Chapter 6 — the Authority After the Prophet

Shia’s Opinion

A. Requisiteness of Authority

They say: It is untrue that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) left his nation without nominating a leader and an authority, since these two matters are indispensable and rudimentary for the nation every time. The saying of the Prophet's leaving his nation without a leader and an authority contravenes perfection and completion of the religion and the divine grace. It also opposes the thorough explication asserted by the Holy Quran. How should the Prophet explicate a minute affair, such as the proper way of urination, while he neglects a fundamental affair which is leadership of the nation? Similarly, leaving the nation without a leader and an authority is a matter contradicting the Prophet's mercy and care for his people. According to the Holy Quran, God has thrown in his Apostle's heart mercy and care for this nation. Who should represent the Prophet in his political and religious duties? Who should explain the Quran? Who should show limits of circle of legality? Who should be the saving ship of this nation? Who should be guiding people to the right? Who should be the security of this nation? These functions are elements of specialization. Like medicine, engineering or atomics, these elements are in need of an individual specialized. None other than the most favorable, the fittest and the most familiar with questions of the doctrine, who should join political and religious leadership, can make out these concerns intensively. These qualifications are identified by God alone. Legally and logically, it is impractical for God to leave this concern to people's fancies. They are within the fundamental principles of Islam and the basic prerequisites of the divine solicitation, government and nation. The greatest evidence on essentiality of this question is that the deniers who had traversed the fact that the Prophet himself had clarified the succeeding leadership, did their best to establish a positive leadership that was stabilized for the predominant power after the great massacres, suffered by the Islamic nation, committed for the sake of uniting the nation by force under authority of that strongest ruler. Owing to the absence of the

predominant knight, people were engaged in numerous sects, each of which did establish its own authority.

B. the Divine Declaration of the Authority

God, the Elevated, has revealed the Quran as a divine message to mankind and a divine doctrine that provides an unequivocal depiction for the movements of everything. It also systematizes the political and religious affairs on this earth and exposes the essential characteristics of the other life, and links these two lives in a reciprocal fastened bind. In a like manner, that divine doctrine is provided as one of the essentialities of God's Book revealed to Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), God's slave, so that he should explicate it to people hypothetically and practically on levels of solicitation and government. The Prophet did lead the solicitation and its outcome; the government. A thorough explication of the divine doctrine was introduced by the Prophet during both stages. The doctrine, likewise, explicated everything thoroughly for those who received the Remembrance; the Holy Quran. Hence, since he was the fittest for leading the followers and applying the doctrine, the most favorable, the keenest and the most acquainted of that divine doctrine, Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) was elected as the authority. During the Prophet's blessed lifetime, none had the capability of taking his place or shouldering his missions. God, Who does credulously realize the fittest for leading the followers and applying the doctrine, the most favorable, the keenest and the most acquainted of that divine doctrine, has been the specialist in electing Mohammed for this mission. On that account, God dedicatedly has granted Himself the right of nominating the political and religious leader. He, the Elevated, has provided that leader before people and averred of his being the most acquainted, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest. God has also authorized him to enjoy thorough adequacies of explicating the doctrine to people and being the political and religious leader and judge.

In case people accepted and showed loyalty to that political and religious leadership God has provided, Mohammed should be the leader.

The godly solicitation is ceaseless. The believing government endorses that solicitation. The general purpose is guiding mankind to the right. Mohammed is a man to be inescapably deceased. God, lonelily, realizes credulously the fittest among Mohammed's followers for leading the nation and applying the doctrine, the most favorable, the keenest and the most acquainted of that divine doctrine. For these reasons, it was God's dedicate

concern to provide the political and religious leader after Mohammed. In case people accepted and swore allegiance to that individual provided by God as the political and religious leader, they should be guided to the right path. Otherwise, a process of disintegration between political and religious leadership would occur, and the political leader would be an individual other than the religious one. Thus, that ruler — political leader — shall certainly predominate the religious leadership someday.

Al­Hussein­bn­Ali­bn­Abi­Talib (peace be upon him) is, according to doctrinal texts, the Imam, the political and religious leader and the guide of people during his lifetime. Nevertheless, people, coercively or voluntarily, swore their allegiance to Yazeed­bn­Muawiya who, consequently, became the political ruler while Al­Hussein was the religious authority. The instance should have been that Al­Hussein holds political and religious leadership together. As people declared fealty to Yazeed, an isolation between the political and the religious leadership occurred. Yazeed became the actual ruler. Since religious leadership was appendant to the political, the ruler would not be content before he denuded the religious authority from his competencies, so that he would be able to have the religious leadership beside the political. This exactly what happened. Killing was the only way Yazeed had to deprive Al­Hussein of his competencies. He did kill him.

