Chapter 8 — Introductories To the Rebellion
With the Prophet in His Final Disease
The Prophet was in his final moments. The Angel Gabriel visited him ceaselessly. He had full knowledge of the future of his nation. He did his mission so completely, conveyed his Lord's missives and explicated every thing totally and was familiar with the surrounding incidents. He realized the current silence should be followed by an explosion that would destroy the political legality and the doctrinal authority. This destruction would certainly disarm Islam and cripple the central originator of the divine solicitation and government.
For his nature, the Prophet should never be inclined by storms, and should never be occluded from keeping his deep pathos of kindness and mercy towards these peoples. In addition to the completion of the religion, the perfection of the divine grace and the comprehensive explication of every thing needed by people including ways of appropriate defecation and urination, the Prophet insisted on condensing the entire situation for people. By this, he intended that people would be guided and would never be deviated or affected by the imminent pitfalls waylaying for them and waiting for the Prophet's decease so that they — the pitfalls — would be opening their mouths for troubling Islam's pureness, hampering its movement and digressing its course.
The Prophet's blessed house was suffocated with the grand Sahaba. It was the best opportunity to disclose. He importunately persisted on summarizing the situation and reminding of the future course of the march of Islam. The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree after which you shall never be deviated.”
What is the wrong with such a prophetic cognizance? Who would reject preservation against deviation? For what is this matter rejected? For whose good is it rejected? Moreover, considering Mohammed as an ordinary Muslim, not a prophet and a leader of the nation, it is rightful for every
Muslim to record his will and say whatever he wants, specially just before his final departure. It is optional for the receivers to apply or discount that will or saying.
OmarbnAlKhattaab interfered and addressed at the retinue: “The Prophet is dominated by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by God's Book.”
The retinue were engaged in discrepancy. Some supported the Prophet's demand with recording a decree after which deviation shall be thoroughly suspended, while others supported Omar's request of standing against that demand. When their dispute attained its climax, the Prophet dismissed them.
According to another narrative, when the Prophet demanded with a paper on which he would record a decree protecting against thorough deviation, the retinue disputed. It is disapprovable to dispute in the attendance of a prophet. They claimed that the Prophet had been speaking out of dotage. “Quit me!” the Prophet said, “The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
According to a third narrative; The Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper and an inkpot so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.”
They said: “The Prophet of God is speaking out of dotage.”
According to a fourth narrative ascribed to AlBukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you from deviation for ever.” OmarbnAlKhattaab commented: “The Prophet is affected by his pains. We have, sufficiently, the Book of God.” So, they were engaged in litigious dispute. “Quit me.” the Prophet settled the divergence, “Before me it is disapprovable to engage in dispute.”
 AlBukhari's, Book of Sick, Chapter: The diseased's dismissing the visitors: part.7 page9. Muslim's, the last of Book of Will, pare 5 page75. AnNawawi's Muslim's Sahih, part.11, page95. Ahmed's, part.4 page356, hadith 2992. bnAbilHadid's Sharhu NahjilBelagha, part.6, page51.  AlBukhari's, part.4, page31 and Muslims' part.1, page222 and part.3, page286.  Muslim's, part.2, page16 and part.11, page945, and Ahmed's, part.1 page355, and AtTabari's Tarikh, part.2, page193 and IbnulAtheer's AlKamil, page320.  AlBukhari's, part.1 page37.
According to a fifth narrative of AlBukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. Some faced him with these questions frequently. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
According to a sixth narrative reported by AlBukhari, the Prophet said: “Fetch me a paper so that I will record a decree protecting you thoroughly from deviation.” They were engaged in dispute. It is disapprovable to dispute before a prophet. “What is the wrong with him? Has he been speaking out of dotage? Ask him.” they commented. “Quit me,” he said, “the pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
As to a seventh narrative of AlBukhari, the Prophet said: “Let me record a decree according to which you shall never be deviated.” “The Prophet has been affected by his pains. You have the Quran. We are sufficed by the Book of Allah.” Omar commented.
