Chapter 9 — Aims and Objects of Al-faruq

The total Quraishi clans exerted any possible efforts for resisting the Hashemite prophesy. They used every possible weapon for conflicting them. This was not for the favor of their pagans, neither was it for their malice against Islam. Islam, however, is too even to be opposed. The celebrities of Quraishi clans worked for the permanence of the political form based upon distributing positions of honor among them. They also disliked the idea that the Hashemites would be distinctively preferred to others. They understood the Hashemites' extreme defense and encompassment around the Prophet as their desire to precede others. Hence, the total clans of Quraish confined the Hashemites and prepared cabals to assassinate the Prophet. They also agreed upon combating the Prophet congregationally. Their blockade and cabals, after all, failed. They also were defeated in their conflicts against the Prophet. Hence, they gave up after they had been surrounded. Finally, they realized that the Hashemite prophesy has been an inescapable fate. Quraishi clans conceived their disability to face the Hashemite prophesy; hence, they decided to stop this Hashemite march towards the other clans' rights at this point. The Prophet was preparing Ali and his progeny for leadership regarding them as the most knowledgeable of Islam, the keenest of its rulings, the most favorable among the followers, the fittest for leading this nation and the most acceptable at the public.

The Ideal Solution

Actually, the entire Quraishi clans embraced Islam that effaces what all is preceding. It is for the good of legality to unify the Quraishi clans under the shades of Islam. This unification is, in fact, seen as one the essential bases of the mastery, extension and commonness of Islam. These matters can be achieved only by consecrating prophesy totally to the Hashemites, and consecrating the successive leadership to the other Quraishi clans totally. It is not iniquitous for the Ansar and the slaves to enjoy a position in the leadership intended, since this participation will not serve the Hashemite precedence and distinction. The saying of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy settled in the mentalities of these

groups so deeply that it had been changed into a fixed prevalent trend.

Probing the Solution

Unanimously, the Quraishi clans had to submit to the Hashemite prophesy considering it as an unfailing destiny. They wished they had had the potential of achieving their dream of carrying through their ideal solution of preventing the Hashemites from having leadership beside prophesy. These dreams were unrealizable as long as the Prophet was alive. The probability of making these dreams come true is workable and operable only after his decease.

Al­Faruq's Adopting and Developing the Saying

Unfortunately, Al­Faruq perceived the Quraishi saying of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy as a categorical fact. This meant that he had taken the same course taken by the predominant trend mentally lived by the Quraishis and prepared to be emerged just after the Prophet's eternal departure. Coloring this conception with legality, Al­Faruq described it as the most proper and the most prosperous thing. He also stated that he had only aimed at ceasing the Hashemites' inequity against the other Quraishi clans. In this very way, Al­Faruq succeeded in developing this conception and attiring it wear of legality. As a result, this conception found its way easily forwardly, and walked flaunting with its new legal garment hiding its Jahilite feelings. This slogan, however, is totally Jahilite. In the Jahilite political form, based upon the principal of distributing positions of honor among the Quraishi clans, which was prevailing in Mecca before the arising of Islam, the roots of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy conception are seemingly settled. In addition, the leader suggested by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was namely Ali, that hero who aggrieved the entire Quraishi clans. Each clan had individuals killed by Ali. He was the killer of the Umayids' celebrities in the battle of Badr. Besides, it was Ali who did away with Handhala­bn­Abi­Sufian, Al­Aas­bn­Husham­bn­Al­Mugheera, cousin of Omar. It was he whose sword and spear were the protectors of the Prophet against the Arab disbelievers. How should Abu­Sufian, then, accept the killer of his son and cousins? How should Hind and Muawiya, her son, accept the headship of

those who killed her lovers and dearest ones? Omar, however, might welcome the killer of his maternal uncle. [172] Others might not. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) was not in the face of blame, it was not he who killed with his hands. It was Ali's hands that shed those individuals' blood. Therefore, the Quraishis prepared for avenging from Ali to whom they faced their blame and malice. In the midst of this feelings, they kept their Islamic identity and their loyalty to the Prophet. Had they, the Quraishis, committed themselves to the merits imputed by the Prophet to Ali, and submitted to his morrow leadership, they should have never united under the shade of his leadership. On the contrary, they should have been engaged in numerous discrepancies, divergences and hostilities. These matters, however, should have been reflecting oppositely on the future of Islam and the Prophet's loyalty. Besides, seditious matters should have been occurring in a way causing inconveniences to Islam and Muslims.

This is the only explanation we can provide to exonerate the tremendous progression practiced by Al­Faruq towards this tendency. It also interprets the aim of the close conformity between the other Quraishi clans and him involving the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy. This progression reached the extent that Omar became the only actual planner and hypothesizer of this trend.

