To the Kingdom of Allah

Having ended the resistence of the Mariqun, Imam Ali (a.s.) turned to resuming the fight against the Qasitun in al-Sham, with arbitration having failed in the second meeting.

He proclaimed mobilization for his army, and declared war against the opposition led by Mu'awiyah. This was announced by him in a speech delivered in Kufa, his capital of the Islamic state, where the people were invited for Jihad (fight in the way of Allah): "Jihad! Jihad! O creatures of Allah!" He declared: "Beware, that I am mobilizing the army today. Whoever desires to go forward to Allah, let him come forth!"(172)

Then Imam Ali (a.s.) started distributing banners to his leaders, Husain, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari and Qais bin Sa'id. Yet, as he was engaged in mobilizing his forces in order to put an end to the opposition movement led by Mu'awiyah, there was another mean conspiracy being covertly planned, this time to assassinate him.

A group of his enemies held a meeting in Mecca to deliberate evil intentions, which were to end with the most horrific consequences. The gravest decision was to murder Amir al-Mu'minin, and the task was assigned to the willful criminal Abdul- Rahman bin Muljam al-Muradi. It was a most critical period in the history of Islam and the Muslims, and at a time when the nation was looking forward to a decisive victory over the destructive elements of disunity led by Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, that the sinful hand of al- Muradi was extended to Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.). He swept down with a sword on his head while the Imam was prostrating during dawn prayers at the honorable mosque of Kufa on the 19th of the month of Ramadan of the year 40 A.H.

They assassinated Imam Ali (a.s.) at his finest time--the hour of standing before Allah, the Exalted, during a prayer of submission, in the best of days, while fasting during the month of Ramadan; during the most glorious Islamic duties, while preparing to wage jihad, and in the highest and most pure divine places, the Mosque of Kufa.

May joy be to Amir al-Mu'minin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.) and a blessed afterlife!

The crime of assassinating Imam Ali (a.s.) remains one of the most cruel, brutal and hideous, because it was not committed against one man, but against the whole rational Islamic leadership. By assassinating Imam Ali (a.s.), they actually aimed at assassinating the message, the history, the culture and the nation of Muslims embodied in the person of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.). In doing so, the Islamic nation lost its guide of progress, and at the most wonderous opportunity in its life after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.).

Imam Ali (a.s.) suffered from his wound for three days, during which he entrusted his son, Imam Hasan (a.s.) with the Imamate of guiding the nation ideologically and socially. During those three days, as during all his life, he never ceased remembering Allah, praising Him, and accepting Him and His ordinance.

Likewise, he continued giving pieces of advice and directions leading to good, pointing to the right, defining the way to guidance, explaining the course for deliverance, calling for the observance of Allah's ordinances, and warning against following one's ill desires and set-backs from not carrying our the divine message. The following is one piece of advice offered to his sons, Imams Hasan and Hussain (a.s.), as well as to his people, the nation and coming generations:

"I advise you to fear Allah, and not to run after (the pleasure of) the world, even if it may run after you. Do not be sorry for anything from it which you have been denied. Say the truth and act for(Allah's) reward. Be an enemy of the oppressor, and be a helper of the oppressed.

"I advise you, my children, my household and all those who may receive my message, to fear Allah, to arrange your affairs well, to maintain good relations among yourselves, for I have heard your grandfather (s.a.w.) saying: 'Good relations are better than prayer and fasting in general.' "(Fear) Allah when handling matters of orphans. Do not let them starve, nor allow them to be lost as long as you are there.

"(Fear) Allah in respect to your neighbors, for they were the truest of your Prophet (s.a.w.). He went on asking us to take care of them, so much that we thought he would make them heirs (of our heritage).

"(Fear) Allah in respect to the Qur'an, (take care that) no one may excel you in following its tenets.

"(Fear) Allah in respect to prayer, as it is the pillar of your religion.

"(Fear) Allah in respect to your Lord's House (Ka'bahh), do not forsake it so long as you live, because if you do you will not be looked upon with respect.

"(Fear) Allah in respect to jihad, fight with your wealth, your lives and your tongues, in the way of Allah.

