Notes

(s.a.w.) May Allah's Peace and Benediction be upon him.

(a.s.) May Allah's Peace be upon him/her/them.

  1. Seyyed Hossein Nasr: "The Western World and Its Challenges to Islam", an essay reproduced in the book: "Islam - Its Meaning and Message", Ed. Khurshid Ahmad, Centre of Islamic Studies, Qum, 1978, p. 238.

  2. G. H. Jansen: "Militant Islam", Pan Books, London, 1979, p. 94.

  3. & 4. Allama Dr. Shaikh Muhammad Iqbal: "The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam", Ashraf Printers, Lahore, Reprint 1982, p. 147.

  4. Ibid. p. 156.

  5. Ibid. p. 147.

  6. 8, 9. Ibid. p. 148.

  7. Dr. Subhi Muhamsani: "Falsafatil Tashree'i fil Islam", Dar al-Kashaaf , Beirut, 1952, as quoted in "Risala-i-Noveen Imam Khomeini", Vol. 1, compiled by A. K. Biazar Shirazi, New Print (1982), p. 34.

  8. Dr. M. M. Madani, former Principal of the College of Islamic Law, University of Al-Azhar', Cairo, in an article translated into Persian and published in "Islam A'in Hambastagi", Intisharat Be'that. Tehran, pp. 73-91.

  9. Ibid. pp. 148-151.

  10. & 14. Ibid. pp. 148-151.

  11. Ibid. pp. 148-151.

  12. Ibid. p. 154.

  13. Muhammad Iqbal: "The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam", Ashraf Printers, Lahore, Reprint 1982, p. 7.

  14. Ibid. pp. 179-180.

  15. Ibid. p. 179.

  16. The Murjites advocated that when a believer is seen to be indulging in sinful behaviour, one should be left to God's Last Judgment. Therefore, all those who profess to be Muslims should be-even tentatively-regarded as true Muslims. Thus. they implied that even the deviationist Ummayads were to be tolerated. (see John B. Noss: "Man's Religions", the Macmillan Company, New York. Third Ed., 7th Printing, 1967, p. 748) -Ed.