Like their Alliance Against the Prophet, People of Quraish Allied Against His Successor

The concert of the essential views was the main cause beyond the Quraishis' unification under implementing the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership to prophesy. Unexceptionally, the entire Quraishi clans stood in the face of the Hashemite prophesy and participated practically in the three year blockade for eradicating this prophesy.[173] This blockade, however, proved its failure. They also planned congregationally for assassinating the Prophet. Each clan opted for a man to participate in the process of assassination. This cabal failed, too. The Prophet could escape. The Quraishi clans enlisted armies for battling the Prophet. They did, but they, as usual, failed. Finally, they gave up as they were surrounded. In


[172] bn­Sa'd's At­Tabaqat part.2 page17­8. [173] bn­Quteibeh's Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page70­2.

which case, they realized that prophecy had been an inescapable destiny. They, accordingly, submitted to the Hashemites. They, nevertheless, importunately decided to prevent the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy. Hence, they stood altogether against Ali in the same way they had stood against the Prophet. Their aim had been always the same; preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy and keeping the Islamic identity and loyalty to the Hashemite prophesy in the same time. This was provided that this loyalty should be in an amount attesting the success of that conception.

The Quraishis Were Planning While the Hashemites Were Drowned in their Grief

The Quraishi people realized the Prophet's near death during that final disease. They had been already foretold of this truth by the Prophet himself whom they trusted. They also realized that the unavoidable result would be Ali's gaining headship if matter were left to go naturally. Only then, the eminent danger shall be occurring and the Hashemites shall be having headship beside prophesy. Hence, it is indispensable to move furtively towards occluding the occurrence of such a danger.

Expecting that the others are sharing the same misfortune, the Hashemites were continuously engaged in their calamity of the Prophet's death. He was their prophet and master, and they were his sincere adherents. He was the unprecedented brother, the unique kinsman, the ideal cousin and the unequaled dearest. Hence, they all committed themselves to working according to this disastrous event, leaving everything else behind.

The Punctilious Planning

How did Omar limit the very hour at which the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) would utter his will? By whom was he told? How did the assemblage who supported Al­Faruq's immediate opinion of depending on the Book of Allah and deferring the Prophet's expected record gather, since, as Omar explained, it had been spoken out of pains? Furthermore, this assemblage added: “Allah's Apostle is speaking out of dotage! Ask him a clarification! He is mentally affected, indeed!!”

As a matter of fact, the Prophet's demand would not be so strange that it might have created such an instantaneous loathing. Similarly, Omar's reply of “The Prophet is highly affected by his pains! We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah we have between our hands.”, would not be so strong that it might have originated that instantaneous satisfaction.

The matter nearest to the mentality, logic and intellect is that the group who issued such an instantaneous satisfaction, spoke badly, disputed and engaged in discrepancy before the Prophet, had been already acquainted of the contents of the Prophet's will to be recorded. It is also clear that there was a sort of a previous arrangement for preventing the Prophet from recording this will, even if this practice would result in being involving in a direct confrontation against him, or accusing him of mental senility or the like. It is also reasonable to adjudge that there was a strong correlation or agreement among this group that guaranteed their coalition and unity in situations even those inviting to facing the Prophet directly. Allah, the Elevated, lonelily realizes whether such a coalition had been a fruit of a punctilious planning or it had been an arbitrary serendipity. The most accurate thins is that this confrontation had indeed broken the spine of legality.

The First Fruit Of The Planning

This group succeeded in occluding the Prophet from recording his will. Omar­bn­Al­Khattaab was seen as the strongest man in this trend. It was he who spoke at the attendants: “The Prophet is surely prevailed by his pains. We have the Book of Allah. We should be sufficed by the Book of Allah.” This statement indicated that they had had not been in need of the Prophet's will, since they had the Book of Allah that was acceptably sufficient. Hence, redundancy is what all is behind sufficiency. This suggestion incited the supporters of this trend to dare to impute dotage to the Prophet. Far away is the Prophet from such an accusal!

Precisely, succeeding in preventing the Prophet from recording his will was the first fruit of that punctilious planning. Supposing, dialectically, the Prophet had insisted on his demand and said: “Forget not the order of Ali's being the next leader!”, this would have meant that the mission of that party would be so complicated that they should prove the Prophet's speaking out of mental affection afterwards. This would surely bring calamitous misfortunes and adversities to this religion. Islam itself would have been in danger if those party had called for the slogan of the Prophet's senility and, consequently, it would have been so arduous to distinguish the words said

during full saneness from those said during misalleged senility. Thus, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) preferred to provide the important — Ali's leadership — as a sacrifice for the most important — Islam. “Quit me! The pains I am engaged in are more favorable than the deeds you are drawing me to.” By these words, the Prophet settled that dispute. The refractory group went out thinking of their victory, yielding the fruit of their cabal and celebrating of removing the hugest rock laying in the way of hitting their target.

