The Battle of Uhud

The people of Quraysh received the news of their defeat and their great loss in men and properties with great sorrow and grief. The most of them in sorrow and distress were Abu Sufyan and his wife Hind who prohibited to herself and to the men and women of Quraysh the weeping on their killed men so that their sorrow would remain inside them until they would avenge on Muslims.

The leadership of Abu Sufyan

In the battle of Uhud,[1] Abu Sufyan was the head of Quraysh and the first leader of the war. He succeeded in taking the masses of people to fight against the messenger of Allah (a.s.). He asked the merchants and the wealthy people of Quraysh to assist him with their monies in the war against the Prophet (a.s.), and they responded to him. They gave him monies as he liked to buy weapons and equipments. Concerning this battle, sixty verses from the Sura of Aal Imran were revealed to the Prophet (a.s.).

The people of Quraysh agreed unanimously on the war followed by the tribes of Kinanah, Tihama, and their allies. Historians say that the army of Quraysh was about three thousand men, whereas the army of Muslims was about seven hundred men.

All men of Quraysh went out to fight the Prophet (a.s.). They accompanied with them their women because that would encourage them to fight defiantly. Abu Sufyan took with him his wife Hind bint Utbah, and so did the chiefs and notables of Quraysh. The women of Quraysh were behind the men  

[1] Uhud is a famous mountain in Medina where this battle took place on Saturday, 11th of Shawwal in the third year of Hijra and took the name of this mountain. Refer to as-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by Zayni Dahlan, printed in the margins of as-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 19.

drumming on the tambourine headed by Hind (Abu Sufyan’s wife) who aroused the enthusiasm of the men by reciting stanzas and verses of poetry. On the other side, her husband Abu Sufyan was encouraging the men to put out the light of Allah and quench the mission of Islam. When Quraysh arrived in al-Abwa’, Hind suggested to dig out the tomb of the Prophet’s mother, and later on if some men from Quraysh were taken prisoners, they would be ransomed for each part of the Prophet’s mother, but the people of Quraysh refused this suggestion and said, “Let this door not be opened; otherwise, they (Muslims) will unearth the graves of our deads when they come.”[1]

The Prophet consults with his companions

As usual, the Prophet (a.s.) consulted with his companions on the political and military affairs except when it was revealed to him from the heaven concerning those affairs. He suggested to them either to go out of Medina to repel the army of Quraysh there, or to remain in Medina waiting for the enemies to fight them in the town. His companions disagreed on the matter. Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salool thought that they should remain in Medina, whereas others said, “O messenger of Allah, lead us out to our enemies. Let them not think that we are coward or weak.” The Prophet (a.s.) responded to them unwillingly. He got prepared and set out followed by about one thousand warrior.

The Prophet (a.s.) marched with the army and when they were at some place between Medina and the mountain of Uhud, Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salool, who was from the heads of the hypocrites, slipped away with the third of the army.  

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 268.

The Prophet (a.s.) went on with seven hundred warriors until they stopped at the slope of the valley and made the mountain of Uhud behind them. He ordered fifty archers led by Abdullah bin Jubayr to remain on the top of the mountain and not to leave it in order to guard the backs of Muslims. The Prophet (a.s.) said to Abdullah, “Shoot the horsemen with arrows and do not let them attack us from behind us. If we win or not, let you not leave your place.”

In another narration, it is related that the Prophet (a.s.) said to the archers, “If you see that we are attacked, do not leave (your place) until I will send to you a messenger, and if you see that we have won and defeated the people, do not leave until I will send you a messenger.”[1]

If this troop of the army had followed the order of the Prophet (a.s.), the Muslims would not have met that defeat and the losses of men.

The war

Quraysh opened the door to the war when Talha bin Abi Talha advanced crying out, “O companions of Muhammad, you claim that Allah takes us soon to the Fire by your swords and takes you soon to the Paradise by our swords. Then, which of you will come out to me?”

The hero of Islam and lion of Allah and of His messenger Imam Ali (a.s.) advanced saying, “By Allah, I will not leave you until I will send you soon to the Fire by my sword.”

Imam Ali (a.s.) struck the man with his sword and cut his leg, and he fell down to the ground. Imam Ali (a.s.) wanted to finish off him, but he begged him by Allah and kinship to leave him alone, and Imam Ali (a.s.) left him alone, but after an hour he  

[1] As-Seerah al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 222.

died. The Prophet (a.s.) was delighted by his death and so were the rest of Muslims,[1] because he was called ‘the ram of the battalion’ for his courage. By his killing fear and weakness overcame the people of Quraysh and they felt as if they were defeated from the beginning. After Talha, the heroes and courageous fighters advanced to duel with the Muslims, but Ameerul Mo'minin Imam Ali (a.s.) harvested their heads one after the other. Their morale collapsed and they became certain that they were going to perish.