"Have mutual liaison and give-and-take. Beware of turning your faces from, and of renouncing, one another. Do not abandon bidding good and forbidding evil, lest vicious people may overrule you, and then in such a case, your invocations will not be responded to (by Allah)." Then he said: "O, Banu Abdul Muttalib, certainly I do not want you to wade through the blood of the Muslims, crying: "Amir al-Mu'minin was murdered. You certainly kill for me no one but my killer.

"Wait till I die by this stroke of him (bin Muljam), then strike a single stroke against him, and do not disfigure his body, for I had heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) saying: 'Avoid mayhem even with a rabid dog'."(173)

Such was the heroic end of this great man! The loss to the Mission and the nation was the gravest after the loss of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.). By the death of Imam Ali (a.s.) the nation lost:

A heroism that had become the song of the time; A courageous history that has never dreamt of its like; A wisdom no one can fathom, save Allah; A purity, the like of which was only in the prophets; An abstinence from the pleasures of life that could be attained only by the nearest to Allah; An eloquence such as to be the echo of Book; and A jurisprudence, and a thorough knowledge of the laws of religion, that made him the 'gateway of the city' of the Prophet's knowledge, and the authority to whom the Islamic nation referred in all its affairs.

Peace be upon Amir al-Mu'minin the day he was born, the day he was martyred on his alter, and the day he shall be raised alive.

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds.

Endnotes

  1. Al-Baladhiri, Ansab Al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 177.

  2. Look up Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah by Ibn Abi al-Hadid, vol. 4, p. 561.

  3. Al-Arbili, Kashf Al-Ghummah, vol. 1, chapter on Imam Ali (a.s).

  4. A Brief History of the Fourteen Infallibles, World Organization for Islamic Services, (Tehran: 1984), pp. 51.52.

  5. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah fi Ma'rifat al-A'immah, Ch. 1, p. 13.

  6. Al-Bihar, vol. 35, p. 18.

  7. Ibn al-Sabbagh, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, Ch. 1, p. 14. Ibn Abi al-Hadid. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, p.151.

  8. Sirat bin Hisham, chapter on Ali bin Abi Talib, the first male who accepted Islam, p. 284; Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 35, p. 44; Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, p.15.

  9. Khalid Muhammad Khalid, Fi Rihab Ali, 2nd ed., Dar al-Andalus, Beirut, p.46. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, p. 15.

  10. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, p.15, quoting al-Baladiri and al-Isfahani.

  11. Nahj al-Balaghah, Subhi al-Salih (ed.), 1967 p. 300.

  12. Abd al-Fattah Abd al-Maqsud, Ali bin Abi Talib, vol. 1, p.39.

  13. Nahj al-Balaghah, p.301.

  14. Ibid.

  15. In Addition to books on history which state that Imam Ali (a.s.) was the first believer there are several traditions from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) which mention this fact. Vide: al-Mustadrak, vol. 3. p. 136. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in his History, vol. 2, p. 81. Al-Manaqib by al-Khuwarzami, Hilyat al-Awliya', vol. 1, p. 16; Al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, vol. 1, p.285; Sirat Zaini Dahlan, commenting on al- Halabiyah, vol. 1, p. 188, all quoted from al-Ghadir, 3rd ed., (Beirut: 1967), vol. 3, pp. 222-242.

  16. See our book, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, Part One.

17 , Mustafa Al-Saqqa & Group (ed.), 1936, vol. 1, p.259.

  1. Al-Kafi, al-Rawdah, vol. 8 about Imam Ali's (a.s.) Islam. Other traditions on this subject are narrated by al-Nisa'i; Ibn Maja, al-Hakim; al-Tabari in his History, and in al-Riyad al-Nadirah, vol. 2, p. 158, in Siffin by Nasr bin Muzahim, p. 100, and others Look up al-Ghadir, vol. 3, pp. 221-240. These narrators say seven years. This does not contradict the formerly stated three years, since he preceded the others in his acceptance of Islam by three years, and he preceded them in believing in it and in his worship with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.), by some further years, to which he referred in his speech al-Qasi'ah.

