Chapter 10 — Objective Analysis, and Denial of Serendipity

Among Sunnis' historians, there is a sort of unanimity on the fact that it was Omar who first knew of the Ansar’s meeting.[178] According to another narrative, it was Abu­Bakr who informed him of this news.[179] A third narrative related by bn­Husham, however, tells that a man came to Omar and Abu­Bakr and told of the news.[180] No single historian could realize the name of that man who carried the news to Abu­Bakr and Omar!! The loss of this man's name should have never be an accidental matter. It seems that he was one of the celebrities in that society since he had acquaintance of secret matters of such a degree of sensitivity. Then, how should Abu­Bakr and Omar have listened and believed him if he had not been a noble character? The name of such a noble individual that carried such an important news, should have never been lost. This matters throws shades of suspicion whether this man had been actually existed or had he been a mere legend!!

As a matter of fact, it cannot be an accidental matter that Omar would be the only individual who had been fully acquainted of the meeting held secretly by the Ansar, the majority of the Prophet's capital. What was the reason beyond Omar's having called Abu­Bakr lonelily for informing of this news? Why did he not call the entire Muhajirs who were taking the final look at their prophet and Imam, and participating the honorable household in their disastrous misadventure? This matter should not be considered as an accidental event. Moreover, at which location was Al­Faruq who lost his physical capability as soon as he had been informed of the Prophet's decease, and menaced to kill and amputate the limbs of those who claimed of the Prophet's decease? Normally, he should have gone to the Prophet's house when he was convinced of the his decease, for taking the final look and participating in people's misfortune? Supposing he did direct towards the Prophet's house, how could he exclusively realize the news of the


[178] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page 219. [179] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page 201. [180] bn­Husham's book of history part.2 pagte 656.

Ansar’s meeting? Who carried this news to him particularly? How should that carrier of news have found Omar among thousands of people crowding there? Indisputably, it was not an accidental matter!

It is most surely that the meeting was not attended by the entire Ansar. Among this group, there were the warriors of the battle of Badr. They are the most virtuous, as described by categorical doctrinal texts. It is impracticable that those most virtuous men were absent from a meeting held by the Ansar. The two men who met Abu­Bakr, Omar and Abu­Ubeideh were among the warriors of Badr. How should it be conceivable that a meeting held for electing a leader is not attended by two virtuous people? They, at least, should have been in the meeting on these moments principally. It is irrational that the Ansar left the Prophet's body in his house without taking a final look at him while his immaculate household were arranging for his funeral. This matter is unbelievable unless partisan imitation is pronounced.

Supposing the entire Ansar were meeting in that Saqeefa — shed — for electing the new leader, how should they act so while they had full awareness of the doctrinal rulings among which is that Imams should be from people of Quraish? They did accurately recognize the rulings appertained to the Prophet's household. They witnessed the recent ceremonies of nominating the coming leader and the Prophet's successor held in Ghadeer Khum. Recurrently, the Prophet commended them of favoring Ali and his household. Once, he (peace be upon him and his family) addressed at the Ansar: “O the Ansar! Should I guide you to what shall protect you against deviation for good if only you adhere to?” “Yes, you should, Allah's Apostle!” answered they. “It is this Ali. You should love him for your loving me. And you should honor him for your honoring me. It was most surely Gabriel, the Angel, who conveyed to me this God's mandate I have just ordered you of.” the Prophet expressed.[181] How should they all disremember this address? How should they neglect the issue of nominating Ali for heir apparentship? Besides, they have no relation with the slogan of the impracticability of the Hashemites' joining leadership and prophesy, importunately carried by the Quraishis? They are not from Quraish. They


[181] bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.9 page170. Abu­Na'eem's Hilyetul­Awliya part.1 page63. Majma'uzzawa'id, part.9 page132. Al­Kinji's Kifayetut­Talib, page210. Al­Qanduzi's Yenabi'ul­Mawadda, page313. Kenzul­Ummal part.15 page126. Ar­Riyadhun­Nedhira, part.2 page233. Fedha'ilul­Khamseh Mines­Sihahis­Sitteh, part.2 page98. bn­Talha's Mettalibus­Sa'ul part.1 page60. Fera'idus­Simtein, part.1 page197 hadith 154.

have no interests to be achieved only by taking Mohammed's household far away from leadership. They should have never disdained the Prophet's saying about Ali: “He is your leader after me. He is the master of every male and female believer…” What is the advantage the Ansar may gain from neglecting such decisive doctrinal texts? The meeting held by the Ansar was not aimed at electing a leader from them. This is, however, a matter arduously believable on the total criteria. They did realize the real religious and political leader. This fact is evidenced by the event that as soon as they lost any hope of having leadership, they nominated Ali, who was absent, as the only person they might elect for leadership. Another narrative relates the same matter: “…the Ansar shouted: ‘We shall declare fealty to none other than Ali.’…”[182] Regarding the authenticity of this narrative, it indicated that others had been intending to elect another name. Yet, one of these two narratives is definitely true. After they had been overthrown, they answered Fatima Az­Zahra, who passed by their sessions asking for support, with the following words: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before Abu­Bakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “Abu­Hassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.”[183]