Shias say that improvement of the Muslims' conditions and future is depending upon combining the political and religious leaderships. In other words, the ruler should be the religious authority and that ruler and religious authority should be the one elected by God.

As an abstract we say: God has been dedicatedly the specialist in electing and nominating the political and religious leader of the nation. This is by the reason that He, the Elevated, does credulously realize the fittest for leading the followers and applying the doctrine, the most favorable, the keenest and the most acquainted of that divine doctrine. Before the Prophet's being taken to the Exalted Associate, God had elected the political and religious leader for Muslims. He, the Elevated, ordered the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) of declaring so in the attendance of one hundred thousand Muslims during the Farewell Pilgrimage. For ten times, the Prophet repeated this declaration. People, after all, swore allegiance to men other than that authority nominated by God. Therefore, a process of separation occurred between the two leaderships. Rulers, thereafter, marched forwardly and deprived the religious authorities of their capacities. Thus, rulers, using their

force, held fast on the political and religious leaderships.

The Leader and the Authority Nominated By God

Shias allege that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was the leader and the authority nominated by God who elected him to succeed the Prophet in political and religious affairs. God, correspondingly, ordered His Prophet of declaring this divine election. Therefore, he declared it in front of one hundred thousand Muslims. That was in the Farewell Pilgrimage. They also allege that God has nominated Al­Hassan and Al­Hussein respectively as the successors of Imam Ali, and arranged this question in the form that every Imam should nominate his successor. They were twelve Imams. The twelfth was Imam Al­Mahdi (Mahdi). This Imam is the Shariite ruler of the Islamic republic of Iran pursuant to the Article5 of the Iranian Constitution. The representative of that Shariite Imam is the actual leader of Iran whose missions are practicing the activities of the Shariite Imam substitutionally till God shall cause that Imam to come forth.

With respect to the Islamic Shari'a, the head of the Prophet's household is the Imam, ruler and authority in every time. Headship of the Prophet's household is perpetually operative. In spite of the rulers' active endeavors to terminate the Prophet’s immaculate progeny, they shall never be extinct.

Reasons Beyond Hostility of Sunnis to Shias

As long as Shias are right, what for are they confronted by Sunnis? As an answer to this inquiry, we say: Shias are seen as enemies because their allegations put the rulers on the carpet, and invalidate reasons of their existence as authorities, and create excuses for their enemies to supplant. Rulers had full control on imports of the state. They, practically, had brimming option to dispose in such imports. They had the dominion upon the armed forces and their remunerations. Hence, these forces comply to those rulers amenably. Rulers possessed the entire mass media. Shias, on the other hand, were representing the opposition party all the time. For these reasons, rulers showed malice against them and persecuted and reproduced them as devils, rebellious and deserters of the nation's congruous faith. Majority of people had no option other than agreeing to the ruling authorities' claims. Because Shias had not been granted any opportunity to express their viewpoints without encumbrance, rulers misrepresented and

distorted such viewpoints. Ordinary people reported these distorted viewpoints rulers had mentioned, surreptitiously, on behalf of Shias, for the sake of making people shrink back from them progressively. As a matter of fact, most people deem these distorted viewpoints’ veracity adopted by Shias. The reason beyond so was condensational reports appertained to this aspect.

Sunnis' Velocity

From all sides, Sunnis shouted repeatedly with earsplitting cries: “Believe not Shias; they devoted themselves to being enemies of this nation, and satisfied themselves with rebellion against congruity.”

Ask them to provide an evidence on their claims.

Replication on that Velocity

Shias say: ‘year of congruity’ for Sunnis was that in which power overcame legality. Conception of Sunnism — pursuing the Prophet's traditions — from which they inferred their name, was originated when power overcame legality. Unlike the belief adopted by the public, ‘Sunni’ does not indicate pursuing the Prophet's traditions. Shias, in fact, are the most careful for pursuing the Prophet's deeds, words and signature. By despising partisan imitation, one can easily perceive that this saying is not irresponsible at all. By the same token, everybody is within reach to the authenticity of the previous allegation. Considering it is true, censure should be alleviated from us. Barring this, we shall retreat from the wrong. (Surely falsehood is a vanishing thing.)

