[^1]. Al-Kulayni Thiqat al-Islam Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, Usul al-kafi, vol. I, p. 30. Also see the `introduction' to Ibn Majah's Sunan; Bihar al-anwar, vol. I, p. 177.

[^3]. Ibid, vol. I, p. 15.

[^4]. Ibid, vol. 1, p. 16.

[^5]. Ibid, vol. I, p. 39.

[^6]. Ibid, vol. I, p. 22.

[^8]. Ibid, vol. I, p. 72.

[^9]. Mulla Sadra, Sharh Usul al-kafi, p. 121.

[^10]. Ibid, p. 120.

[^11]. Ibid, p. 121.

[^12]. Ibid, p. 129.

[^13]. Murtada Mutahhari, Guftar-e Mah, vol. I, p. 137.

[^14]. Al-Ghazzali, Ihya ulum al-din, vol. I, p. 39.

[^15]. Ibid, vol. I, p. 14. Also see Muhajjat al-bayda', vol. 1, p. 21, and Bihar al ­anwar, vol. I, p. 57.

[^16]. Shaykh Saduq, Amali, p. 19. Also see Safinat al-bihar, vol. 2, p. 219.

[^17]. Al-Nizam al-tarbawi fi al-Islam, p. 188.

[^18]. Mukhtar al-ahadith al-nabawiyyah wa al-hikam al-Muhammadiyyah, p. 70.

[^19]. Nahj al-balaghah. Dublished by Dr. Subhi al-Salih, p. 481.

[^20].Ibn Majah, Sunan, No. 250; also see Misbah al-shariah, chapter 60.

[^21]. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, the chapter on da'wat, Ibn Majah, Sunan, `introduction'.

[^22]. Nahj al-balaghah, published by Dr. Subhi al-Salih, p. 393.

[^23]. `Abd al-Wahid Amadi, Ghurar al-hikam wa durar al-kalim, p. 42.

[^24]. Although even in this case it may be said that the religious information of most of the Muslims is very scanty, and unfortunately most of the laws of Islam have, in practice, lost their social relevance.

[^26]. Tuhfat al-`uqul, p. 261; also see al-Majlisi's Bihar al-anwar, vol. LXXVIII, p. 80.

[^27]. Munyat al-murid, p. 28, Najaf 1370.

[^28]. Mukhtar al-ahadith al-nabawiyyah wa al-hikam al-Muhammadiyyah, p. 99.

[^29]. Muniyat al-murid, p. 53, Najaf 1370.

[^30]. A narration from the Holy Prophet (S) found in Nahj al-Fasahah, p. 635, says:

All human beings are the family of God, and the most beloved of men near God is one who is most beneficial to His family.

[^31]. In the thirteenth century A.D. it was Khwajah Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, who gathered scholars of various sciences in the city of Mardgheh. However, in the twentieth century, it is the Americans and Europeans who have gathered scientists from all over the world in their scientific and research institutions and furnished them with all kinds of facilities.

[^32]. See `Abd al-Razzaq Nawfal, Al-Muslimun wa al-`ilm al-hadith ("The Muslims and the Modern Science"), pp. 5, 93.

[^33]. Shaykh Mahmud Shaltut, Tafsir al-Qur an al-karim, chapter 11,11:14.