When he listened to Ali's argument, Bashir­bn­Sa'd, the first man who had declared loyalty to Abu­Bakr as a leader, said: “The Ansar would have referred to you totally if they had listened to your words before they swore allegiance to Abu­Bakr.”[184]

On that account, it is unreasonable for such men with such a conception to hold a meeting for electing the next leader while the divinely elected one was absent after he had been nominated by the Prophet so declamatorily that they all comprehended the question. Besides, they heard the Prophet more than once say: “He is your leader after me. He is the master of every male and female believer…”


[182] bn­Quteibeh's Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page8 and bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.2 page266. [183] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page12. [184] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page12.

It is to add that Sa'd­bn­Ebadeh, the principal Sahabi, the master of the Al­Khazraj and the man of inflexible situations, was too exalted to admit being the Prophet's successor in the presence of the divinely nominated leader, the Prophet's household and masters of the Muhajirs. Besides, he was so ill that he could not even stand erect. Had this man been able to stand up, he would have never left his master and prophet without taking a final look at him. According to bn­Quteibeh's narrative, Sa'd, after the conclusion of the meeting, was shouldered and taken home. This assured the fact that Sa'd's house was next to the Saqeefa — shed — in which the meeting had been held. Possibly, the group of the Ansar were visiting Sa'd to convey him the misfortune of the Prophet's decease. Similarly, it is not unacceptable to say that a tranquil dispute had actually occurred between the two groups respecting the next stage.

The Entering of the Three Muhajirs

By the joining of these three Muhajirs, the meeting was straightly colored with a special paint. Naturally, silence covered the place and the conversation was ceased. Who opened the door to the question involved? Who arose the dispute after their entering? The one fully aware of that person is totally nonexistent. Al­Faruq conceived that those individuals had been planning for “eradicating the Quraishis' origins and usurping their rights.” He himself expected new groups' joining that meeting. The Aslem attended with all their groups. They were too many to have locations in that place. They all swore allegiance to Abu­Bakr. About that event, Omar was wont to say: “I believed in our victory as soon as I saw the Aslem.” This affirmed that he had previous knowledge of his supporters.

The Aslem were one of the Ansar’s clans. Although they were very numerous, as it seemed, the Aslem did not participate in that meeting. This asserts that the meeting was not political at all. Who was the party against whom Al­Faruq was seeking victory? What sort of victory was that? All these matters support the Ansar’s mission of preponderance we have previously referred to.

The Purpose Beyond The Three Muhajirs' Participation

The exact purpose beyond the three Muhajirs' joining the Ansar’s meeting was nothing but constituting the new leader. Since the entire Quraishis' opinion was as same as that of those three Muhajirs, especially Omar who

believed in the idea of preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy as intensely as possible, the existence of any other Quraishi was unimportant. They also purposed for another matter; holding the ceremonies of designating the new leader in the absence of the Prophet's household or their head, Ali­bn­Abi­Talib. They believed in the fact that the results should have been definitely changed in case the head or any of the Prophet's household had attended there. That head of the Prophet's household would have opposed the expected results, provided inescapable evidences and convinced the Ansar had he only been present in that meeting. In the absence of the Prophet's household and their head, climate should be so quiet and pleasant for that group to achieve their purpose of designating a new leader actually. They aimed at making a party of the Ansar declare fealty to the leader they are to nominate. Achieving so, the other clans of the Ansar should be following one another in swearing in order that they would have the honor of acting so. Only then, the Prophet's household and their head should be faced by an authority backed by the Ansar who should never break their covenants. Hence, the expected confrontation Ali should be one of its parties, would not be against Abu­Bakr, Omar or any other person alone. The confrontation would be between the head of ruling authority and one of his people, or a vizier and one of the public. Such a sort of confrontation is of well­known results. Al­Faruq lacks the ability of facing the divinely elected leader, who is the door of the heavenly wisdom, in cases of equal confrontations. On levels of physical abilities even, the divinely elected leader should most surely be having the entire situation for him in case of any bodily confrontation against Al­Faruq. The fighting skills of Al­Faruq are very remote from those of Ali, the divinely nominated leader. For instance, in the battle of Al­Khandaq, Amr­bn­Wudd's voice of challenging the Muslims had vanished before he was responded by any, including Al­Faruq whose ears were filled in with these words. Saving the divinely nominated leader, none had the courage to challenge that hero. Nevertheless, when Al­Faruq is being the caliph's vizier, he will not be having to be face to face with the divinely elected leader. He may enlist an abundant phalanx for this purpose. Hence, they will pull that divinely elected leader before Al­Faruq. This very procedure was actually taken, and this process of pulling had actually occurred.