Meeting the urgency of the pro­truth, the following is the decisive evidence on our claims:

The Two Authorities

For Shias, there were two authorities in Islam after the Prophet's decease:

The individual authority was held by the — foremost — head of the Prophet's household; Ali (peace be upon him). This authority faces the predominant ruler's dictatorship for Sunnis.

The congregational authority was held by the Prophet's progeny and household. These individuals were loyal to their head. They sided him in conserving sturdy origins of the religion.

God is The Nominator Of The 2 Authorities

Shias allege that it was God, the exalted, who assigned the two authorities and ordered His Prophet of declaring so to the Muslims. So, the Prophet did declare it in various occasions.

Shariite Proof Of God's Nominating The Individual Authority

First: The Holy Verse of Wilaya 5:55­6. (Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and His Apostle and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant.)

These two Verses were revealed for Ali when he gave his ring as alms while he was performing the ritual genuflection of the prayer. In At­Tha'labi's Tafseer, for instance, these two Verses are debated in details. As he saw Ali give his ring as alms while he was in his ritual genuflection of the prayer, Mohammed, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), recited the words Moses, the prophet, had supplicated his Lord with: ( And give me an aider from my family; Ali. Strengthen my back by him…)

Abu­Therr reported: “By God I swear, before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had finished from reciting this supplication, Gabriel, the Angel, descended to him with the revelation of the Holy Verse of Wilaya. Exegesists of the Holy Quran, unanimously, remarked that the Holy Verse involved had been revealed for Ali.[53]

[53] Many exegesists of the Holy Quran remarked to Ali's being the one intended in the Holy Verses concerned. Refer to, for instance, to Al­Qawsheji's Sharhul­Tajrid, Chapter of Imamate. Abu­Isaaq Ahmed Bin Mohammed Bin Ibrahim An­Nisapuri At­Tha'labi's book of Tafseer, about whom bn­Khellekan, in his Al­Wafiyat, confessed that he had been the only reliable exegesist in his time. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page161. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page311. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 228 and 250. Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, pages 88 and 102. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, part.2 page187. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page409. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, pages 108 and 123. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.2

The Prophet indeed assigned Ali, Amirul­Mu'minin, as the authority and his successor. This process was acted in the presence of one hundred thousand Muslims in Ghadeer Khum. It was on that Thursday when Gabriel, the Angel, descended from the heavens five hours after the daybreak to address at the Prophet: “O Mohammed! Your Lord sends His greeting to you and say (O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message; surely Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.)” This Holy Verse was revealed on the day of Ghadeer — the day on which the Prophet led the Muslims to a place called ‘Ghadeer Khum’ and declared that Ali would be his successor.[54]

After the Prophet's assigning Ali as the coming Imam, authority and (caliph), the following Holy Verse was revealed: (This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.) This very Verse was revealed in Ghadeer Khum, the exact place where Amirul­Mu'minin Ali, was declared as the succeeding leader. The revelation of that Verse occurred in Dhul­Hijja (the last month

page293. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.2 page53. Al­Kelbi's At­Tasiheelu Li Uloumit­Tanzeel, page181. Az­Zemekhshari's Al­Keshaf (Book of Tafseer), part.1 page649. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.6 page288­9. Ibnul­Jawzi's Zadul­Maseer Fi Ilmit­Tafseer, part.2 page383. Al­Qurtubi's Book of Tafseer, part.6 page216. Al­Jadi's At­Tafseerul­Muneer Li Me'alimit­Tanzeel, part.1 page210. Fetihul­Beyan Fi Meqassidil­Qur'an, part.3 page51. Al­Wahidi's Asbabun­Nuzoul, page148. As­Suyouti's Al­Babul­Manqoul­printed in the margins of Tafseerul­Jalalein, page213­. As­Sibt Al­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass pages 18 and 208. Ar­Razi's Book of Tafseer, part.12 pages 20 and 26. bn­Kutheir's Book of Tafseer, part.2 page71. There are other thirty six references mentioning the same fact. [54] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page86. Siddiq Hassan Khan Melik Behubal's Fetihul­Bayan Fi Meqassidil­Qur'an, part.3 page63. Al­Hakim Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel Li Qawa'idit­Tafdheel; the Verses dealing with merits of the Prophet's progeny, part.1 page187. Al­Wahidi An­Nisapuri's Asbabun­Nuzoul, page115. Jalalud­Din As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.2 page298. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.2 page60. Ar­Razi's Book of Tafseer, part.12 pages 50. bn­Talha's Mettalibus­Sa'ul, part.1 page44. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, pages 25. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page120 and 249. Ashehristani's Almilelu Wen­Nihel, part.1 page163. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 pages 72 and 74. Badrud­Din Al­Hanafi's Umdetul­Qari Fi Sharhi Sahihil­Bukahri, part.8 page58. Al­Hamadani's Mawaddetul­Arabi. Al­Alusi's Rouhul­Me'ani, part.2 page348. Mohammed Ebduh's Tafseerul­Menar, part.6 page463 and many other references.

