Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin

The Son Of Allamah Hilli

Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin, Muhammad, the worthy son of Allamah Hilli is among the enlightened minds of the Shias. Like his father Allamah Hilli this young man was such a great juristic scholar that he became famous in the world of knowledge. Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin was born in the Islamic month of Jamadius Thani in 682 A.H. in his native town of Hilla , which was a center of education and was situated in southern Iraq . His father, his grandfather, Sadidul Deen and the mentor of his father, Muhaqqiq Hilli were all jurists of the Shia faith and each of them holds a special place in the field of Islamic knowledge.

Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin obtained his primary education and knowledge of the prevalent sciences of that time like, theology, logic and traditions etc. from his father. It is noteworthy that he had already completed his studies in the above sciences before he reached the age of maturity.

The famous personality, Martyr Qadi Nurullah Shustari writes in his book, Majlisul Momineen: Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin was the revivalist of the textual and rational sciences. He was a researcher of great insight and had a broad vision.

Thus a Shafei intellectual narrates that when he came to the court of Sultan Muhammad Khuda Banda in Qazwin with his father he showed himself to be an accomplished and meritorious personality.

Hafiz Abroo writes in Majma-ut-Tawarikh that in 709 A.H. when Sultan Muhammad Khuda Banda accepted Shiaism at the behest of Allamah Hilli, Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin accompanied his father to Iran . At that time his age was twenty-five years and in those days he was considered a first class scholar.

Qadi Nurullah says that due to the teachings and training of his respected father the brilliance of Ijtihad (Islamic jurisprudence) shone from his forehead. He himself writes in his commentary on Qawaid that he suggested to his father to write a comprehensive book on Shia Islamic Jurisprudence. He says that at that time he had already studied numerous books of Shia scholars. Qadi Nurullah says that at the time his age must not be more than ten years because the difference between his year of birth and the writing of Qawaid is less than that. Therefore when his father wrote it he had already become a Mujtahid. However, it is not surprising because there are instances of people mastering the religious sciences even at the age of as young as four years. An example is of Shaykh Taqiuddin Hasan ibn Dawood, a friend and classmate of Sayyid Ghayasuddin (Abdul Karim) Ibn Tawus, who had become needless of a teacher at the age of four.

It is narrated from Ibrahim ibn Saeed Jauhari that he saw a four-year child being brought in arms to the court of caliph Mamun the Abbaside. The child recited the Holy Quran and

spoke about religious topics, and as his age demanded when he felt hungry he began to cry like ordinary children. Ibn Sina has also testified to this episode.

The famous jurist and intellectual Muhammad ibn Hasan Isfahani, known by the title of Fazil-e-Hindi writes in the beginning of Kashful Itham, which is a commentary on Allamah Hilli’s Qawaid quoting the words of Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin that, “It is possible that many people may be surprised how a ten-year-old lad could reach the level of jurisprudence. But I know that he was born in 682 A.H. and his father wrote in 692 or 693 A.H. that Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin has at the age of ten already crossed the last step of Ijtihad. Then he writes that it is the grace of Allah. He bestows it to whomsoever He wishes; nothing is beyond His power.

However, the most noteworthy point is that Allamah Hilli addresses Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin and says, “O my son! I have written in detail for you in this book all the Islamic laws and religious verdicts.”

Thus in other words the text of this book is also very eloquent and very unambiguous.

As we have mentioned above, Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin accomplished the lofty levels of an intellectual and scholarly qualities while in his youth. The father and son were unique in their level of intellectual merits. When they reached Hilla from Iran they again focused their attention on the completion of their writings and immersed themselves in teaching and training students who went out to become famous scholars whose fame still endures in the world of knowledge. The most famous student was Shahid Awwal, the first martyr, who is a great Shia luminary.

Important writings of Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin include Sharh Mubadi Al-Usul, Sharh Tahzibul Usul, Sharh Nahjul Mustarshideen and Al-Fawaid dar Sharh Mushkilate Qawaid. Most of these were commentaries on the books of his father and they show the depth of his insight.

Though Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin occupied an outstanding position in the field of religious knowledge, he also possessed incomparable expertise in literature and ethics. One never finds such a father and son pair who in spite of each of them being so much accomplished accorded so much respect and honor for each other.

For example Allamah Hilli writes in the introduction of his book, Alfayn that consists of two thousand proofs in support of the Imamate of Ali (a.s), “I have dictated the text of this book at the behest of my dear son, Muhammad. May Allah improve his affairs of the world and the Hereafter. He is also never deficient in according honor and respect to his parents. May Allah give him the joys of the two worlds as he spends all his mental and emotional capacities in my obedience. I am satisfied with his words and actions.”

Allamah Hilli completed the last volume of this book in the year he traveled to Iran with his son who was twenty-five years old at that time.