The time picked up for holding the ceremonies of electing the new leader was precisely suitable. It coincided the very hours of holding the ceremonies of the Prophet's funeral. It was the ideal time for guaranteeing the absence of the Prophet's immaculate household and their head. These individuals were

totally engaged in their misfortune and were inattentive to what was going around them. The entire Muslims, in fact, were living in shocking reflection. Accordingly, this was the most suitable time the Quraishi clans had ever dreamt of for achieving their purpose. In addition, choosing the Ansar as the preponderant entity was greatly appropriate and accurate. Since the Quraishi clans' purpose was only preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy disregarding the race of the surrogate party, they would not object if the Ansar dominated that leadership. They were sure that any Quraishi, other than the Hashemites, would never object this leadership. Hence, Othman, the Umayid, and his clan were the foremost in declaring their fealty to the new caliph. This group was followed by Sa'd­bn­Abi­Waqqas, Abdor­Rahman­bn­Awf and their relatives, the Bani­Zuhra. Declaration of allegiance would be valueless indeed if the entire Quraishi people uttered it and no single man from the Ansar supported them. Besides, the divinely nominated Imam would overcome them by the Ansar’s aid. From this point, the attendance of the Quraishi people was ineffective since those three individuals represented them and were to achieve the very purpose they were aiming at.

The three individuals had the ability of comprising the Ansar exclusively, expressing the Quraishi clans’ hiddens and banishing the Hashemites totally out of the field of leadership. Accordingly, the Prophet's household and the Hashemites generally were lacking, for the ever first time, any actual preponderant that might guarantee their victory against the other Quraishi clans.

From this cause, we can perceive Omar's approach of seizing the fealty of the Muhajirs, the Prophet's immaculate household and their head to the new caliph. That occurred after their departing the Saqeefa:

People were gathering in the grand mosque when Abu­Bakr and Abu­Ubeideh advanced towards them after the Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu­Bakr. Omar spoke: “What for are you grouping yourselves in scattered crowds? Come on and swear allegiance to Abu­Bakr. The Ansar and I have just declared!!” Immediately, Othman and the Umayids rose up and declared fealty. Sa'd, Abdor­Rahman and their relatives did so, too. Ali, Al­Abbas­bn­Abdil­Muttelib, the Hashemites and Az­Zubeir­bn­Al­Awwam left that place directing towards their pack animals. Omar led a band and went to them. “Go now for declaring your allegiance to Abu­Bakr!” shouted the band. The group, however, declined…

Al­Faruq's accent and style of seizing people's fealty to Abu­Bakr needs a deep view…

In the Saqeefa

Neither the entire Ansar were attendant at the Saqeefa, nor were their half, quarter or one­tenth even. They were forming the majority of Al­Madina people. Reasonably, the greater number of them was encompassing the Prophet's house at these hours. The two virtuous men (Asim — according to At­Tabari's narrative — or Ma'an[185] — according to another — Bin Edi or Uweim­bn­Sa'ideh, who were reckoned with the warriors of Badr, did not join the three Muhajirs after they had met in their way. They would have never been absent if there had been a meeting of considerable significance for the Ansar. Moreover, the Aslem, who were too numerous to have enough locations to stop at, came afterwards. Omar obviously had previous knowledge of these men's eminent arrival. This is evidenced by his later saying: “I believed in our victory as soon as I saw the Aslem.” Besides, these individuals arrived directly after the declaration of fealty to Abu­Bakr. Consequently, those three Muhajirs were the originators and the imposers of the question of electing a man succeeding the Prophet. The conveyor of the news of the Ansar’s meeting is still unknown. Similarly the one who provided the subject of electing the new leader after the three Muhajirs’ arrival is still unknown either. Naturally, after they had greeted the attendants, they spoke. Who was the spokesperson that indicated to the affair involved? Like the conveyor of the news of the Ansar’s meeting, that person is still unknown! This matter is contrasting the facts that the names of those who had played a very ignoble role in the events involved were accurately written down and recognized. All the above assert that there were remarkable sections intentionally excerpted from the whole story in spite of variety of reports and reporters!

It is provable that the whole story of the Ansar’s meeting was rewritten and revised under the supervision of the party of As­Siddiq and Al­Faruq. So, events were amended in such a way that rulers would neither be enraged nor would their fellows be provoked. By this new reprogrammed narration, those three Muhajirs had been depicted as heroes of a historical tradition. This is obviously seeable through the variety, contents and occasionally contrast of the narratives. For instance, the utterance of the two virtuous


[185] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page205­6.

warriors of Badr was reported in two different ways.[186] A narrative describes Sa'd­bn­Ebadeh as one of the most striking seekers of leadership and a contumacious opponent to the three Muhajirs that was about to be attacked by the groups he had enraged to excess. In addition, some suggested that he should be killed; “Kill him. May God kill him.”[187] While another report describes him as that man whom had been overcome by arguments provided by Al­Faruq. After all, he had to swear allegiance to Abu­Bakr since he had been persuaded.[188] Hence, no signals of rebellion had been shown by Al­Habbab or others since affairs were correctly settled.