  2. This tradition is quoted by: Ibn Ishaq; Ibn Jarir; Ibn Abi Hatam; Ibn Mardawiyah; Abu Na'im; al-Baihaqi in his Sunan, and Dala'il: Al-Tha'labi and al- Tabari in their interpretation of the Sura of Al-Shu'ara', in their large Qur'anic commentary, quoted by al-Tabari in Tarikh al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, vol. 1, p. 381; al-Tahawi, Adhia' al-Maqdisi in his al-Mukhtar; Ahmad bin Hanbal, vol. 1" p. 111, 159; al-Khasa'is by al-Nisa'i, p. 6; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6. Tradition No. 6008; al-Irshad by al-Mufid, and many others, all quoting the tradition in almost similar words, quoted from Al-Muraja'at by Sharaf al-Din, p. 124.

  3. Ibn Al-Athir, al-Kamil, vol. 2, p.24; Bihar al-Anwar by Shaikh al-Majlisi, vol. 18, p. 164; Fiqh al-Sirah by Shaikh Muhammad al-Ghazali, pp. 102-103.

  4. This hadith is also narrated by al-Baihaqi in his Sunan and by al Thalabi in Tafsir al-Kabir, commenting on Sura al-Shu'ara'; and al-Tabari in his Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 217; Ibn al-Athir in his Kamil, vol. 2, p. 22, al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, vol. 1, p.381; Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 11-159; al-Nisa'i in his Khasa'ism, p.6; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, Hadith No. 6008.

  5. Ibid.

  6. See our book, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, Part One.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19, chapter Entering the Shi'b; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 1, pp. 173, 192; Ibn Hisham, Sirah, vol. 1, pp. 399-404; Ibn Qutaibah, Oyun al- Akhbar, vol. 2, p. 151; Ibn Kathir, History, vol. 3, pp. 84, 96-97; Al-Sirah al- Halabiyah, vol. l, pp. 357-367,. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil, vol. 2, p. 36, quoted from al-Ghadir, vol. 7 pp. 363-366.

  10. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 21, chapter Ghazwat Mu'tah. Ibn Sa'd, al Tabaqat, vol. 4" p. 23. Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 1, p.287. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, vol. 3. p. 407 al- Bidayah wa al-Nihayah. vol. 4, p. 256. al-Isti'ab, vol. 1, p. 81, quoted from Maqatil al-Talibiyin by Abul Faraj al-Isfahani, chapter The Death of Ja'far bin Abi Talib, 2nd ed , 1970, p. 10 ff.

  11. Ibid.

  12. Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 2, p. 222; Tarikh bin Asakir, vol. 1, p. 284; Mustadrak al-Hakim, vol. 2, p. 622. Tarikh bin Kathir, vol. 3, p. 122, quoted from al-Ghadir, vol. 7, p.376. Kashf al-Ghummah fi Ma'rifat al-A'immah, vol. 1, p. 16, and others.

  13. Tafsir Sura al-Anfal, verse 30, al-Mizan, Muhammad Hussein Tabatab'i, Part 9, p. 80.

  14. Ibid.

  15. A'yan al-Shi'ah. 3rd ed., vol. 3, p. 155.

  16. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 9: al-Kulaini, al-Kafi Al-Rawda, Tehran ed. vol. 8, p.339.

  17. Ibn Al-Sabbagh, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah. chapter on His Bravery p.28.

  18. A'yan al-Shi'ah, 3rd ed., vol. 3, p. 155

  19. Ali. The Magnificent. p. 17

37 A'yan al-Shi'ah. 3rd ed.. vol. 3. p 155

  1. Ahmad bin Yahya al-Baladhiri, Ansab al-Ashraf; 1st ed. Beirut. Vol. 2, pp. 91, 94; Mustadrak al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 111. Ibn Sa'd. Al-Tabaqat" vol. 3, p. 15.

  2. Ali, The Magnificent, pp. 26-27

  3. Ibid., pp. 27-28.

  4. Muhammed Sadiq al-Sadr, Hayat Amir al-Mu'minun, 2nd ed. 1972, p.230.

  5. Ali, The Magnificent, pp. 28-29.

  6. commentary on Holy Qur'an 3:120 by S.V Mir Ahmed Ali, M. S. B.O.L.. B.T., Tahrike Tarsil Qur'an Inc., (New York: 1988), p 344

  7. Ibid.. and Ali, The Magnificent, p. 32

  8. Madarij al-Nubowah. Ma'arij al-Nubowah.

  9. For more detail, please see our book, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, part 2.

47 Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyah. Ahmad Zaini Dahlan. vol. 2, pp. 6-7. 'Ghazwat Khandaq'.

