In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
"Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are firm of heart against the unbelievers, (but) compassionate among themselves; you will see them bowing down and prostrating themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and pleasure..."
Holy Qur'an (48:29)
IN THE STATE OF MADINAH
The Islamic Message entered a new phase in its blessed movement after the migration to Madinah. It was a phase of implementing Islamic principles and reshaping the community in its entirety, including its prerequisites and institutions. Erecting the holy mosque of the Prophet was the first step taken towards the achievement of these aims. The Holy Prophet bought land for its construction from the owners, Sahl and Suhail the sons of Amru. Around the mosque, rows of houses were later built in all directions.(55)
The building of the mosque and the surrounding houses were very simple and cost little money and effort. The mosque had a spacious Yard. Its walls were made of bricks and clay. Half the roof was covered with palm-fronds while the other half was left open. Part of the building became a refuge for the faithful who had no homes.
Except for evening prayer, the mosque was never lit. Hay would be set a flame to provide necessary lighting.
In no way were the rooms of the Prophet (s.a.w.) distinguished from other houses with regard to the style of building and the source of lighting. He lived temporarily, as we have referred before, at the house of Abu-Ayyub Ansari and it was until after the mosque and the surrounding houses were built did he move to the quarters specified for him.(56)
The lesson drawn from the fact that the first achievement of the Prophet (s.a.w.) at Madinah was the setting up of the mosque is fundamental to basic Islamic life, in that the first practical step is to establish a relationship with Allah, the Most High and Exalted. Any other kind of structure can then be set on this firm foundation and is derived from it.
In addition to the mosque, the Prophet (s.a.w.) did not need to build an administration center. The mosque was to serve that purpose. As well as a place of worship it was furthermore a meeting-place where Muslims consulted among themselves, the place where differences were resolved, where military plans were laid, military commanders appointed, where Muslims learnt reading and writing...and any other activity related to the state and the community.
The fact that the Prophet (s.a.w.) made the mosque the place from which he presided, settled people's problems and managed the Islamic state's affairs, is regarded the most convincing and practical proof that rulership and the management of social, economic, political...affairs of the Muslim nation is intricate with the submissiveness to Allah, the Exalted.
In Islam, state affairs are managed by adhering to divine orders and instructions which were revealed to the Messenger of Allah. That is why the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) was himself a ruler, judge, guide and a military commander.
Accordingly then Islamic society is composed of factors derived from the basis of obedience and total submission to Allah, the Blessed, the Mast High.
In view of this, the different facets of life are never disconnected the Islamic life. For life, in all its dimensions and aspects, emerges from the same source, moves along the same path and ends at the same point.