The Greatest Humanitarian Wealth

Let us picture the following:

The three Muhajirs participated in the Prophet's funeral beside the immaculate household and the other Muslims. Having accomplished the Prophet's burial ceremony, the consolers went to the mosque for performing the obligatory prayer led by the Imam of those three Muhajirs and every male and female believer, according to these three Muhajirs’ recognition. Immediately after accomplishing their prayers, any one of the three might have provided his conception and adduced his apprehension so freely. Hence, each was granted equal opportunities to demonstrate his own opinion. Finally, the divinely nominated leader would render his opinion and the legal judgment of every opinion recently provided considering him as the guide, in accordance to doctrinal texts, and the explicator of every discrepancy after the Prophet, by doctrinal texts, too. Meanwhile, the Ansar and the Muslims, as a whole, would listen and comprehended his speech. They would play the role of the preponderant factor. They would, soon, swear allegiance to the Imam previously elected by God.

In the event that the previous program had actually occurred, the flout of such an argumentation would have been the greatest humanitarian wealth. Similarly, the total tide of history would have been completely changed. The application of the Islamic political system, God had revealed to His servant, would have been literally actualized. As a result of such an application, mankind would have been entirely saved and the international divinely


[186] Ibid. [187] Al­Imametu Wes­SIyaseh page10. [188] At­Tabari's book of history, part.3 page203.

regulated government would have been established. This was a mere expectation. Just because we had overlooked the divine texts and worked in reliance on our personal illation, we lacked capability of achieving that hope. Categorically, collapse is the fatal destiny of any nation that overlook the doctrinal texts and cling to their own inference. Such a nation shall definitely taste bitterness of defeat and relapse as a penalty for misrepresenting and substituting God's grace and guidance, presented through explicit texts, for claimed caprice and whims.

The Legal Arguments of People of Saqeefa

Sooner or later, the researchists will certainly observe that the Ansar met Sa'd­bn­Ebadeh for a fully natural reason which was not political at all. Any political talk occurred there was not more than unintentional viewpoints said during visiting a diseased.

The arrival of those three Muhajirs colored that interview with dark paints of policy and an aimed origination of an election of the next political leader. As long the subject of that simple visit became totally political and establishmentarian, what sorts of legal arguments were to be provided for attaining triumph?

The Argument of the Present Ansar

Unlike the representation concentratively asserted by historians, the Ansar were not aiming at inducting one of them in position of leadership. They totally had already understood that they should never enjoy any position of leadership. The idea that all of them had virtually broken the covenant of Allah and His Apostle is rationally unacceptable, especially when the Prophet had not been buried yet. They also had already witnessed the ceremonies of the Prophet’s nominating his successor, and the congratulations had been immediately offered. Correspondingly, every Muslim, including those three Muhajirs, had full awareness of Ali’s being the believers’ master and the religious and political leader, congregationally, after the Prophet. They also had full acquaintance of Ali’s being the leader and the master of each male and female believer, individually. The present Ansar were purposeless. They were showing no avidity for occupying the position of leadership. Besides, the question of leadership had not originally discussed before the arrival of those three Muhajirs. For the above factors, the nonexistence of any argument provided by the Ansar was a spontaneous question. Regarding the arguments imputed to them, it seemed that they had

either provided them for creating a spirit of suitability and equality, or they — the arguments — were visualized as a main element serving the direction of the story, the crowning of its stars and the semblance of those stars’ acts. Under the superintendence of the stars themselves, this story was conveyed to one another in the same fashion admitted and used by the formal mass media. Contrary narratives, however, were neglected. The next generations dealt with that tale as a formally and popularly maintained fact. Thus, refusal and denial were the share of any wrong might have been seen on that tale since it was adjudged as rebellion against this nation’s congruity.

The Purpose of the Three Muhajirs

The purposes of those three Muhajirs were:

  1. Installing a man in the position of the Prophet’s succession at the very time of the absence of the Prophet’s immaculate household and everybody’s being engaged in the Prophet’s funeral.

  2. Attaining the attendants’ support and swearing allegiance to the nominated man. If the Aws’s declaration of fealty would be gained, the others should necessarily swear their allegiance so that the Aws would not enjoy that honor alone. Hence, it should be for the swearers’ good that the new man elected for leadership was to be having his new position. As a result of that equation, the man to whom fealty had been presently declared should be the formal and actual caliph — the Prophet’s successor, and the two others should be the formal viziers. The swearers, likewise, should be the army following the steps of their new commanders. Regarding the objectors of such a declaration of fealty, they should be opposing the Prophet’s successor and mutinying against their leader. The caliph, however, should be lawful to kill such mutineers who should be seen as dissidents and illegal seekers of power. The legal answer for such a practice is evident; (The position of leadership is not to be held to its seekers…) This had exactly occurred.