Planning for Defeating the Hashemites

Occurrences of history proved the Hashemites' overcoming in every combat they were engaged in against people of Quraish. The blockade practiced upon the Hashemites for three years, by the entire clans of Quraish proved its failure. At a second attempt, the entire Quraishi clans participated in assassinating the Prophet congregationally by selecting a man from each clan to take a part in the process so that the Hashemite should be too short to avenge their killed. This endeavor failed, too. Hence, the Prophet was saved, and the Hashemites were triumphed.

As a third endeavor, the Quraishi clans enlisted numerous armies for battling Mohammed and the Hashemites. The end was the triumph of Mohammed and the Hashemites, and the defeat of the entire Quraishi clans. Finally, they had nothing other than submitting and admitting of Mohammed's prophesy as they were surrounded. They realized this prophesy had been an inescapable destiny. Therefore, they aimed at acknowledging the prophesy of Mohammed and admitting the Hashemites' enjoying it exclusively, provided that headship should be turned among them apart from the Hashemites. In order that any Hashemite would never come to power or enjoy any sort of headship, they decided that they would accept the headship of a non­Quraishi individual. They believed that if leadership went to a Hashemite, it would be impossible to take it out of them anew. Hence, they would join leadership to prophesy. However, events proved the triumph of the Hashemites at any confrontation.

Benefiting the Same Preponderancies for Achieving Aims

The Quraishi clans conceived that the secret beyond the Hashemites' consecutive victories and superiority had been the existence of a preponderancy contributing in outweighing them over others. Preponderants due to which the Hashemites achieved triumph over the Quraishi clans had

been, first, the support of God and, secondly, His objectives of preponderancy. The congregational blockade applied upon the Hashemites was such a discernible wrong that it caused an error in guideline. God's upholding the Hashemites by supplying them with patience and guiding individuals from the other clans for supporting them and demanding with canceling the decision of that blockade; all these were reasons resulted in the failure of the blockade.

In due course, the cabal of assassinating the Prophet was a process of vitiation on the earth and an inexcusable homicide. Ali­bn­Abi­Talib's sleeping in the Prophet's bed, that led to his escape and resettlement in Yathrib, was a preponderant reason that led to the failure of the assassination.

Correspondingly, enlisting armies for battling the Prophet and chasing him continuously was a deed of wrongful perseverance and insisting on inequity. The Ansar’s encompassing, embracing and defending the Prophet, and being in the same front with the Hashemites, on the other hand, was a preponderant reason that resulted in the failure of the total aggressions led by the Quraishi clans against the Prophet. These clans were defeated to termination that their headship was inclusively foundered and, accordingly, they had to submit to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).

Equality, Opportunity and Objectivity

The Hashemite conception shall certainly prevail and prove its being the most correct and the most favorable if there is any sort of equality in the opportunities granted to it and to that of the Quraishi clans. By the same token, the fascinating argument provided by the prophetically nominated leader shall certainly nullify the others' arguments if there is an objective opportunity to provide both arguments obviously. This is by the reason that the prophetically nominated leader is, according to categorical doctrinal texts, being with the Quran and the Quran is being with him. Similarly, the right is being with the prophetically nominated leader and he is being with the right. This prophetically nominated leader shall certainly win at any unadulterated combat. This is because he is being the victorious by God's will. However, the Prophet's successor is not ready at all for plotting in darkness, planning for cabals nor is he ready for disobeying God.

The Authority Capable of Defeating the Divinely Elected Leader, and the Flawless Cabal

Finally, the Quraishis could snare the decisive party; the Ansar. The ultimate victory and the supreme aim — of withholding the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy — shall be assuredly attained and achieved if only the Ansar’s loyalty to Quraishi clans is guaranteed. They conceive that as soon as the divinely elected leader, Ali, holds the position of headship, he shall positively nominate Al­Hassan as the heir apparent. Al­Hassan, however, is previously nominated by Allah and His Apostle for leadership. Supposing this nomination occurs, none shall have the courage to object against Al­Hassan for the highest standing he is enjoying. He is, at least, the son of the Prophet's daughter. In a like manner, Al­Hassan shall nominate Al­Hussein, his brother, as his heir apparent. None shall have the courage to protest against so, for the standing enjoyed by that nominated individual. Thus, affairs of leadership will be kept in the hands of the Hashemites for ever, and they will enjoy headship as well as prophesy. This will be seen as the greatest defeat of the other Quraishi clans.