The attendants were engaged in litigious dispute. Some supported the Prophet's demanding with a record protecting against deviation for ever. Some supported Omar's suggestion. “Quit me.” The Prophet said as their divergence attained its climax.
According to another report, OmarbnAlKhattaab said: “The Prophet is speaking out of dotage…”
AlFaruq declared that he had occluded the Prophet from recording that decree so that he would prevent him from nominating Ali for the leadership.
 AlBukhari's, part.5 page137 and AtTabari's Tarikh, part.3, page1923.  AlBukhari's, part.2 page132 and part.4 page656.  AlBukhari's part.8 page161.  AsSibt AlJawzi's TethkiretulKhawass, page62, and AbuHamid AlGhezzali's SirrulAalemine We Keshfu Ma FidDarein, page21.
The Encounter: Parties and Preliminary Results
The first party: Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family), the messenger of Allah, the last of the prophets and the Imam (president) of the Islamic state.
The adversary party: OmarbnAlKhattaab; one of the grand Sahaba and the most remarkable viziers of the Islamic state and the second successor of the Prophet.
Place of encounter: The Prophet's house.
Witnesses of the encounter: the grand Sahaba (pleased be them).
The attendants dissented on two groups. The first supported AlFaruq in preventing the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) from recording that decree. This group argued that AlFaruq had been one of the most considerable Sahaba and the Prophet's viziers. He cared for Islam. He thought that there had been no incentive to annoy the diseased Prophet by allowing him to record that will. The Quran is sufficient in this regard. It is the security against deviation. Hence, it is inconsequential to have the decree the Prophet would write.
The second group rejected originally any sort of encounter between the followers and their leaders; a believer and a prophet whose mission is acceptably satisfactory; an apostle who directly receives instructions from God and an applier of such instructions; a prophet that is a head of a government and one of his ministers. The group members determined the imperativeness of giving the Prophet a chance to say or record everything he intends since he is still a prophet and the head of the government till the last moment of his life and till someone occupies his place. From another face, he is a Muslim who lawfully enjoys the freedom to speak out and record whatever he intends. Lastly, he was the master of the house at which these incidents had occurred. So, every individual has the right to say anything in his own house.
 bnAbilHadid's Sharhu NahjilBelagha, part.3 page113 Line 27, First edition; Egypt and Beiruit, and part.12 page79 Line 3 by the revision of Mohammed AbulFadhl, and part.3 page803, Edit; Daru MektebetilHayat and part.3 page167, DarulFikr.
2. The Emanation Of A New Huge Trend
AlFaruq proved his being a new huge trend that had the capability of preventing the Prophet from recording his will. A many supporters was attracted by this new trend in the case of encountering the Prophet directly. Decorously, he could move and lead the coming incidents. Till this time, none could certainly identify the individual who advised the Ansar to hold a meeting in the BaniSa'ideh's Saqeefashed. Similarly, none could understand the way by which this meeting was held. None also understood how Omar had lonlily known of it. The most authentic matter is that AbuBakr, Omar and AbuUbeideh had been the only Muhajirs who attended that meeting. The most authentic report is that AbuBakr (pleased be him) had been helping the Prophet's immaculate household establish their decedent’s funeral. A most authentic matter, also, is that it was Omar who had called AbuBakr and told of the meeting of the shed. Another most authentic report is that AbuBakr and Omar had taken AbuUbeideh with them as they accidentally found him in their way to BaniSa'ideh's Saqeefa.
