Chapter 2 - the Pre-adamic Divine Preparations For Nominating the Prophet's Successor

Before the Birth of Adam

God, the Exalted, willed the Arab Prophet's being the final apostle, and Islam's being the final divine religion. He, the Elevated, also willed the Prophet's taking the charge of promoting this religion by a solicitation and a government led directly by him. Through the stages of solicitation and government, the Prophet could evidently proclaim Islam hypothetically, and apply that hypothesis in such a way that the most diminutive hiddens were clearly revealed, and the total features were expounded. That Mohammedan proclamation was the like of a visual, audible and actable slow representational art.

Pursuant to God's will, the progression of the Prophet and his successor was to be occurring concurrently, and to be running coincidentally so that the Prophet should proclaim Islam, be its base and establish the government. Then, he should leave to God and hand his banner to his successor to continue in advancing in the same trend, bearing the same belief. This was the bright picture sketched by the Divine Care and exhibited in the believers' mentalities desiring that they should bring its implementation to view intentionally. The reciprocity between the Prophet and his successor was to be suitable enough to be a brilliant exemplar and style of the conventional fraternity fellowship. That reciprocity, likewise, portrays the nature of the relation between the ancestors and their descendants and the leader and his followers in Islam.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) states: "Fourteen thousand years before Adam's being created, Ali and I were a light between the hands of Allah, the Elevated. When Adam was created, that light was divided into

two parts. One was I and the other was Ali."[1] It was God who created the two lights and made them in the same progression, then distributed the roles between them. In addition, it was God, the Elevated, who took a divine look at people of the earth and picked out two men; The Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family) and his son­in­law and successor. This divine process of election is considered as one of the most evident authentic facts.[2]

In Front of the Solicitation

The Prophet was a fetus when his father died. Abdul­Muttelib, the grandfather, had him in his charge. This responsibility was transferred to Abd Menaf­bn­Abdil­Muttelib, the Prophet's uncle whom was called Abu­Talib. This Abu­Talib was the good­hearted uncle of the Prophet and the father of Ali, his successor. In his youth, the Prophet married a noble wealthy lady named Khadija bnt­Khuweilid. Hence, he had his separate house. As he intended to relieve his destitute uncle, Abd Menaf, the Prophet had one of his children in his charge. It was the Divine Care's will that that child was Ali, the Prophet's successor. So, the child was brought up by his cousin. They were never disassociated till God endowed prophesy to Mohammed. Ali, in fact, was coherent to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) till death.

Following the Prophesy

On Monday, the Prophet was practically given the divine missive. On Thursday, Ali embraced Islam. Hence, he went on cohering to the Prophet. They were together in Mecca as well as Al­Madina. They lived in the same house all over the Prophet's lifetime. Mohammed brought the truth and Ali

[1] Ahmed Bin Hanbal's Book of Hadith, Chapter Ali's Merits. Al­Firdaws, with the following addition: "I, then moved till I was in Abdul­Muttelib. The prophesy was mine while succession was Ali's." bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagheh, part.3 page252 and up. [2] Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page129. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page249. Al­Khatib Al­Baghdadi's Tarikhu Baghdad, part.4 page195. Kenzul­Ummal, part.6 page391 and part.15 page95. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, page297 and many other references.

accepted it. (And he who brings the truth and - that - who accepts it as the truth. These are they that guard against evil. 39:33)[3]

Ali did neither dispute the Prophet nor was he unyielding to him. He was believing and giving credence to the entire words of the Prophet. He was the finest knight in the Prophet's battles totally. Hence he was named 'the grand truster - Siddiq' and 'the greatest distinguisher - Faruq' by authentic doctrinal texts.[4]

Describing his relation with the Prophet at that period, Ali says: "Whilst I was newborn, he - the Prophet - placed me in his bosom. He was embracing me to his breast, caring for me by putting me in his bed, touching me to his body and smelling me his sweat. He had been chewing food before he was providing it to me. He did never notice any lie in my speech or any flaw in my manner. I was wont to pursue him like a child­camel's ensuing its mother. On every new day, he was elevating me a mark of his morals and ordering me of taking it as a guide. In Harra, I saw him while none else could see. In that time, no single house gathered embracers of Islam saving the Apostle of Allah, Khadija and I, the third of them. I could see the illumination of revelation and mission, and smell the odor of prophesy."[5]