The Legal Arguments of the Three Muhajirs

What were the arguments provided by those three men that submitted the Ansar? Were their arguments actually legal?

Abu­Bakr and Omar provided their kinship to the Prophet as their arguments. They indicated to the rule that the relatives are more meritorious

of their kinsman’s heritage.

Summary of Abu­Bakr’s Argument Provided Before the Ansar

Abu­Bakr stated: “We, the Muhajirs, preceded others in embracing Islam. Others are only our followers. We are also the Prophet’s clan. Besides, we are enjoying the best lineage among the Arabs. Every Arab clan must have a relation in Quraish.”

Summary of Omar’s Argument Provided Before the Ansar

Omar said: “Nay, by God. The Arab shall never accept your being the leaders while the Prophet is another clan's. The Arab should never select but those from whom prophesy came forth. The evident argument and the manifest evidence is ours against our opposers. Who dare to litigate with us about the authority and the heritage of Mohammed while we are his backers and people? None but the wrong, the sinful or the involved in a disaster may do so.”[189]

The Ansar’s Replication

The Ansar said: “We should declare our fealty only to Ali.” Some of the Ansar, according to another narrative, repeated the same previous statement while Ali was absent. What should have occurred if only Ali had been present?!

Expectation and Substantiation

Any problem should have never occurred, and the Islamic political system should have been operative naturally had those three Muhajirs admitted to Ali’s leadership. They, however, are too short to do so, since they believed in the impracticality of the Hashemites’ joining leadership to prophesy. The Hashemites did seize prophesy exclusively; therefore, they should not have any governmental position since this is the right of the other Quraishi clans.

The Caliph Should Be One of Those Three

The Ansar’s slogan of “We should declare our fealty only to Ali.” went in one ear and out the other. Abu­Bakr suggested: “I do advise you to accept


[189] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh, pages 6­8.

one of these two men; Abu­Ubeideh­bn­Al­Jarrah or Omar, for caliphate. You may declare your fealty to any of them.” Omar replied: “God forbidden! Such a thing should never occur while you are among us… Open your hand and I will swear allegiance to you.”

The First Declarer of Fealty

As he realized that the three Muhajirs had rejected Ali’s leadership, Bashir­bn­Sa’d knew the new caliph should be inevitably designated on that very session. He desired to have priority in this affair; therefore, he declared: “Mohammed, the Apostle of God has been a Quraishi man. Hence, his people are the most meritorious of receiving his heritage and power…” immediately, he jumped towards Abu­Bakr and declared his fealty to him.[190] By the way, this Bashir­bn­Sa’d became, later on, the second Ansari who stood with in the line of Muawiya against Ali.

Nominating and Swearing Allegiance to the Caliph

Useid­bn­Hudheir, the chief of the Aws, scrutinized the situation of Sa’d­bn­Ebadeh, the chief of the Khazraj, and the three Muhajirs’ situations. Immediately, he realized that Abu­Bakr should be soon nominated as the new caliph. Hence, he ordered his group to swear allegiance to Abu­Bakr. They did at once. In order that the Khazraj would seize a part of that honor for themselves, most of them imitated the Aws.

The Reward

Bashir­bn­Sa’d was appointed as one of the most significant counselors and viziers of the caliphs. It was he who advised Abu­Bakr and Omar not to kill Sa’d­bn­Ebadeh. Useid­bn­Hudheir became the commander of “the internal security forces.” It was he who backed Omar in leading the phalanx that took the responsibility of subjecting the Hashemites, Az­Zubeir and the rebellious ones. Selemeh­bn­Aslem aided Omar in using force for dragging those groups to declaring fealty to the new caliph![191]


[190] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh pages 8­9. [191] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page9 and up.

Spreading of the News of the Declaration

People were gathering in the grand mosque when Abu­Bakr and Abu­Ubeideh advanced towards them after the Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu­Bakr. Omar spoke: “What for are you grouping yourselves in scattered crowds? Come on and swear allegiance to Abu­Bakr. The Ansar and I have just declared our fealty to our new leader!!” Immediately, Othman and the Umayids rose up and declared fealty. Sa'd, Abdor­Rahman and their relatives did so, too. The Ansar attending in the mosque rose up and swore allegiance as it had been publicized that the other Ansar had declared their fealty to Abu­Bakr. This is a typical result especially when Bashir­bn­Sa’d and Useid­bn­Hudheir were behaving as if they had been a part of that new power. Ali, Al­Abbas­bn­Abdil­Muttelib and the Hashemites left that place directing towards their pack animals. This matter incited the prime vizier of the new caliph to lead a phalanx of the supporters, including Useid­bn­Hudeir and Selemeh­bn­Aslem, to take that group by force and lead them to declaring fealty. He insisted on that order even if it required setting fire in Fatima’s house, the place at which they were residing. More than once, we proved the episode of burning Fatima’s house. However, this action was not too astonishing to expect. Fatima was not more significant than her father, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), whom had been already prevented from recording his will, and accused of speaking out of senility!! Far is the Prophet from such an accusation.

