Khawarizimi (Outstanding Merits of al-Khawarizmi), quoting A'ishah; Thakha'ir al-Uqba (savings for the Next world), al-Muhib al-Tabari, p.73; Kifayat al-Talib (What suffices the student); al-Kanji al-Shafi'i, p.133; Masnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, vol. 2, p.300.