AlFaruq, therewith, lived in the core of these incidents. He shadowed the situation so scrupulously and continuously. In the meeting of the Ansar, he was the star who could steer the results to his wishes. He would have been the caliph had he intended to. Just after the cessation of that meeting and the majority's declaring fealty to AbuBakr, Omar himself led the completion of the fealty declaration process. He promoted that the Muhajirs should swear allegiance to AbuBakr whom had just been elected, by the Ansar and Omar himself, as the new leader. The Umayids, led by Othman, hurried to declaring their fealty to AsSiddiq. It was OmarbnAlKhattaab who enlisted, from the voters of AbuBakr, a phalanx that took Ali and his companions out of Fatima AzZahra's house by force for forcing them to swear allegiance to the nominated caliph. It was Omar who menaced to kill Ali if the latter would refrain from swearing allegiance It was Omar who advised AbuBakr to gift AbuSufian the alms for guaranteeing his
 the references of the calumnious day. The sayer of "We are sufficed by the Book of Allah" was AlFaruq.  bnQuteibeh's AlImametu WesSiyaseh, pages 5 and on.  the references of flaming Fatima's house numerously mentioned.  AlImametu WesSiyaseh, page13.
loyalty to the new government It was Omar who suggested to AbuBakr assigning YazeedbnAbiSufian as the commander of the army of Syria that became the tremendous power that helped in the settlement of AbuBakr's government. Soon after that, AsSiddiq was deceased. Omar inherited that stable government easily and without any sort of opposition. This inheritance was a step followed by another. Sooner or later, the researchists of history shall perceive that AlFaruq had an immense unprecedented capacity of planning and hypothesizing. He played the role of the constituent body of the postprophesy era. He arranged the essentialities of the coming ruling of Islam. He decided not to let the Hashemites join leadership to prophesy. Thus, caliphate should be inherited far away from them. It should be a pure right of the predominant individuals apart from the legality or the illegality of means of predominance.
3. Emergence Of The Ideas Of Predominance And Preferring The Follower To The Master
By the previously mentioned encounter, the ideas of predominance, preferring the follower to the master and the equality between masters and their followers were originated. Moreover, states of confusedness and perplexity of discerning the right were emanated.
AlFaruq argued that a hazardous question might have been arisen from the diseased Prophet's recording his will. A group of Sahaba supported this claim. This argument was created out of doubt.
The other party argued that Mohammed had been still a prophet till his last respiration and till his immaculate soul leaves to the Creator. They believed he had never been speaking out of desire. This is an ascertained fact. Consequently, it is irrational to depend upon doubts and disdain the ascertained fact. Disease is not an obstacle against speaking.
 bnAbilHadid's Sharhu NahjilBelagheh, part.1 page3067.  AtTabari's Tarikh part.3 page20910, and AlQasimi's TarikhulHukm page152.  IbnulAtheer's AlKamilu FitTarikh, part.3 page24 and bnAbilHadid's Sharhu NahjilBelagheh, part.3 page107.
Two Similar Occurrences
When AbuBakr was arduously affected by his disease, he sought the celebrities' advice. After that, he summoned Othman alone. “Write down:” AbuBakr asked Othman just before he was fainted. During these moments, Othman wrote: “I do use OmarbnAlKhattaab as my successor to caliphate.” When he regained consciousness, AbuBakr ordered Othman to read what he had written down. “So, you did so since you anticipated that people would be engaged in discrepancies if I passed away during my previous syncope. Did you not?” said AbuBakr. “Yes, I did.” asserted Othman. “God reward you for Islam and its people.” blessed AbuBakr. This form was agreed upon by AbuBakr. This is an unanimously authentic fact.
When Omar was in his final disease, the physician surprised him that he would not catch that evening. “Fetch me that paper, son.” Omar asked Abdullah. As the paper was between his hands he erased it and shouted out of the pains he was suffering: “By God I swear, I would sacrifice what is all found on this globe for the horror of the coming stage.” Abdullah, the son, rejected his dying father's demand with fixing his cheek to the ground. “Woe is your mother. Put my cheek to the ground. Woe is Omar and Omar's mother if God will not forgive him.” said Omar to his son.
In spite of the harsh pains AbuBakr and Omar were suffering in their final diseases, they could record their wills. Omar could arrange the matter of the sixmember advisory board in a form that he was assured of Othman's being the caliph. He also guaranteed that a Hashemite would never be elected for leadership whatever his qualifications were. Scrupulously, the two wills were implemented. Although the two were suffering unbearable pains, they were allowed to speak out their wills. During recording their wills, AbuBakr and Omar were ceremoniously the caliphs of the Muslims. Thus, they enjoyed the right of practicing their duties since they were still alive and operative.