Three points are the only means of standing against the occurrence of the previous affairs:

  1. Existence of an authority. Actually, the Ansar are seen as the premium authority that can play the greatest role in the process of leadership. Supposing they support Ali, the Quraishi clans, pursuant to their criteria, shall be absolutely defeated and the matter of the Hashemites' having headship and prophesy together shall be occurring. If they support the other party; the Quraishi clans, in achieving their aim, only then the Hashemites and the divinely elected leader shall be certainly quelled according to the criteria posited by that party.

If the Ansar adopt a non­allied situation, this will be considered as a prosperous achievement for the Quraishi clans. As a result, the possibility of consummating the Quraishis' aim will also be attainable by the whole objective criteria.

  1. Vacuity of equal opportunities. In case the divinely nominated leader stands in equal positions with the heads of Quraishi celebrities, triumph shall certainly be his share as he will provide the most convincing arguments. The most important matter in this question is that the Quraishi head should be the spokesman of his allies; the public, the

Muhajirs or the majority of the nation. Pursuant to their criteria, in this case only, he may defeat the divinely elected leader.

  1. Maximum promptness practiced for consummating the subject of next leadership. This should occur during the Prophet's household's being engaged in the funeral of their deceased. Thus, none of them would attend the furtive ceremonies of electing the leader in order that they would lack any argument to provide later on. Sedition and confrontation of an actual government having a president, a prime minister, an army and followers would be the result of any objection against such ceremonies.

The Saqeefa Meeting

By the decease of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), the illuminating moon, whose gleam covered everything, has departed. As soon as this news was publicized, the populace of the capital formed undeviatingly a circle around the Prophet's house. They were weeping their grand prophet and Imam. The honorable household, headed by the divinely nominated leader, were totally engaged in their calamitous misfortune. They were preparing for the funeral. Meanwhile, a meeting was held in Bani­Sa'ideh's Saqeefa.

Unanswerable Questions

Why was the meeting held in these very hours? Who called for it? How had it been possible to hold a meting in such an embarrassing time? When had the arrangements been commenced? Which individuals, from the Ansar, attended that meeting, while the Saqeefa — shed — was too narrow to include the great numbers of the Ansar most of whom were encompassing the Prophet's house? Rationally, it is impossible that no single individual from the Ansar was attending at the Prophet's funeral. Who arranged for that meeting? How much time did these arrangements take? Why was it only Omar who had acquaintance of that meeting? By whom was he informed? Omar was in a place remote from the Prophet's house. He knew that Abu­Bakr had been necessarily at the Prophet's house. He came near the house and called for Abu­Bakr. “I am busy now.” answered Abu­Bakr. “It is a matter too dangerous to be neglected.” told Omar. As Abu­Bakr was before him, Omar informed: “Are you not informed that the Ansar are

holding a meeting in Bani­Sa'ideh's Saqeefa for nominating Sa'd­bn­Ebadeh for leadership? They are so firm in this affair that the least suggestion one of them provides is electing two princes one of whom should be a Quraishi.” Hence, the two hurried up to the place. Abu­Ubeideh­bn­Al­Jarrah accompanied them.[174]

Who Conveyed the News of the Meeting?

“Omar was the first man who had known of the meeting of the Ansar.” At­Tabari states.[175] Another narrations tells that it was Abu­Bakr who informed him of the news. A third one related by bn­Husham tells that somebody came to Abu­Bakr and Omar and informed of the meeting. No historian at all could recognize the name of that reporter. It seemed that his name had been lost.[176]

Two Men from the Ansar

In their way towards the Saqeefa, Abu­Bakr, Omar and Abu­Ubeideh met Uweim­bn­Sa'ideh and Ma'an­bn­Edi.[177] These two men are reckoned with the celebrities of the Ansar. At­Tabari relates the following report: “…they were met by Asim­bn­Edi and Uweim­bn­Sa'ideh; the two Sahaba who participated in the battle of Badr.” Another narrative affirms: “The two men advised Abu­Bakr, Omar and Abu­Ubeideh to settle this affair secretly away from the Ansar.” Another narrative, however, claims: “The two men advised the three to turn back since they would never achieve any of their demands.”

Despite the fact that these two men were reckoned with the Ansar and the warriors of the battle of Badr, they were neither attendants at the Prophet's funeral nor were they addressing at there while they were aware of the current occurrence of the meeting. They were walking oppositely to the three men's direction. They only chatted with those three men and each group took their way. There is no indication that those five individuals took the same way towards the Saqeefa afterwards. There are contrary narratives regarding these two men's sayings. Once, they advised the three to settle


[174] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page219. [175] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page219. [176] Al­Qasimi's Nidhamul­Hukm page126. [177] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page206.

their affairs secretly away from the Ansar who had no relation at all with the whole question. Another narrative affirms that they advised the three to evade fatigue since the Ansar should never grant them any share in this question. Which one is likely true?