of the Hijri year) immediately after the ceremonies of assigning Ali as the succeeding leader.[55]

Exactly after the ceremonies of designating Amirul­Mu'minin Ali, Omar­bn­Al­Khattaab approached him and said kiddingly: “Congratulations, son of Abu­Talib! You became my master as well as the entire Muslims.” This is an authentic report.[56]

In the coming eras, the Ghadeer day became a general festivity for Muslims.[57] The hadith of Ghadeer has attained such a high rank of continuous narration that many Sunni scholars compiled thorough books in this concern. As examples of these books, we mention the following:

bn­Hajar At­Tabari's Kitabul­Wilaya.

Abul­Abbas­bn­Ahmed­bn­Uqdeh's Kitabul­Wilaya. (333A.H.)

Abu­Bakr Al­Jessabi's Men Rawa Hadithe Ghadeeri Khum. (355A.H.)

Ad­Darqutni's ways of narrating the Hadith of Ghadeer. (385A.H.)

Abu­Sa'd As­Sejistani's Ad­Dirayeh Fi Hadithil­Wilaya. (477A.H.)

[55] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page75. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page19. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page157. Al­Khateeb Al­Baghdadi's Tarikhu Baghdad, part.8 page290. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.2 page295. As­Suyouti's Alittifaq, part.1 page31. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, part.1 page47. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page115. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 pages 72 and 74. Al­Ya'qubi's At­Tarikh, part.2 page35. bn­Jarir At­Tabari's Kitabul­Wilaya. Al­Alusi's Ruhul­Me'ani, part.6 page55. bn­Kutheir's Al­Bidayeh Wen­Nihayeh, part.5 page213 and many other references. [56] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page75, hadith 575, 577 and 578. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page18, hadith 24. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page94. Al­Khateeb Al­Baghdadi's Tarikhu Baghdad, part.8 page290. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page158, hadith 213. Abu­Ahmed Al­Ghezzali's Sirrul­Alemin, page21. Ihqaqul­Haq, part.6 page256. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.1 page132. Ibnul­Jawzi's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page277 and many other references. [57] Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.1 page267 who referred to Al­Beiruni's Al­Atharul­Baqiyeh Fil­Qurounil­Khaliyeh, page334. bn­Talha's Metalibus­Sa'ul, part.1 page44. bn­Khellekan's Wefiyatul­A'yan, part.1 page60. The life account of Al­Musta'li Bin Al­Muntessir. The life account of Al­Mustensir Al­Ubeidi, part.2 page223.

Abul­Qasim Ubeidullah Al­Hanafi's Du'atul­Hudati Ila Eda'i Haqqil­Muwalat. (490A.H.)

In addition, a great deal of other compilers of hadiths did collect hadiths appertained to this concern in many books. 116 Sahaba and 84 Sahaba's followers reported the hadith of Ghadeer. Beginning with the second to the fourteenth Hijri century, almostly, all of the Sunni scholars of various classes and sects, narrated the hadith of Ghadeer. Al­Amini, in his Al­Ghadeer, mentions that 360 scholars did refer to the hadith of Ghadeer. We should be sufficed with the fact that Omar­bn­Al­Khattaab approached Ali and addressed at him: “Congratulations, son of Abu­Talib! You have become the master of every male and female believer.” That was on the day of the Ghadeer declaration.