The Unequal Confrontation Between the Divinely Nominated Leader and the New Power

After the Prophet’s decease, the divinely nominated leader was stripped from his entire authorities. He was enchained and attended before Abu­Bakr. In this situation, he was shouting: “I am the slave of Allah and His Apostle’s brother.” “Declare your fealty to Abu­Bakr.” some ordered. “I am the most rightful in this affair. It is you whom are to be submitted to my leadership. You seized it from the Ansar claiming of the Prophet's kinship. Now, you intend to seize it from the Prophet's household coercively?! Have you not argued before the Ansar that you are more rightful in holding this affair due to your relation to the Prophet? And they complied to your claim and gave it to you. Now, I do provide the very same argument before you; we are the most rightful in enjoying the Prophet's authority and heritage in and after his life. Be just with us, if you were believers. Lest, live in your wrong, while

you are aware.”

These words were too genuine to be replied by the ruling authorities. Nevertheless, Omar answered him instantly: “You shall never be let alone unless you swear allegiance.” “You are milking for gaining the half of the product, and strengthening his position so that he will hand it to you in the morrow.” answered Ali, and added: “O Omar! By God I am neither to welcome your words nor am I to swear allegiance to him.” Abu­Ubeideh intruded: “O cousin! You are middle­aged. Those are the old­aged men of your people. You do not enjoy their experience and sagacity. I see Abu­Bakr be fitter, more tolerant and more broad­minded than you in this affair. You should submit to Abu­Bakr. You are, however, fitting this matter and rightful of receiving it for your virtue, piety, knowledgeability, cogency, precedence, lineage and matrimonial relation. This is only if you live and endure.” Contiguously, Ali shouted: “By God I ask you, Muhajirs! Do not take Mohammed's sovereignty of the Arabs out of his area and his own house, and transmit it to your areas and houses. Do not push his people away from his standing and right among people. O groups of Muhajirs! We, by God, are the most meritorious of him. We are his household and we are the fittest to this position whilst the perceiver of God's Book, the studious of God's religion, the most familiar to the traditions of God's Apostle, the well­acquainted of people's affairs, the defender of people in misfortunes and the distributor between them in full justice is among us. He is, by God, among us that who carries such attributes. Follow not your fancies that you shall be certainly deviated and be remoter and remoter from the right.”

The Foremost Declarer’s Judgment

Unmistakably, the ruling authorities had nothing adapted to reply the decisive argument of the Imam. Bashir­bn­Sa’d, the foremost declarer, was attendant. Before the columns of the new power, he spoke: “O Ali! If only had the Ansar heard your current words, they should never have agreed upon declaring fealty to Abu­Bakr and, as a result, no any two of them would have litigated about your meritoriousness in this position.” [192]


[192] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh, pages 11­2.

An Activity

At night, Ali (God may dignify his face) took his wife, Fatima Az­Zahra (peace be upon her), on a pack animal and passed by the Ansar’s sessions asking for support. The Ansar said: “O daughter of God's messenger! We have already declared loyalty to that man. We would not have elected other than your husband and cousin had he come to us before Abu­Bakr.” Ali answered them: “Should I have left the Prophet's body in his house without burying him and gone out for contesting people in his government?” Fatima commented: “Abu­Hassan did exactly what was required from him. They did what Allah shall penalize and amerce for.” [193] From this cause, the Imam realized that people had betrayed him as exactly as the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had informed.

Humiliating and Threatening the Divinely Nominated Leader for Taking His Declaration of Fealty

As we have previously referred, the ruling authorities menaced of setting Fatima’s house on fire if the group of the Imam’s acceders would not leave it. “Fatima is in that house.” some reminded Omar. “Even so!” challenged Omar. The sitters in Fatima’s house realized Omar’s seriousness in his menace. Thereupon, they went out and swore allegiance to the new ruler. Ali, the owner of that house, remained there. Fatima stood at the door of her house and shouted: “I have never known people had been in a situation more offensive than yours. You left the funeral of Allah’s Apostle between our hands, and settled your own affair without seeking our opinions or observing our right…”

Abu­Bakr sent a man for summoning Ali. These summons were frequently rejected. Hence, Omar took a group of people and came to Fatima’s house. They knocked the door. As she recognized their voiced, Fatima shouted: “O Father! O Allah’s Apostle! What misfortunes we have encountered after you from the son of Al­Khattaab and the son of Abu­Qehafeh!” The group left that place weeping as soon as they heard her groan. They were so touched that their hearts were about to be ruptured. Omar, the rigid, who had never known lenience and had never been influenced by any matter for the sake of the right, remained there accompanied by small group. They took Ali, by force, out of that house and dragged him to Abu­Bakr. “You should declare


[193] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page12.

your fealty now.” they ordered him. “What if I do not?” answered Ali. “Then, we, by Allah but whom there is no god, shall behead you.” they threatened. “Then you shall be killing the salve of Allah and the brother of His Apostle.” clarified Ali. “It is yes that you are the slave of God, but it is no that you are the brother of His Apostle.” commented Omar. (Anyhow, Ali’s enjoying brotherly relation with the Prophet is a matter too authentic to be denied.) Omar, therewith, urged Abu­Bakr to issue the order of killing him. Abu­Bakr answered: “As long as Fatima is next to him, I am not to drive him to any matter.”