 AtTabari's Tarikh part.3 page429. AlQasimi's NidhamulHukm page176. IbnulJawzi's Seeretu Omar page37. bnKhuldoun's Tarikh part.2 page85. AnNidhamusSiyasi FilIslam page120.  AlImametu WesSiyaseh pages 212. bnSa'd's AtTabaqat. AnNidhamusSiyasi pages 1201.
By common consent, this is an indisputable fact. How was it allowable for AbuBakr and Omar to record their wills while they were suffering pains of their final diseases harsher than those suffered by the Prophet during his final disease? Nevertheless, the Prophet was prevented from recording his will.
Supposing Mohammed is equated to AbuBakr and Omar; had it not been rightful for him — Mohammed — to practice what they — AbuBakr and Omar — practiced thereafter? At any cost, the supposition of equating AbuBakr and Omar to Mohammed is topically and positively inoperative. This is by the fact that Mohammed was an Imam and a prophet messeged by God, while AbuBakr and Omar were only fellows. Mohammed was speaking out of God's revelation. In several occasions, the Prophet asserted that the revelation had been coming to him during periods of physical complaint. God, in the Quran, says: (And whatever the Apostle gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back.) (And your companion is not gone mad.) (Nor does he speak out of desire.) (It is naught but revelation that is revealed.) How should a man with such divine qualifications and attributes be instantaneously changed into a dotard? How should he be irreliable even in recording his own will?
Despite that this occurrence is an undeniable and indefensible fact that exploded the entire future of Islam and was the seed from which the total tragedies and catastrophes that acted upon Islam were originated, Sunnis are still paying no attention to it. They are neglecting inclusively and regarding it as an ordinary narrative.
Thus, the scale of the follower was practically weighed against the leader. The follower became an authority while the leader stood watching. The follower achieved his layout and his volition, around which people circumambulated, became the prevailing. The idea of prevalence was applied and fruited. Later on, the principal of prevalence was legislated. It became licit for people to watch the combat before they opt for being in the predominant's line, aside from regarding qualifications, legibility and religion of that predominant. Hence, the follower contained his master and the less favorable preceded the most.
 bnSa'd's AtTabaqat part.2 page193.  AlQasimi's NidhamulHukm pages 3445, and AnNidhamusSiyasi FilIslam page153.
Thereupon, it is not surprising to see MuawiyabnAbiSufian, the ‘released’ and the son of the ‘released’ and one of the heartinclined class, come to power and contend with the foremost Muslim and Allah's devotee and the master of every male and female Muslim, according to divine texts, for the caliphate. It is not astonishing to see him exert efforts to persuade the Muslims of his being fitter and more preferred than Ali. As well, it is not remarkable to see many people in the various eras of Islam reckon the two in the same degree considering them as equally authorities and people of the Paradise.
It is also not inconceivable to see Marwan, the son of AlHakambnAlAas who had been banished from AlMadina all the times of the Prophet, AbuBakr and Omar, demand with the position of caliphate since Othman had assigned him as his prime minister and his soninlaw after he had permitted his father to enter AlMadina city with exquisite reverence and honor.
The differences between the followers and their masters, the favored to Allah and Islam and the retarded were rendered null and void. AlWaleedbnAqaba, who led the collective Fajr prayer and performed it in four Rak'as — units of prayer — while he was drunk and wondered if people asked for more, became the leader of AlHusseinbnAlibnAbiTalib who should, according to the Umayid criteria, listen to the sermons of that drunkard governor and ask his advice in his mundane and religious questions!!