  1. Ibid.

  2. Mustadrak al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p 32 on the authority of Sufyan Al. Thawri, narrated by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in, The History of Baghdad. Vol. 3. p. 19. quoting al-Fadha'il al-Khamsah. vol. l.

  3. Biography of Hadrat Ali (a.s ), Light. Knowledge. Truth Peer Mahomed Ebrahim Trust, (Karachi: 1975). pp. 21.24

  4. Ali. The Magnificent, p 49.

  5. Dahlan, al-Sirah al-Nabawiyah" vol. 2, pp. 6-7 Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, chapter 'The Battle of the Trench', p.58.

  6. Ali, The Magnificent, pp. 49-54.

  7. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. V, p.365.

  8. Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, pp. 93-94, on the authority of Abu Hurairah and Ibn Abbas, in similar wordings; al-Nisa'i, Khasa'is Ali bin Abi Talib. 1st ed., (Beirut: 1975), p. 9ff; al-Isabah, al-Isti'ab, HiIyat al-Awlya', and in Muslim's Sahih, in similar wordings.

  9. Sayid Muhsin al-Amin, Sirat al-Rasul, quoted from al-Sirah al. Halabiyah; Ibn Qutaibah. al-Ma'arif; al-Tabataba'i, Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 10, interpretation of verse 25 of the Sura Bara'at (Taubah); al-Bahth al-Riwa'i; al-Mufid, al-Irshad, Ghazwat Hunain, p.81.

57 Look up Abdul Fattah Abdul Maqsud. al-Imam Ali, Sayid Muhsin al-Amin, A'yan Al-Shi'ah, vol. 3; al-Mufid. al-Irshad, Sirat bin Hisham: Ibn al-Sabbagh al- Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah.

  1. Look up Ansab al-Ashraf by al-Baladhiri, 1st ed.. 1947, vol. 2, p 92; Mustadrak al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 111; Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, vol. 3, p. 10; Ibn Hijr, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 3, p. 475. Look up Fada'il al. Khamsah" vol. 2, p. 309 for more references.

  2. Look up Sahih Muslim, the Book about The Merits of the Companions; al- Hakim, Mustadrak al-Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 147 Sunan al Baihaqi, vol. 2, p 149: al- Suyuti. Al-Dur al-Manthur in the interpretation of the said verse: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol. 2, p.209: Ibn Hijr, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 2. p.297 and others, in addition to 'Fada'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah'. vol. 1, p. 224ff.

  3. Sahih Al-Tirmidi, vol. 2, p.300; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 185: al-Suyuti, Al-Dur al-Manthur in the interpretation of al Mubahalah verse; Al- Zamakhshari, al-Kashshaf, al-Fakhr al-Razi, The Big Tafsir and others, quoted from 'Fada'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah' p. 244 ff.

  4. Look up Al-Zamakhshari's al-Kashshaf, vol. 2; al-Wahidi's Asbab Al-Nuzul; Al-Tabarasi's Majma' al-Bayan in the interpretation of the Sura Al-Dahr; al-Hafid Muh. bin Jarir Al-Tahari's al-Kifayah; Ibn Abd Rabbah's al-Iqd al-Farid, vol. 3, pp. 42-47; al-Hakim Al-Naishaburi's Manaqib Fatimah (a.s.) as stated in al- Kifayah; al-Tha'labi's Tafsir al-Kashf wal Bayan; al-Alusi's Ruh al-Ma'ani; al- Tabari's al-Riyad al-Nadirah, vol. 2, p. 207, quoted from al-Amini's al-Ghadir, vol. 3, pp. 107-111.

  5. Tafsir al-Tabari, quoting Anas. vol. 10, p. 59; al-Wahidi's Asbab al. Nuzul, p. 182; al-Qurtubi's Tafsir, vol. 8, p.91; al-Razi's Tafsir vol. 4, p. 422; al-Khazin's Tafsir vol. 2, p. 221; Abul Barakat al-Nasfi's. Vol. 2. p 221; al-Suyuti's al-Dur al-Manthur. Vol. 3. p. 218: and others. with some difference in details and wordings

  6. Mustadrak al-Sahihain. vol. 3, p. 126; Manaqib by Ibn Hanbal and Jami' al- Sihah by Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, p 401; Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 4, p.22; al-Khatib al-Bahgdadi in his History, vol.