[3] Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.2 page120 hadith 810­5. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali, page369 hadith 317. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, page233. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.5 page328. Al­Qurtubi's Book of Tafseer, part.15 page256. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.2 page418. At­Tusturi's Ihqaqul­Haqq, part.3 page177. [4] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page76. Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page102. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, page187. bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba, part.4 page171. bn­Abdil­Berr's Alisti'ab (in the margin of bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba) part.4 page170. Al­Ghayeh, part.5 page287. Mizanuli'tidal, part.2 page417. Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page39 and 140. At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page65. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.2 page313. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page34. As­Seeretul­Halabiya, part.1 page380. bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagheh, part.3 page261. [5] Hashim Ma'ruf Al­Huseini's At­Tasawwufu Wet­Teshayyu', and An­Nidhamus­Siyasiyu Fil­Islam, pages 75­6.

Qethm­bn­Al­Abbas was asked how Ali had inherited the Prophet alone. He answered: "He was the foremost, among us, in catching him and the most adherent to him."[6]

Declaring the Succession After the Declaration of Prophesy

Just after the revelation of the Holy Verse: (And warn your nearest relations. 26:214), the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) spoke in the meeting of the sons of Abdul­Muttelib: "O sons of Abdul­Muttelib! I do not see a young man from the Arabs introduce to his people a thing better than what I am conveying to you. I am conveying the good of this world and the Hereafter. My Lord has ordered me of calling upon you. Which one of you will uphold me in this advocacy, and thus he shall be my brother, inheritor and successor?" Ali narrated: "The entire clique retarded. I, the youngest among them, said: 'O Prophet of Allah! I shall be your backer in this concern.' Then, he took me from the neck and said: 'This is surely my brother, inheritor and successor. You should listen and comply to him and..'"[7]

[6] This narrative is recorded in Ad­Diya's Al­Mukhtara and bn­Jarir's Tahdheebul­Athaar. It is also recorded under the number 6155 of page408 part.6 of Kenzul­Ummal. An­Nisa'i, in his Al­Khassa'issul­Alawiyeh page18, records this narrative. bn­Abil­Hadid, in his Sharhu Nahjil­Belagheh, vol.3 page255, records it. Finally, the narrative is recorded in Ahmed's Book of Hadith, part.1 page159. [7] Abu­Ja'far Mohammed Bin Jarir At­Tabari's Tarikhul­Umemi Wes­Shu'oub, part.2 page217. Abu­Ja'far At­Tabari's Jami'ul­Beyan Fi Tafseeril­Qur'an vol.19 page75, The exegesis of the Holy Verse (And warn your nearest relations. 26:214). Ala'uddin Ali Bin Mohammed Bin Ibrahim Al­Baghdadi Al­Khazin's Lubabbut­Ta'wil Fi Me'anit­Tanzil, part.5 page127, The exegesis of the Holy Verse (And warn your nearest relations. 26:214). Al­Baghawi Al­Ferra's Book of Tafseer part.5 page172. (In the margin of Al­Khazin's Book of Tafseer). bn­Kutheir's Book of Tafseer, part.3 page774. Abul­Fida Isma'il Bin Kutheir Ad­Dimeshqi's As­Seeretun­Nubawiyeh, part.1 page458 and up. (The compiler relates the narrative to Al­Beihaqi, who records it in his Dela'ilun­Nubuwwa.) Ibnul­Atheer's Al­Kamilu Fit­Tarikh, part.2 page62­3. bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagheh, part.13 page210 and 244, (Revised by Mohammed Abul­Fadhl). As­Seeretul­Halabiya, part.1 page334. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page4.1­2. Kenzul­Ummal, part.15 page115 hadith 334. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page125. The narrative is also recorded by At­Tahawi, Ad­Diya Al­Maqdisi, in his Al­Mukhtara, Sa'eed Bin Mansur, in his As­Sunen, Ahmed Bin Hanbal, in his Al­Musned (book of Hadith), Al­Hakim, in his Al­Mustedrak, and An­Nisa'i in his Al­Khassa'issul­Alawiyeh page6. At­Thehbi also records it in his

This is a doctrinal text telling of the Prophet's assigning Ali­bn­Abi­Talib as his inheritor and successor. The Prophet's traditions; words, deeds and signature, are part of the divine doctrine. No single report referred to any sort of repellency of this text. It is an authentic narrative. In his Al­Muraja'at, Al­Amili records: "bn­Jarir and Abu­Ja'far Al­Iskafi ruled of the ultimate authenticity of this narrative." Moreover, the narrative is too obvious to be misrepresented. Logically, representing explicit matters is impracticable.