A Model of the Ghadeer Declaration

In his Al­Mu'jamul­Kabeer, At­Tabarani relates:

(Hutheifeh­bn­Useid Al­Ghefari, the reverent companion of the Prophet, said:

As he accomplished the rites of the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) warned his companions against residing at some bushes in an elevated place. After a while, he (peace be upon him and his family) ordered them of sweeping that place by removing thistles found there. Next to these bushes, the Prophet had performed a prayer before he stood erect and orated: “O people! The Aware, the Knowing informed me that prophets attain only half of the age of the succeeding ones. I do conclude that I am to be soon invited, and I am to answer. I, as well as you, shall be questioned. What will you reply?” “We do confirm that you have conveyed, done well and advised. God may reward you with good.” They answered.

Thence, the Prophet said: “Do you maintain there is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is Allah's slave and apostle, and the Paradise is true, the Hell­fire is true, death is true, the post­earthly life is true and the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it; and Allah shall raise up those in graves?” “Yes, we do maintain.” they answered. “O Allah! Be the witness.” supplicated the Prophet, and added: “O people! Allah is surely my Master. I am the master of the believers. I am preceded to the believers' souls. He

whomever I was his master, this — Ali — is his master. O Allah! Accede to whom accedes to him, and oppose whom opposes him.”[58]

The Prophet then added: “O people! I will be preceding you to the Heavenly Pool and you shall be following. It is a pool of an area larger than the distance between Busra — Syria and San'a — Yemen. In it, there shall be cups as numerous as stars. When you shall be coming to me on that Pool, I will ask you about the two weighty things. Suppose how should you esteem me in these two. The major weighty thing is the Book of Allah, the Elevated. It is a cord, one of its brims is at Allah's hand while the other is at yours. Cling to it and deviate not and distort not. The other is my clan; my household. The Aware, the Knowing has informed me that they shall never separate until they shall join me on the Pool.”[59]

The Doctrinal Assertion on Ali's Leadership

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “You are my successor in this world and in the Hereafter.”[60] “After me, you are the

[58] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.2 page50, hadith 548 and 550. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page94. Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal's Al­Musned, part.4 page281. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, page24. As­Suyouti's Al­Hawi Lil­Fatawi, part.1 page122. Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page67. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh, part.1 page350. At­Thehbi's Tarikhul­Islam, part.2 page197. Khawaja Al­Hanafi's Ilmul­Kitab, page161. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page109. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, pages 30­1, 249. Al­Fakhr Ar­Razi's Book of Tafseer, part.3 page63. As­Sibt Al­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass, page29. Mishkatul­Messabih, part.3 page246. Abaqatul­Anwar, part.1 page285. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page77. Al­Muraja'at, Rev. Hussein Radi, part.2 page177. [59] At­Tabarani's Al­Mu'jamul­Kabeer. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page25. (In this reference, the compiler rules of the authenticity of the narrative involved.) Al­Haithami's Majma'uzzawa'id, part.6 page164. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page45, hadith 545. Al­Mutteqi Al­Hindi's Kenzul­Ummal, part.1 page168, hadith 959, and part.6 page152. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.1 page26­7. Abaqatul­Anwar, Vol.­Hadithut­Ta'liq, part.1 page3132 and 165. Al­Hakeem At­Terfadi's Nawadirul­Ahwal, page289. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page37. [60] At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak, page26. (In this reference, the compiler rules of the authenticity of the narrative involved.) bn­Hajar's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, 9,11,12 page16, 107, 72. (In this reference, the compiler reports that Imam Ahmed­Bin Hanbal­has related and ruled of the authenticity of this hadith.) Muslim's Book of Hadith, part.2 pages 24 and 323, Chapter: Ali's Merits, and part.1 page28. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page109. Al­Jam'u Beines­Sahihein, Chapter: Ali's Merits. Al­Bukhari's Book of Hadith, part.2 page58, Chapter: Battle of Tabuk. Ahmed's Book of

master of every Muslim.” “He whomever I was his leader, Ali is his leader.” “Ali does deserve more than the share he had taken. He is your leader after me.” “You are surely the master of every believer, after me.” “He whomever I was his chief, he — Ali — is being his chief.” “He whomever I was his master, this — Ali — is being his master.” “You are surely the leader of the believers after me.”[61]

The Hadith of Manzila — the credit — assured Ali's leadership; “Your credit to me is as same as Aaron's to Moses. Yet, there is no prophet proceeding me.” This hadith is one of the Prophet’s most authentic traditions that the entire hadithists reported and recorded.[62]