  7. p. 348, quoted from Fad'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah. vol. 2,P 250 ff.

  8. Ahmad bin Hanbal's Musnad. vol. 1, p. 174; Abu Dawud's Musnad, vol. 2, p. 28; al-Bukhari, chapter The Battle of Tabuk; Muslim. Al-Tirmidhi and others. quoted from al-Muraja'at pp. 133-136.

  9. Sahih al-Tirmidhi. vol. 2, p.299; Ahmad bin Hanbal's Musnad, vol.

  10. p 292; al-Nisa'i and Mustadrak al-Sahihain. Vol. 3, p. 129, and others. Look up Fada'il al-Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah. Vol. 2. p 207 and others.

  11. Ibn Maja, Sahih; al-Tirmidhi, Sahih, vol. 2, p. 299; Al-Nisa'i, al Khasa'is, pp. 3-18; Mustadrak al-Sahihaian, vol. 3, p. 14; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 159 and others, with slight difference in wordings.

  12. Tafsir al-Baidawi; al-Tabrasi's Majma' al-Bayan. Abu Ishaq Al-Tha’labi's Tafsir; al-Tabari's Tafsir, vol. 6, p. 165; al-Wahidi's Asbab al-Nuzul, p. 148; al- Khazin's Tafsir, vol. 1, p. 496; al-Razi's Tafsir, vol. 3, p. 431; Abul-Barakat al- Nasfi, vol. 1, p.496; al-Naishaburi's Tafsir, vol. 3, p. 431; Abul-Barakat al-Nasfi, vol. 1, p. 496; al-Naishaburi's Tafsir, vol. 3, p. 461: Ibn Hajar's al-Sawa'iq, p. 25, and others, quoted from A'yan AI-Shi'ah, vol. 3, pp. 130-134, and Khulafa. al- Rasul al-Ithna Ashar, p. 103 ff.

  13. The wordings are quoted from Ibn Maja's Sahih, p. 12.

  14. Ibn Hanbal's Musnad, vol. 4, p.281, says that this was narrated by 30 of the Messenger's Companions. It is also stated by An-Nisa'i in his Khasa'is Ali bin Abi Talib, on diverse authorities; as did Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Tabarani, quoting Zaid bin Arqam and al-Fakhr Al-Razi, in interpreting the verse: "O Messenger! make known what has been revealed to you from your Lord;..." and Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 1, p.48; and Mustadrak al-Sahihain and others, quoted from al-Amini's al Ghadir, vol, 1,

  15. Al-Baghdadi's History, vol. 14, p, 321: al-Haithami's Majma' vol. 7 p.235; Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, p, 157; al-Razi's Tafsir. vol. 1" p. 111: and others, quoted from Ali and Vicegerency. p. 113.

71 Ibid., vol. 13, p. 186; al-Haithami's Majma. vol. 7 p.236, Kanz al Ummal, vol. 6, p 155

72 Sulaiman al-Hanafi Yanabi. al-Mawaddah: Al-dhahabi. Mizan al. I'tidal: al- Suyuti, al-La'ali; al-Dailami. Kunuz al-Daqa'iq; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Manaqib; Kanz al-Ummal. vol 6. p. 154; al-Tabarani. Al-Mu'jam al-Kabir; al-Muhib al- Tabari, Al-Dhaka'ir and others as stated by Najm al-Din al-'Askari in Ali and Vicegerency, p. 194.

  1. For further reference look up: Yanabi al-Mawaddah by al-Shaikh al-Qanduzi al-Hanafi; al-Fusul al-Muhimmah by Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki; Fadha'il al- Khamsah min al-Sihah al-Sittah by al-Firoozabadi; Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal; al- Shaikh Najm al-din al-Askari, and others.

  2. Al-Khawarzmi, al-Manaqib, quoting A'ishah; Ahmad bin Hanbal al Musnad, vol. 2, p. 300; al-Muhib al-Tabari, Dhakha'ir al-Uqba, p. 73; Ali and Vicegerency, p.206.