It is most surely that the Prophet uttered only the words of which he had been ordered by a divine mandate before the clique of Abdul­Muttelib's sons. The Prophet should never speak out of desire; he only follows what is revealed to him. Consequently, he (peace be upon him and his family) should never nominate his inheritor and successor without referring to his Lord.

Declaring and Arranging for the Heir Apparent

1. The Credit

In the hearing of the Muslims, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at Ali: "Your credit to me is as same as Aaron's to Moses. Yet, there is no prophet proceeding me."[8] According to this text, the Prophet had granted Ali the total credits Aaron had enjoyed except prophesy. Al­Amili expresses: "Excluding prophesy from the credits is an evident certification that the other credits are totally included." Among the most significant credits Aaron had enjoyed were his being Moses' aider, associate - in the affair of conveying the divine mission, representative and being obligatorily obeyed by people. These credits are evidenced by God's sayings: (And give me an aider from my family. Harun - Aaron, my brother. Strengthen my back by him. And associate him with me in my affair. 20:29­32), (And Musa - Moses - said to his brother Harun - Aaron: take

Talkhissul­Mustedrak. Kenzul­Ummal, part.6 page392 hadith 6008, and page396 hadith 6045, and page392 hadith 6056, and page404 hadith 6104, and page408 hadith 6155. bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagheh, vol.3 page255. [8] Al­Bukhari's Book of Hadith. Muslim's Book of Hadith, Chapter: Ali's Merits, part.5 page129. At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, part.5 page304. (The compiler, in this reference, decides the authenticity of the hadith involved.) Ahmed's Book of Hadith, part.3 page50. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page109. At­Tabari's Book of History, part.3 page104. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.1 page30.

my place among my people, and act well and do not follow the way of the mischief­makers. 7:142) and (He said: You are indeed granted your petition, O Musa - Moses.20:36).

Accordingly, Ali is the Prophet's successor and heir apparent. This hadith of Manzila - credit - is one of the most authentic traditions. It is reported so continuously that it was narrated by Muawiya even, the head of the despotic faction. Actually, the Prophet repeated this position of Ali tens of times.

2. The Fraternity

In order that the ring established by the divine doctrine is firmly restricted, God determined an actual brotherly relationship between the Prophet and Ali. This relationship is an unprecedented honor and a standing none could attain. Before, as well as after, the immigration to Yathrib, the Prophet declared this brotherly relationship[9] and affirmed it several times in several occasions so that no Muslim would forget.[10] The following hadiths are cited as examples on this brotherly relationship:

The Prophet stated: "A good tidings I have received from my Lord concerning my brother and cousin, and my daughter; God has married Fatima to Ali."[11]

After Fatima had been wedded to Ali, the Prophet addressed at Ummu­Aymen: "Call forth my brother." "Do you marry him your daughter

[9] As­Sibt Ibnul­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass page23. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 pages 107 and 150. Kenzul­Ummal, part.6 page290 hadith 597. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page7. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, page21. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page109. At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, part.5 page30. Ibnul­Atheer's Usdul­Ghabeh, part.2 page221 and part.3 page137. bn­Abdil­Berr's Alisti'ab (in the margin of bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba) part.3 page35. bn­Sa'd's At­Tabaqat part.3 page220. In addition, there are tens of books recording this familiar hadith. One of the most well­known matter of Islam is that Mohammed and Ali are brothers, and Abu­Bakr and Omar are brothers. [10] This matter is recorded by the most famed hadithists in their grand books. Fakhruddin Ar­Razi, in his book of Tafseer, Chapter: Ali's Passing The Night In The Prophet's Bed, part.2 page189, records: "As a Qudsi hadith, the following saying is related: 'I determine fraternal relationship between him­Ali­and Mohammed..' [11] Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page246. Al­Khawarzmi's Maqtelul­Hussein, part.1 page60. Ibnul­Atheer's Usdul­Ghabeh, part.1 page206.  bn­Hajar's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqah, page171.

while he is your brother?" wondered Ummu­Aymen. "Yes, I do.." answered the Prophet..[12]

The Prophet addressed at Ali: "You are my brother and my associate, and you shall be my companion in the Paradise."[13]

The Prophet addressed at Ali: "Regarding you, Ali, you are my brother and the father of my sons and a part of me and to me you belong.."[14]

Thusly, the Prophet continued repeating and declaring this brotherly relationship all over his lifetime. In his last moments, he ordered: "Summon my brother."[15] When Ali came, the Prophet asked him to be near to him. So, he began to converse with him till his blessed soul went out of his body.