Hadith, part.1 pages 172, 175, 177, 179, 182 and 185, and part.6 pages 331, 269 and 438, and part.3 page32. As­Suyouti's Tarikhul­Khulefa, page65. (In this reference, the compiler mentions that At­Tabarani and Al­Bezzaz have recorded this hadith.) At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, hadith 2504. Abdul­Berr's Alisti'ab, Chapter: Ali's Manners. [61] An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'is. Ahmed's Book of Hadith, part.4 page438. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page111. At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak. Al­Muraja'at, page163­4. An­Nidhamus­Siyasi Fil­Islam; One. [62] As examples, the following sources can be referred to: Al­Bukhari's Book of Hadith, part.5 page129, and part.4 page208. Muslim's Book of Hadith, part.2 page360. Ahmed's Book of Hadith, part.3 pages 50, hadith 1490 (with an authentic documentation), and part.5 pages 56, 57 and 66. bn­Madgeh's Book of Hadith, part.1 page42. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page109. At­Tabari's Book of History, part.3 page104. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, hadiths: 30, 125, 148, 149 and 150. (The compiler defined a hundred way of reporting his Hadith.) Al­Belathiri's Ansabul­Ashraf, part.2 page106. bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba, part.2 page507 and 509. Alisti'ab (in the margin of Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba), part.3 page34­5. An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'is, pages 76­8. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib. Hilyetul­Awliya, part.7 page194. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page60. As­Suyouti's Tarikhul­Khulefa, page168. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page35. Usdul­Ghabeh, part.2 page8. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page95. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 281. bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha, part.2 page495. At­Tabarani's Al­Mu'jamus­Sagheer, part.2 pages 22 and 54. Al­Haithami's Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page109. Al­Mutteqi Al­Hindi's Kenzul­Ummal, part.15 page149. bn­EbdiRabbih's Al­Iqdul­Fareed, part.4 page311. Ibnul­Atheer's Jami'ul­Ukhuwwa, part.9 page468. Mishkatul­Massabih, part.3 page242. As­Suyouti's Al­Jami'us­Sagheer, part.2 page56.

Guidance After the Prophet

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) expressed: “I am the forewarner and Ali is the guide. By you, Ali, the guided — to the right path — shall be led.”[63]

The Attester After the Prophet

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “This, Ali, and I shall be the attesters on my people on the Day of Resurrection.”[64] “Ali is the door to my knowledge. After me, he shall be settling questions of what I have been asked to communicate to my people. Cherishing him is creed. Despising him is hypocrisy.” “I am the city of knowledge. Ali is its door.” In the Chapter: political leadership, these hadiths shall be detailedly debated. In a like manner, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “After me, you shall be settling questions of discrepancy my people will be engaged in.”[65]

Such traditions do assert that the Prophet had designated the succeeding authority to whom people should refer to in both political and religious affairs. That single authority was Ali­bn­Abi­Talib. In the Fourth Title of

[63] the following books:  bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.2 page417. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, page107. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page90. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page99. Nurul­Absar, page71. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page293. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 233. Ihqaqul­Haq, part.4 page301. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page34. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.4 page148. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.1 page66. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.4 page45. Ibnul­Jawzi's Zadul­Maseer Fi Ilmit­Tafseer, part.4 page207. Al­Alusi's Rouhul­Me'ani, part.13 page97. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.3 page70. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.13 page103. bn­Kutheir's Book of Tafseer, part.3 page502 and many other references. [64] Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page45, hadiths 67 and 97. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.2 page273, hadiths 793­5. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page239. Al­Mennawi's Kunouzul­Haqa'iq, page38. At­Thehbi's Al­Mizan, part.4 page138. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page34. [65] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.2 page488, hadiths 1008­9. Al­Khawarzmi's Maqtelul­Hussein, page86. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page236. Al­Mennawi's Kunouzul­Heqa'iq, page182. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith) page33.

this book, a detailed debate will be given to this subject concerning political leadership of Islam.