  3. Quoted by al-Nisa'i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja and Ahmad bin Hanbal in his Musnad.

  4. Quoted by al-Tirmidhi under No. 874 of Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 1, p. 44; Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, pp. 182-189; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 148 and others.

77 Quoted by al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 21, Muslim, Sahih, vol. 3, p. 259; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 1 and others

78 See Sahih Bukhari, vol. 4, p. 194 and also Saqifah by Shaikh Muhammad Ridha al-Mudafar

  1. Ibn Kathir's History, vol. 5, p. 271; Abul Fida's History, vol. 1, p.152. quoted from al-Ghadir, vol. 7 p 75.

  2. Al-Saqifah, 4th ed., (Beirut: 1973), p.160.

  3. Al-Sayid Sharaf al-din, al-Muraja'at, p 302

  4. Extracted from a letter to the Egyptians, which he sent with Malik al-Ashtar his governor appointed to that province Look up Nahj al-Balaghah, Letter No. 62.

83 Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol 2, p. 111, quoting Ali wal Khulafa' by al-Askari, p 62

84 Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol 2, p 178 Bihar al-Anwar. vol 40. quoting al-Kafi.

85 Kanz al-Ummal, vol 3, p. 99, quoted from Ali wal Khulafa' p 63

  1. Ali wal Khulafa', p. 60, quoting al-Tasturi and Al-Najaf al-Ashraf, Qadha' Amir al-Mu'minin, 1st ed. 1369 A. H , p. 66.

87 Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 2, p. 180.

  1. Nahj al-Balaghah, Dr. Subhi al-Salih (ed.), p. 192.

  2. Najm Al-Din al-Askar, Ali wal Khulafa', p. 83, quoting Ahmad bin Hanbal's al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 94, Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 4, p. 39, and others.

  3. Kanz al-Ummal, vol 7, p. 147 al-Bukhari's Sahih, 191727, and others, quoted from Ali wal Khulafa' p. 87

  4. Al-Baihaqi's Sunan, al-Tabri's History, Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p. 101, Al- Zarqani's Sharh al-Muwatta' vol. 4, p. 25, and others.

  5. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p.96; al-Futuhat al-Islamiyah, vol. 2, p.482, quoted from Ali wal Khulafa' p. 98.

93 Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 2, p 191; Ali wal Khulafa' p. 102.

  1. Ali wal Khulafa', p. 133, quoting Ibn al-Hujjah al-Hamawi al Hanafi's Thamarat al-Awraq of the Lectures, 1368 A H. ed., vol. 2, p 15

95 Ali wal Khulafa', p 239 ,

96 Tarikh al-Tabari, vol 2, p.250. Tarikh al-Yaqoubi; Kanz al-Ummal, Mastadrak al-Hakim; al-Kamil by Ibn al-Atheer Quoting from Ali wal Khulafa' p 240.

97 Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 2, p. 192, and Muh bin Ali al-Qummi's Aja'ib Ahkam Amir al-Mu'minin, p.43.

  1. Al-Manaqib, p. 192; Ibn Kathir'sTafsir,vol.4, P 57 and al-Baihaqi's Sunan, vol. 7, p. 442.

  2. Al-Suyuti's al-Dur al-Manthur, vol. 3, p. 144; Ibn al-Jawzi's Sirat Umar, p. 106; Dahlan's al-Futuhat al-Islamiyah, vol. 2, p. 486, and others, quoting Ali wal Khulafa'; Ibn Shahrashub's Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 2; al Ghadir, vol. 6-7 and Aja'ib Ahkam Amir al-Mu'minin by the respected Qur'anic commentator, Muhammad bin Ibrahim al Qummi

  3. Nahj al-Balaghah, Dr. Subhi al-Salih (ed.), p. 136.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid. Sermon No. 131.

  6. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah by Muhammad Abdoh, vol. 1, p.269.

  7. From his instructions to Muhammad bin Abi Bakr on appointing him as governor of Egypt, Nahj al-Balaghah, Letter No. 27.