On that account, Ali was used to saying: "I am the slave of Allah and the brother of His Apostle and the grand truster and the greatest distinguisher. None should say it after me but a liar." [16]

Within the most familiar matters generally known by people is that Ali had been the Prophet's brother before and after the immigration to Yathrib, and, likewise, the brotherly relationship between Abu­Bakr and Omar had been determined before and after the immigration. Later on, Abu­Bakr, in his will, designated Omar, his brother, as his heir apparent. This will was precisely implemented.

[12] An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'issul­Alawiyeh page115 and At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page65. [13] This hadith is recorded in bn­Asakir's book of history, part.1 page122 and Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page46. [14]This hadith is recorded by Al­Khawarzmi. [15] bn­Sa'd's At­Tabaqat, part.2 pageand, in a similar form, Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page29. [16] bn­Madgeh's Book of Hadith, part.1 page44. At­Tabari's Book of History, part.2 page310. bn­Abdil­Berr's Alisti'ab (in the margin of bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba) part.3 page39. bn­Al­Atheer's Al­Kamilu Fit­Tarikh, part.2 page57. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, part.1 page120 and many other references.

3. The Wilaya[17]

As he (peace be upon him and his family) stated: "You are my successor in this world and in the Hereafter."[18], the Prophet declared to the Muslims that Ali should be his successor. The Muslims, however, perceived so when the Prophet addressed at Ali in another occasion: "After me, you are the leader of every Muslim."[19]

One day, The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) assigned Ali­bn­Abi­Talib as the commander of a phalanx. As they went back bearing spoils besides triumph, Ali dedicated a bondmaid to himself. They denied so and complained before the Prophet. "Ali deserves more than this bondmaid. He is your leader after me." expressed the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).[20] Repeatedly, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was declaring: "He whosesoever master was I, Ali is being his master." He,

[17] This Arabic term 'Wilaya' stands for several meanings. It may imply preference, loyalty, religious leadership, succession and many other meanings. Hence, the four meanings recently mentioned are congregationally indicated by this word. [18] In Talkhissul­Mustedrak, At­Thehbi decides the authenticity of this hadith. It is also recorded in bn­Hajar's As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqah, title 12 page16. Muslim's Book of Hadith, Chapter: Ali's Merits, part.2 page24. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page109. Al­Bukhari's Book of Hadith, part.2 page58. Muslim's Book of Hadith, part.2 page322. Ahmed Bin Hanbal's Book of Hadith, part.2 page109. Kenzul­Ummal, part.6 hadith 2504, in which he mentions that At­Tabarani and Al­Bezzaz, in his book of hadith, record the hadith. bn­Abdil­Berr's Alisti'ab (in the margin of bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba), chapter: Ali's Affairs. bn­Hajar, in As­Sawa'iqul­Muhriqah, 11 page107, records this hadith and commentates that Imam Ahmed records and decides the authenticity of it. [19] Ahmed Bin Hanbal's Book of Hadith, part.5 page25 (With an authentic documentation). bn­Abdil­Berr's Alisti'ab (in the margin of bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba) part.3 page28. bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba, part.2 page509. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawadda, page55 and 182. An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'issul­Alawiyeh page64. Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak, part.3 page34. At­Thehbi's Talkhissul­Mustedrak, (In the margin of Al­Hakim's Al­Mustedrak). bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page348 hadith 490 and many other references. [20] At­Tirmithi's Book of Hadith, part.5 page296 hadith 3796. An­Nisa'i's Al­Khassa'issul­Alawiyeh page97. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page92. bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba, part.2 page509. As­Shebelneji's Nourul­Absar, page158. Hilyetul­Awliya, part.6 page294. Ibnul­Atheer's Usdul­Ghabeh, part.4 page27. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page381. Al­Baghawi's Messabihus­Sunneh, part.2 page275. Jami'ul­Ussoul, part.2 page470. Kenzul­Ummal, part.15 page124. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawadda, page53. As­Sibt Ibnul­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass page36. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.3 page216. bn­Talha's Mettalibus­Sa'ul, part.1 page48. Al­Muraja'at, The Index page134.

once, said it in the presence of one hundred thousand Muslims. Moreover, the Prophet's orders of the necessity of showing loyalty to Ali were too evident to be denied. He also expounded upon the necessity of that loyalty and its significance and effects in this world and the Hereafter. He showed that loyalty to Ali is as same as loyalty to him - the Prophet, and cherishing to Ali is as same as cherishing to him. And bearing malice to Ali is as same as bearing malice to the Prophet. However, being loyal to the Prophet is as same as being loyal to Allah.

