Endnotes

1- Albert Schweitzer, Philosophy of civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1949).

2- The validity, comprehension, applicability, and simplicity of law are some factors that need to be considered in studying any civilization.

3- For example, ancient agricultural societies are now considered more civilized than hunter-gatherer societies. Agricultural societies evince more prudent and systematic thought than hunter-gatherer societies and forethought is a distinguishing feature of a civilized society. Such systematic thinking and forethought manifest themselves clearly in the laws of these ancient civilizations. If humans are left to their impulses, society will not progress. Furthermore, a civilized act requires the use of reason to think not only about this life, but also about the hereafter.

4- For a philosophical and theological introduction to Islam, see Mashhad Al-Allaf, Mirror of Realization (St. Louis, MO: IIC Classic Series, 2003).

5- See Mashhad Al-Allaf, Dr. Yāsin Khalīl siratuhu wa falsafatuhu wa camāluhu cilmiyya [Dr. Yāsin Khalīl: His philosophy and scientific works], (Baghdad, Iraq: University of Baghdad Press, 1988), pp. 298–[^302]: While Dr. Yāsin Khalīl used this model to clarify the Arabic sciences; the model being used here represents Islamic civilization.