Thus, Ali went directly towards the Prophet's tomb weeping and crying: “(Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well­nigh slain me.)”

An Endeavor for Seeking Az­Zahra’s Affability

After their frequent importunate insistence, Al­Faruq and As­Siddiq were permitted to meet Az­Zahra. She spoke: “I adjure you both by God; have you heard the Apostle of Allah say ‘Fatima’s satisfaction is a part of mine, and her ire is a part of mine. He whoever cherishes my daughter, Fatima, is cherishing me. He whoever pleases Fatima, is pleasing me. He whoever enrages Fatima is enraging me.’?” “Yes, we have.” they answered. She, then, declared: “I do ask the witness of Allah and His angels, that you have enraged me indeed, and that you have not pleased me. I shall surely complain against you both before the Prophet when I shall meet him.” Abu­Bakr wept heavily while she was addressing at him: “By God I swear, I will supplicate Allah against you at every prayer I am to perform.” Hence, he went out while he was weeping.[194]

Abu­Bakr Aimed At Abdicating

When Abu­Bakr left that place, people encircled him. “You are passing your night each hanging his woman and leaving me alone in my torment! I do not lack your allegiance. Draw your declarations of fealty.” shouted he. Naturally, his surrounders should be rejecting this demand and finding legal excuses for it.[195]


[194] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page13. [195] Al­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page11, and An­Nidhamus­Siyasi Fil­Islam

The Final Situation of the Divinely Nominated Leader

Actually, affairs were settled for the new authorities. The divinely nominated leader became an ordinary citizen who has nothing more than the normal rights enjoyed by any civilian. The ruling authorities had the actual right in favoring or disapproving him. As a matter of fact, although it was his divinely dedicated right, authority was usurped from him for good. He might be killed for his keeping on opposing that ruling authorities. There were tens of amends the authorities would provide for sentencing him to death penalty. They could easily accuse him of mutiny, dissension and competing the rightful owners.

Saving his household, none stood with him. Describing that period, Ali says: “I looked around me and recognized that saving my household, none was with me. I banked them away from death, and closed my eyes on the mote, and drank on that suffocation, and endured adopting self­possessedness and suffered a matter more bitter than coloquintida.”[196] On another occasion, Imam Ali said: “…The Quraishis retaliated me so heavily. They disconnected my relations and expropriated my brother’s mastery, (This indicated that Imam Ali had believed that leadership had been his right exclusively)[197], and agreed upon usurping an affair exclusively dedicated to me. One might address at me: You are so interested for this matter, son of Abu­Talib! Nay, you are for this matter more interested than me. I have demanded with my right, and you are standing between it and me. By God I swear, since the Prophet’s death up to now, I am pushed away from my right.”[198]

hence, Imam Ali had nothing remained except keeping his right in caliphate and providing arguments before those who took it away from him provided that he should neither cause an opposition or rebellion, nor should he be the originator of a seditious matter used by the enemies of Islam. Consequently, he confined himself in his house till they compelled him to leave. He would have lost his arguments and could have not provided proofs for his group had he overdone in that situation. He, however, reserved the religion and his right in caliphate together. As long as he conceived that conserving Islam


[196] bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.1 page62. [197] bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.1 page67. [198] bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.2 and 1 page103 and 37, and An­Nidhamus­Siyasi Fil­Islam

and defeating the enemies had been achieved only by affability and pacification, he took that way and favored ameliorating relations with the ruling authorities for conserving the nation, choosing the better for people, saving the religion, preferring the present to the future and performing the intellectual and legal duty of favoring the most important to the important in case of contrast between the two.[199]

Mystery of the Quraishis’ Rejecting Ali’s Leadership

The mystery beyond the Quraishis’ rejecting Ali’s leadership is hiding in the political education of Quraish that is relying upon the contribution of positions of honor in the pre­Islamic period. Every Quraishi clan enjoyed an inevitable share of these positions. The Hashemite prophecy destroyed that political form totally. Hence, the Hashemites had that inescapable prophesy solely in spite of the Quraishis’ ultimate struggle for undermining it. During the Prophet’s lifetime, Imam Ali was divinely nominated as the leader and the successor since he was the most knowledgeable, the keenest, the most favorable and the fittest for captaining the ship of Islam.