Among the rulings decided by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is the following: "He whoever intends to imitate my lifetime and dies like my death and lodges in the Paradise of Eternity which my Lord promised, should be loyal to Ali­bn­Abi­Talib. He shall neither take you out of guidance nor shall he take you in deviation."[21]

Wahab­bn­Hamzeh relates: During my accompanying Ali in a journey, I noticed a sort of cruelty. When I complained so before the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), he advised: "Say not such a thing about Ali. He shall be your master after me." [22]

Showing Loyalty and Affection to Ali is Estimated As Same As Showing Loyalty and Affection to Allah

Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) addressed a harangue at his companions: "I do promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali­bn­Abi­Talib. He whoever shows loyalty to him is estimated as same as showing loyalty to me. And showing loyalty to me is showing loyalty to Allah. And he whoever shows affection for him is estimated as same as showing affection for me. And showing affection for me is showing affection for Allah. And he whoever bears malice to him is

[21] Abu­Na'eem's Hilyetul­Awliya, part.4 page349­50. Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page108. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.2 page93 hadith 602. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.2 page213. At­Tusturi's Ihqaqul­Haqq, part.5 page108. Al­Hamawini's Fera'idus­Simtein part.1 page55. [22] bn­Hajar's Al­Issabetu Fi Tamyizis­Sahaba, part.3 page641. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.1 page385. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawadda, page55. Al­Amini's Al­Ghadeer, part.3 page216. An Alike hadith is recorded in Usdul­Ghabeh, part.5 page94 and Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page109.

estimated as same as bearing malice to me. And bearing malice to me is bearing malice to Allah, the Exalted." [23]

On another day, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) stated: "I promote every one, who believed and trusted me, to stick on loyalty to Ali­bn­Abi­Talib. Surely, being loyal to him is seen as same as being loyal to me. And being loyal to me is as same as being loyal to Allah."[24]

The Consecutive Declarations and Arrangements for Ali's Next Leadership Were God's Mandate

For maintaining Ali's next leadership, the Verses (Only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep prayers and pay the poor rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and his Apostle and those who believe for guardiance, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant. 5:55­6), were revealed.

These Verses were revealed for Ali who gave alms while he was performing the ritual genuflection of a prayer. The Verses, also, were regarded as a response to the Prophet's supplication: "And give me an aider from my family; Ali. Strengthen my back by him.."[25]

[23] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.2 page93 hadith 594 and 595. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali, page230 hadith 277 and 279. Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page108. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawadda, page282. Muntakhabu Kenzil­Ummal (in the margin of Ahmed's Book of Hadith), part.5 page32. At­Tusturi's Ihqaqul­Haqq, part.6 page434­7. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.1 page202. Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page291. Al­Muraja'at, The Index page29. [24] bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account, part.2 page91 hadith 591. [25] At­Tabari's book of Tafseer, part.6 page288­9. Az­Zemekhshari's Al­Keshaf (book of Tafseer) part.1 page649. Ibnul­Jawzi's Zadul­Masire (book of Tafseer) part.2 page383. Al­Qurtubi's part.6 page219. Al­Jadi's At­Tafseerul­Muneer, part.1 page210. Fetihul­Beyan Fi Meqassidil­Qur'an part.3 page51. Al­Wahidi's Asbabun­Nuzoul, page184. Me'alimut­Tanzeel (In the margin of Al­Khazin's book of Tafseer) part.2 page55. Al­Hassakani's Shawahidut­Tanzeel, part.1 page161 hadith 216 and on. Ibnul­Meghazili's Menaqibu Ali, page311 hadith 354. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, pages 228 and 250. At­Tabari's Thekha'irul­Uqba, page88. Al­Khawarzmi's Al­Menaqib, page187. bn­Asakir's Tarikhu Dimeshq, Chapter: Ali's life account,part.2 page409. Ibnus­Sebbagh's Al­Fussoulul­Muhimmeh, pages 108 and 123. As­Suyouti's Ad­Durrul­Manthour, part.2 page293. Ashawkani's Fetihul­Qadeer, part.2 page53. As­Suyouti's Lubabun­Nuqoul (In the margin of Tafseerul­Jelalein) page213. As­Sibt Ibnul­Jawzi's Tethkiretul­Khawass pages 18 and 208. As­Shebelneji's Nourul­Absar,