The Shias' Congregational Authority

Shias appraise the Prophet and his immaculate household (peace be upon them all) as their guide owing to their seniority in Islam and God's preferring them. They are, as Shias see, the sons, women and near people intended in the Holy Verse of Mubahala — supplicating God to curse the liar party: (But whoever disputes with you in matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come on let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars. 3:61)

This Holy Verse was revealed in the favor of the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Al­Hassan and Al­Hussein (peace be upon them).[66] In addition, they are the rope — covenant — of Allah; (And holdfast to the covenant (rope) of Allah altogether and be not disunited, 3:103)[67]

They are people of the reminder — the Quran — about whom God said: (so ask the followers (people) of the reminder if you do not know. 21:7)[68] They are also the envied intended in the Verse: (Or do they envy the people for

[66] An­Nawawi's Muslim's Book of Hadith, Chapter: Ali's Merits, part.2 and 7 page360 and 120. At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, part.4 page293. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page120­9. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page150. (The compiler rules of the authenticity of the hadith.) Al­Hakim's Ma'rifetu Uloumil­Hadith, Type 17. At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.1 page21. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.3 page299­301. Az­Zemekhshari's Al­Kheshaf (Book of Tafseer), part.1 page368­70. Al­Qurtubi's Book of Tafseer, part.4 page104. Al­Wahidi's Asbabun­Nuzoul, page59. bn­Arabi's Ahkamul­Qur'an, part.1 page275. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.1 page347. Ar­Razi's Book of Tafseer, part.2 page699. On page45 of Al­Muraja'at; the index, about 90 otherreferences recording this narrative are written down by Hussein Razi, the revisor. [67] Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, page130, hadiths 177­80. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page189. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page139 and 238. Ashabrawi's Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf, page76. Al­Alusi's Rouhul­Me'ani, part.4 page16. Ashabalneji's Nurul­Absar, page102. [68] Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page334. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page51. Al­Qurtubi's Book of Tafseer, part.11 page272. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.14 page109. bn­Kutheir's Book of Tafseer, part.2 page570. Al­Alusi's Rouhul­Me'ani, part.14 page134. At­Tusturi's Ihqaqul­Haq, part.3 page482.

what Allah has given them of His grace? 4:54)[69] Similarly, they are the near of kin intended in the Verses: (And give to the near of kin his due.. 17:26) (.. It is for Allah and for the Apostle and for the near of kin.. 59:7) (And know that whatever thing you gain, a fifth of it is for Allah and for the Apostle and for the near of kin.. 8:41)[70] They are the purified intended in the Verse: (Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, o people of the House! and to purify you a thorough purifying. 33:33)[71] In the same way, they are the ones whose commitment is imposed by God[72] and whose being blessed during obligatory prayers is also imposed as a pillar rite.[73]

[69] Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page467 hadith 314. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page143. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page150. Ashebelneji's Nurul­Absar, page102. As­Sebban's Is'afur­Raghibin (In the margin of Nurul­Absar) page102. Ashabrawi's Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf, page76. Abu­Bakr Al­Hadhrami's Wardus­Sabi, page37. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.3 page61. [70] As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.4 page177. Al­Haithami's Majma'uzzawa'id, part.7 page49. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.15 and 10 page194 and 5. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.2 page338. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page49. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.1 page228. [71] Muslim's Book of Hadith, part.2 pages 24 and 323, Chapter: The Prophet's Household's Merits, and part.2 and 15 page368 and 149. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.2 page33. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page347. At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak (In the margin of Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak). As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.5 page198. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.4 page279. In our An­Nidhamus­Siyasi Fil­Islam, pages 76 and up, a persuasive scientific ebate is given to this subject. [72] Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.2 page130. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali Bin Abi Talib, page307. Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, pages 25 and 138. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, pages 101, 135 and 136.  Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, page11. Al­Khawarzmi's Maqtelul­Hussein, pages 1 and 57. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.25 page25. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page172. Ashabrawi's Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf, pages 5 and 13. As­Suyouti's Ihya'ul­Meyt (In the margins of Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf) page110. At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak (In the margins of Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak) part.3 page172. Az­Zemekhshari's Al­Keshaf (Book of Tafseer), part.3 page402. Al­Qurtubi's Book of Tafseer, part.16 page22. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.4 page537. Hilyetul­Awliya, part.3 page201 and many other references .. [73] Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.2 page302. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, pages 87 and 139. Ar­Razi's Book of Tafseer, part.7 page391. Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page19. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.1 page269. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.1 page208. An­Nebhani's Al­Anwarul­Muhammediyeh, page422. Ashafi'i's poetry: It is sufficiently a great pride that He who does not bless you is false performer. This poetry is mentioned in bn­Hajar's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page146. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page354. As­Sebban's Is'afur­Raghibin(In the margin of Nurul­Absar) page118. Ashabrawi's Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf, page29. Ashabalneji's Nurul­Absar, page105.