4. Success And Mastery Of The Prevalent
The prevalent, whatever he was, became the predominant and the master. He became the Imam and the president of the Muslims and their state, and the only one to whom they should refer in mundane and religious questions. He was the holder of power means and in whose hands was the perfect control on the imports of the state. He enjoyed the right of giving or depriving any of their rights. Except for Allah and his religion, none had been the supervisor of that prevalent. He was the general leader of the Muslims' armed forces, and he had full competency to use these forces for achieving internal or external security and for submitting his people whether voluntarily or coercively. He had full control on the mass media and the ability of changing the white into black and the opposite. By controlling the mass media, the predominant had the capability of making the dwarf seem to be giant and the opposite. The supporters of such a predominant ruler
were reprogrammed to be the front of their master who had extensive ground in directing the policy of that state. Later on, they became authorities to whom people should refer. Their duties were adopting that predominant's viewpoint and using his methods for their impressive authorities. Hence, they were regarded as celebrities of the society and the gleaming stars. They were leading to the concentration point; the predominant's viewpoint. Ordinary people played on the same cord. This became the formulation to which people had been unitedly submitted. With the pass of years, this formulation were devoted. With the pass of decades, it was radically planted in the ground of factuality. Finally, it became a public opinion and a political persuasive belief.
5. Dismissing The Prophet's Immaculate Progeny
In the midst of the previous circumstances, the Prophet's immaculate progeny demanded with the prevalence of legality. They called for their right. People, however, stood against their legality. AbulHassan's style of opposing AbuBakr was ultimately civilized and logic. This matter was supported by BashirbnSa'd, the first man who declared loyalty to AbuBakr as a leader. When he listened to Ali's argument, Bashir said: “The Ansar would have referred to you totally if they had listened to your words before they swore allegiance to AbuBakr.”
At any rate, the power and the opposition are of customary situations. Naturally, it is impractical for the rulers or their supporters to trust politically the opposition or to handle their achievements to them in any consequence. In the case involved particularly, it was decided not to do away with Ali since Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed, was backing him. Still, he was threatened to be killed if he would disdain swearing allegiance to AbuBakr. It was also decided not to coerce him to declare his fealty to the new leadership, for the sake of Fatima.
Besides, while Imam Ali and his wife, Fatima AzZahra, were passing by the sessions of the Ansar at night and asking for support, the authorities took no influential procedures against them. The Ansar said: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before AbuBakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's
 AlImametu WesSiyaseh page12.
body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “AbuHassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.”
By this logical result, Imam Ali and his supporters were dismissed just after the decease of Fatima. The ruling authorities' inclination of isolating Imam Ali from the Hashemites became evident due to their endeavors of dragging AlAbbas towards their power by urging his progeny and him on holding positions in their government. AlAbbas refused such endeavors so strictly and rejected their offers so antiseptically.
It is a categorical standard that ordinary people, in case they are given the alternative to choose either the side of the ruling authority or the opposition side, to opt for the earlier. Consecutively, the Prophet's progeny's attitudes were about to dissect the rope of intimacy with the ruling authorities thoroughly after Omar's intendment to put Fatima's house on fire while there was a number of people inside it. God, however, saved against so.
As a means of stopping the Hashemite march, the ruling authorities were converted that it is illicit for the Hashemite to join leadership to prophesy. They also believed that people of Quraish had been right when they applied this principal. Moreover, a provisory decision that any Hashemite individual, apart from qualifications and legibility, should not be held any position in the government, was enacted. In the reigns of AbuBakr and Omar, this decision was literally implemented. Besides, Omar asserted practically that any supporter of the Hashemites should not hold any position in the government.Accordingly, Ali and his party were secluded.
Imam Ali and his party could live peacefully with the two SheiksAbuBakr and Omar. The Prophet's progeny were preceded in distributing the imports of the state among people. Their souls and properties were secured in that period. The two Sheiks were wont to refer and seek the advise of Imam Ali
 AlImametu WesSiyaseh page12.  AlImametu WesSiyaseh pages 156.  references regarding Omar's intending to put Fatima's house on fire.  IbnulAtheer's AlKamilu FitTarikh part.3 page24 (the last lines of Omar in 23 A.H.), and bnAbilHadid's Sharhu NahjilBelagheh and AnNidhamusSiyasi FilIslam page149 and on.  AlMas'udi's MuroujutTheheb part.2 page353.
in many questions. Affairs of the state were stable owing to the conquests and the two Sheiks' scorning their own caprices.