Anticipating The Falling Of The Critical Matter

Supposing the leadership of Ali falls in action, this shall means that the Hashemites seize the whole honor by joining leadership besides prophesy. By any criterion, this matter is unacceptable at all. Furthermore, it is required to stand against the occurrence of such an affair till the last breath. The other Quraishi clans embraced Islam and became equal to each other. Islam, however, eradicates whatever preceded it originally. So, what is the incentive beyond the Hashemites’ keeping distinguishability, preference and dedicated glorification?

The Fair Partitioning

The Hashemites did enjoy prophesy exclusively, none will partake them in this honor at all. They, however, are the brothers of the other Quraishi clans. What is the wrong if the other Quraishi clans have leadership exclusively and keep any Hashemite away from it? This is the best and the fairest sharing. Let the Hashemites enjoy prophesy alone, and let the other Quraishi clans enjoy leadership alone, too.


[199] Sharafuddin Al­Amili's Al­Muraja'at pages 332­4, and An­Nidhamus­Siyasi Fil­Islam pages 33 and up.

The Quraishi Clans’ Forming a Team

The entire Quraishi clans formed a united team since their aim was the same; preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy.

In Bani­Sa’ideh’s Saqeefa­shed, Abu­Bakr addressed at the Ansar: “I do advise you to accept one of these two men; Abu­Ubeideh­bn­Al­Jarrah or Omar, for caliphate. You may declare your fealty to any of them.” Omar replied: “God forbidden! Such a thing should never occur while you are among us…”[200] Abu­Ubeideh had surely the same situation. Those three Muhajirs had the same situation. They were forming a united team. Similarly, they all rejected the Ansar’s statement of swearing allegiance to Ali only.[201]

People of Quraish, congregationally, stood against Abu­Bakr’s decision of abdication. The divinely nominated leader referred to this congregational situation in his sayings: …the Quraishis retaliated me so heavily. They disconnected my relations and expropriated my brother’s mastery.” “O Allah! I seek Thy aid against people of Quraish. They disconnected my relations and demeaned my great position and agreed upon usurping an affair exclusively dedicated to me.”[202] When Abu­Bakr was arduously affected by his disease, he summoned Othman alone. “Write down:” Abu­Bakr asked just before he was fainted. During these moments, Othman wrote: “I do nominate Omar­bn­Al­Khattaab as my successor to caliphate.” When Abu­Bakr regained his consciousness, he ordered Othman to read what he had written down. “You would have been fitting for it had you written your own name instead.” said Abu­Bakr.[203] This indicated that it had been no difference at all between Omar and Othman since both were playing to the same team. In his final disease, Omar said: “Had Abu­Ubeideh been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate. Had Khalid­bn­Al­Waleed been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate. Had Salim, Abu­Hutheifeh's slave, been alive, I would have nominated for the caliphate.” This indicated that there had been no difference between


[200] AL­Imametu Wes­Siyaseh page9. [201] At­Tabari's book of history part.3 page198, and bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.2 page265. [202] bn­Abil­Hadid's Sharhu Nahjil­Belagha part.2 page103 and part.1 page37. [203] At­Tabarai's book of history part.3 page429, Ibnul­Jawzi's Siretu Omar page37 and bn­Khuldoun's book of history part.2 apge 85.

Abu­Ubeideh and Khalid since both were belonging to the same party. Moreover, it was not unacceptable to elect Me’ath­bn­Jabal, the Ansari, for occupying the position of leadership despite the fact that few years ago it was impracticable for the Ansar to be the leaders since leadership, as Al­Faruq adjudged, was restricted to the Prophet’s clan. Similarly, what was the wrong of granting a slave, such as Salim, Hutheifeh’s slave, the position of caliphate? The most important thing was that Ali or any Hashemite should never hold such a position. Had Ali been out of the picture of the six­member advisory board decided by Omar for electing the new caliph, affairs would not have been so complicated, and the other four members — since Talha was absent — would have immediately elected Othman.

Othman, however, was the first Muhajir, after Omar and Abu­Ubeideh, who swore allegiance to Abu­Bakr. He was also that clerk who wrote: “I do use Omar­bn­Al­Khattaab as my successor to caliphate.” Besides, he was the only candidate nominated by Omar in whose reign, Othman was named ‘the successor.’ Little study of Omar’s will reveals the fact that the winner would be none other than Othman.

Othman declared his readiness to concede caliphate to Talha who had just arrived after a journey. This matter was natural since the all were brothers of the same team and purpose. It was also unproblematic in case Abdullah­bn­Omar was his father’s successor. They, in fact, advised Omar to nominate his son for caliphate since, according to their claim, he had enjoyed some attributes making him qualified enough for such a position. The entire Quraishis were a united team of the same degree of standing and purpose, which was preventing the Hashemites from joining leadership to prophesy.