In addition, the Prophet's household are the minor weighty. The Holy Quran and they are standing for the fortress against deviation.[74] They are the leading people[75] and the ship of salvation; he shall be saved that whoever embarks it, while the tardy shall be surely sunk.[76] They are the security against discrepancies. He should be reckoned with the party of the Satan that whoever opposes them.[77] They are the security of this nation.[78]

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: “With each generation of my nation, there will be decent individuals from my descendants, whose mission shall be eliminating, away from this religion, distortion of the deviated and falsification of the dishonest and

Zeini Dehlan's As­Sirewtun­Nubawiyyeh, (In the margins of As­Seeretul­Halabiyeh) part.3 page332 and many other references. [74] At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, part.5 page328. Al­Mutteqi Al­Hindi's Kenzul­Ummal, page153. bn­Kutheir's Book of Tafseer, part.4 page113. Ibnul­Atheer's Jami'ul­Ussoul, part.1 page187. At­Tabarani's Al­Mu'jamul­Kabeer page137. Mishkatul­Massabih, part.3 page258. As­Suyouti's Ihya'ul­Meyt (In the margins of Al­Itihaf bihubbil­Ashraf) page114. An­Nebhani's Al­Fetihul­Kabeer, part.1 page503. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page147 and 226. At­Tabarani's Al­Mu'jamus­Sagheer, part.1 page135. Al­Khazin (Book of Tafseer), part.1 page154. At­Tajul­Jami'u Lil­Ussoul, part.3 page308. An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'is, page21. Muslim's Book of Hadith, part.2 page362 and many other references. [75] bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page148 and 226. Al­Haithami's Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page163. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.2 page60. [76] At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page235. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page30 and 370. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page184 and 234. As­Suyouti's Tarikhul­Khulefa. As­Sebban's Is'afur­Raghibin (In the margin of Nurul­Absar) page105. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.2 page246. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 378. At­Tabarani's Al­Mu'jamus­Sagheer, part.2 pages 22. As­Suyouti's Ihya'ul­Meyt (In the margins of Al­Itihaf bihubbil­Ashraf) page113 and many other references. [77] bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page91 and 140. As­Suyouti's Ihya'ul­Meyt (In the margins of Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf) page114. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page93. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page298. An­Nebhani's Jawahirul­Bihar, part.1 page361. [78] Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page17. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page234. As­Suyouti's Ihya'ul­Meyt (In the margins of Al­Itihaf Bihubbil­Ashraf) page112. As­Suyouti's Al­Jami'us­Sagheer, part.2 page161. An­Nebhani's Al­Fetihul­Kabeer, part.3 page267. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.3 and 5 page267 and 92. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page185 and 233. As­Sebban's Is'afur­Raghibin (In the margin of Nurul­Absar) page128 and many other references.

misrepresentation of the ignorant. Your Imams are your delegates to Allah. Decide on the most proper delegates.”[79]

The Fruit of the Shias' Pursuing the Doctrinal Authority

Since they have acceded to Mohammed and his immaculate household, and they betaken the head of the Prophet's household as their Imam and guide, Shias are selected, by Allah, for conserving the religion with its total sturdy principals. Hence, the Prophet foretold of the good tidings that they are the best of mankind. As the Holy Verse: (As for those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men (mankind) 98:7), was revealed, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: “O Ali! These are you and your group.”[80]

[79] bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page148. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, pages 226, 236 and 327. Muhibbud­Din At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page17. [80] Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.2 pages 356­66 hadiths 1125­35, 1137 and 1139­48. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 244­5. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, pages 62 and 187.  Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, page107. Az­Zerendi's Nudhumu Dureris­Simtein, page92. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawaddeh, page62. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib's life account, part.2 page442. Ashabalneji's Nurul­Absar, page71 and 102. bn­Hajar Al­Haithemi's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqa, page96. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.6 page379. At­Tabari's Book of Tafseer, part.3 page146. As­Sibt Al­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass, page18. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadir, part.5 page477. Al­Alusi's Rouhul­Me'ani, part.30 page207. At­Tusturi's Ihqaqul­Haq, part.3 page387. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.2 page57. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.1 page378. Ghayetul­Meram, 28 part.2 page328. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page156.