Not too long after Othman's being the caliph, the Sahaba left him gradually and the Umayids supplanted them. Othman's palace was suffocated with the Umayids who, actually, did not add anything new. The positions from which the Prophet's progeny were forbidden during the two Sheik's reigns, were not allowed for them during Othman's. The difference was that since Ali and his party were not to shun the flaws of Othman's men; the Umayids, the ruling authorities reckoned Ali's enjoining good and forbidding evil with the banned activities of the opposition. Therefore, they regarded Ali and his party as unwelcomed persons. In addition to the past throngs of hostility between the Hashemites and the Umayids, these motives were extended till they attained the climax when a military combat occurred between Muawiya, the governor of Syria, and Ali, the Imam and the leader of the Islamic nation. Power overcame legality. Muawiya was assigned as the actual king of the nation. That occurred in the year called later on ‘year of congruity’. A new era of persecuting Mohammed's progeny started. It was teary and bloody. Mohammed's progeny, hence, were almostly terminated. Maligning and reviling at them became a legislative imposing precept all over the state. People were the chorus whose job was repeating the ruler's slanderous words. Mohammed's progeny were banished. Their testimonies were decided as inadmissible. Names of those who showed any sort of loyalty to Ali and his sons were erased from the general register of the state. Salaries and rights of such individuals were cut off.
6. Seizure of the Power
1. Recollection And Reconnection Of Events
The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked the attendants to fetch him a paper so that he would record a will due to which they should never be deviant in the future. As immediate as the Prophet uttered this statement, AlFaruq addressed at the retinue that the Prophet had been dominated by his pains, and that they have to be sufficed by the Quran between their hands. Forthwith, the attendants became two parties; one called for fetching the Prophet a paper to record that protective — against
 bnAsakir's Tarikh, part.3 page407. AlAqqad's Muawiya FilMizan, page16. Mahmud AbuRaya's SheikhulMadhira, page180.
deviation — will, while others adopted Omar's opinion. These party were so stiff that they claimed of the Prophet's mental decline!! “Quit me!” the Prophet said, “The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
2. The Conclusive Success
AlFaruq achieved his great victory by portioning the attendants into tow groups; a group supporting him — while he was mere a follower of the Prophet — and another supporting the Prophet, the actual leader. Hence, Omar could eliminate the distinct differences between leaders and their followers. Omar and his backers, however, could occlude the Prophet from recording his will.
The Two Choices
Had the Prophet insisted on recording his will, Omar and his group would have accused him of speaking out of senility. This should certainly bring a disastrous misfortune to this religion. Had the Prophet overruled the idea of recording his will, this would have made Omar's party rule of the Prophet's having been dominated by his pains and deciding the idea of being sufficed by the Quran. The Prophet opted for the latter. As he was effectively shocked by their claim of mental declination, the Prophet addressed at them: “Quit me! The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.”
Dress of Legality
Formally, AlFaruq did not vacate the frame of legality. He was not calling for a wrong matter. He was saying: “You have the Quran. We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah. The Prophet is dominated by his pains.” Thus, he was caring for stopping the Prophet from recording his will. In the same time, he was caring for providing the ceremonial program of respect.
 Sunnis regard AlBukhari's book of hadith (Sahih), and Muslim's book of hadith (Sahih) as the most authentic references in this field. This grievous event is recorded by AlBukhari in six different narratives of the same content. The same is recorded by Muslim. AlBukhari's book of hadith part.7 page5 and part.4 page85, and Muslim's book of hadith part.5 and 11 page75 and 95.
“The Prophet is dominated by his pains.” he said. He was caring for adhering to the Quran considering it as the only thing that is acceptably sufficient. So, the Prophet's will should be needless, then. These conducts, however, are totally dressing the wear of legality. This was the very situation adopted by Omar, AmirulMu'minin.