  8. His instructions to Abdullah bin Abbas, his representative in Basra, Nahj al- Balaghah , Letter No. 76.

  9. Nahj al-Balaghah, al-Salih (ed.), Letter No. 45, p.416.

107 Ibid., p.415.

  1. Ibid., p. 412.

  2. Ibid., Letter No. 14, p. 373.

  3. Ibid., Letter No. 50, p.424.

  4. Ibid., Letter No 51.

  5. Ibid., Letter No. 25.

  6. George Cherdaq, Rawa'i Nahj al-Balaghah, p. 163.

  7. Al-Baladhiri, Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 136.

  8. Muhammad Abul Fadhl Ibrahim, Sharh al-Nahj, 1378 A.H. ed., vol. 2, pp. 198, 199.

  9. Nahjal-Balaghah, Letter No. 45, p.418.

117 Look up Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 41, p. 104; Amaal al-Saduq, Tadhkirat al- Khawas, p. 134; al-Baladhiri, Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 129, with little difference in wordings.

  1. Sibt bin al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 125.

  2. Nahj al-Balaghah, Letter No. 45.

  3. Sibt bin al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p 121; al-Aqqad, Ab qariyat al- Imam, Beirut, 1g67 ed., p. 16.

  4. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon No 209.

  5. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 68.

  6. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sharh bin Abi al-Hadid, vol. 2, p. 200.

  7. Ibid., p.201.

  8. Ibid., p. 202.

  9. Tadkiratul Khawas, p. 121.

127 Ibid., p. 125.

  1. Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 2, p. 132.

  2. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sharh bin Abi al-Hadid, vol. 2, p.200.

  3. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 40, Ch. 98; Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 1.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid., the same page.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon No. 224.

  8. Dr. Muhammad Ahmad Khalafallah, Ali bin Abi Talib, Nadrah As-riyah Jadidah, p.32. ,

  9. Nahj al-Balaghah, Dr. Subhi al-Salih (ed.), 1st ed., (Beirut: 1967), Sermon No. 205.

137 Al-Imam Ali Wa Fadha'iluh, Dar Maktabat al-Hayat, Beirut, p. 175.

  1. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p.50. Look up the text of the Imam's letter No. 75. Bab al-Kutub, p. 464.

  2. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 51.

  3. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 16, p. 154; commenting on the Imam's letter No. 37

  4. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 51.

  5. Sharih Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 3, p.75.

  6. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon No. 164, p.235.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Al-Tabari, Ibn al-Athir and others, citing the sayings of A'ishah, p 98.

147 The Tabri, Ansab al-Ashraf, Ibn al-Athir, bin Qutaibah's al-Ma'arif and others, quoted from the same reference, p. 99.

  1. Al-Tabari's History Ansab al-Ashraf quoted from the same reference, p. 113.

  2. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 9 pp. 5-6.

  3. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah p. 55.

  4. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Fusul al-Muhimmah fi Ma'rifat al A'immah, p.63. Sibt bin al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 77 Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahjal- Balaghah vol. 2 p.167.

  5. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 62; Sibt bin al-Jawzi's al-Tadhkira.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ahadith Urn al-Mu'minin A'ishah part In p. 181, quoted from al Ya'qubi and Kanz al-Ummal.

  8. Ibid., p. 182.

  9. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah p. 70.

157 Ibid., p.71.

  1. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, Dar Ihya' al-Kutub al Arabia, 1959, vol. 1, p.23.

  2. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah and Ibn al-Jawzi's Al-Tadhkira.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Sibt bin al-Jawzin Tadhkirat al-Khawasn p. 103.

  5. Ibid., and al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p.78.

  6. Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 74.

  7. Ibid., p.79.

  8. Julius Filhausen, al-Shi'ah and al-Khawarij, translated by Abdul-Rahman Badawi, (Kuwait: 1976), p 32. ,

  9. Nasr bin Muzahim, Waqi'at Siffin, p.517.

167 The Quran 16:91 Look up Nasr bin Muzahim, Waqi'at Siffin, p. 517.

  1. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 91.

  2. Ibid., p. 92.

  3. A'yan Al-Shi'ah vol. 3n p. 20n quoting Al-Tabari and al-Fusul al Muhimmah, p. 93.

  4. Sahih al-Bukhari quoted from al-Fusul al-Muhimmah p. 94; al Baladhiri Ansab al-Ashraf vol. 2, p. 376, quoting Imam Ali (a.s.) in different wordings; al- Nisa'i Khasa'is p. 71.

  5. Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon No 182.

  6. Nahj al-Balaghah, Will No. 47, p. 412.