Hind, Mo’awiya’s mother, was in the middle of the battlefield enthusing the army of Quraysh to keep on fighting the Muslims. Whenever a man from Quraysh ran away, she offered to him a kohl jar and a stick saying to him, “You are but a woman, so darken your eyes (with this kohl).”[2] Her zeal was not less than her husband’s who as well encouraged and enthused his men in all ways. He said to the people of (the tribe of) Abdid-Dar, who were the carriers of the army’s banner, “You were entrusted with our banner on the Day of Badr, and we were afflicted with what you had already seen. Surely, people are attacked from the direction of their banners which when are defeated they (people) shall be defeated. Either you suffice us our banner, or you leave it to us that we will suffice you it.” By this saying, he provoked their emotions and they considered that as scolding and despising. Therefore, they said to him, “Do we give up our banner to you?! You shall see tomorrow when we will meet how we will do.” Indeed, it was this that Abu Sufyan intendeds.

[1] Noor al-Absar, p. 78.
[2] Encyclopedia of Imam Ameerul Mo'minin Ali bin Abi Talib, vol. 2 p. 23.

The Prophet and his companions

Abu Dujanah was one of the best companions. He was very courageous at war. The Prophet (a.s.) had a sword in his hand. He said, “Who will take this sword for its right?”

Abu Dujanah said, “What is its right, O messenger of Allah?”

The Prophet (a.s.) said, “To strike with it in the face of the enemy until it (the sword) is bent.”

Abu Dujanah said, “I take it, O messenger of Allah, for its right.”

He took the sword and attacked the polytheists. He killed everyone he met. He attacked Hind, Mo’awiya’s mother, and was about to beat her head, but he gave up loftily.[1] In another narration it has been mentioned that he said, “I honored the sword of the messenger of Allah in not hitting by it a woman.”[2] Thus were the situations of the Prophet’s companions. They were honest, noble, and lofty.

The murder of Hamza

Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib, the Prophet’s uncle, was a very brave hero before and after Islam. He was a very faithful Muslim who defended Islam boldly. He was the striking force in the Muslim army. In the battle of Uhud, he was assassinated by Wahshi, a villain, sinful slave who was incited by Hind, Abu Sufyan’s wife, who lost several men from her family in the battle of Badr. She promised Wahshi to offer him many things if he would kill Hamza. Wahshi also was incited by his master Jubayr bin Mut’im who promised to set him free (from slavery) if he would kill Hamza.

[1] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Hisham, vol. 3 p. 73.
[2] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 227.

When Hamza was martyred, Hind became very joyful and delighted. She hurried to the battlefield looking for Hamza’s body to satisfy her grudge against him. When she found him, she cut open his abdomen, took out his liver, and chewed it, but she could not swallow it, so she throw it away, and then she cut his nose, ears, and genitals, and she took them as a necklace. The women with her did the same thing to the bodies of the other martyrs.[1] By doing this, Hind thought that she would satisfy her soul that was filled with spite and grudge against Hamza.

Hind thanked Wahshi for his assassinating of Hamza and she gave him her necklaces, earrings, and one of her bondmaids.

Abu Sufyan as well went looking for Hamza’s body to satisfy his grudge too. When he found him, he began beating his mouth with his spear. In fact, all the Umayyad family had been brought up with vices, betrayal, disloyalty, and rejoicing at others’ distresses. There was no one honest, noble, or generous from among them.

The Prophet’s sorrow

The Prophet (a.s.) with a group from his companions went looking for his uncle’s body, and when he found it, he was shocked because he found that his uncle’s body had been maimed. He said sadly and angrily, “I will not be afflicted with one like you at all. I have not been in a situation more hurting to me than this…if Allah makes me prevail over Quraysh in a battle from the battles, I will maim thirty men from them.”[2]

And on this occasion, Allah revealed to the Prophet (a.s.) these verses, (If you punish, then punish with the like of that  

[1] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol. 3 p. 74.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Hisham, vol. 2 p. 95.

wherewith you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient. And be patient and your patience is not but by (the assistance of) Allah, and grieve not for them, and do not distress yourself at what they plot).[1] Therefore, the Prophet (a.s.) became patient and gave up. And then, he prohibited the maiming even if against a biting dog.

The Prophet (a.s.) enshrouded his uncle with his own garment, put the other martyrs beside him, and offered the prayer on them seventy-two times.[2] Then he himself buried his uncle while shedding tears and feeling deep sorrow. He said addressing his martyred uncle, “O you the uncle of the messenger of Allah, the lion of Allah, and the lion of His messenger. O you, the doer of goodness, the reliever of distresses, O Hamza the defender of the messenger of Allah!”[3]

The women of the Ansar held meetings of mourning on their killed men. When the Prophet (a.s.) passed by them, he said, “But there are no mourners for Hamza!” So the women of the Ansar informed each other about the saying of the Prophet (a.s.) and said, “Do not weep for your killed ones until you weep for the Prophet’s uncle.” Then, the women held meetings of mourning for Hamza the Prophet’s uncle.

The martyrdom of Mus’ab

Mus’ab was one of the noblest young men of Quraysh and one of the most pious Muslims. He tolerated different kinds of torture in the way of Allah and faced many calamities from the polytheists of Quraysh. At the beginning of the mission, the Prophet (a.s.) sent him as a deputy to Medina to invite the  

[1] Qur'an, 16:126-127.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Hisham, vol. 2 p. 97.
[3] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 246.

people there to Islam. A great number of people there turned Muslims at his hand. In the battle of Uhud, he was one of the prominent leaders and he did very well in the battle until he was martyred. He was killed by ibn Qam’ah al-Laythi who thought he was the Prophet (a.s.), and therefore, he cried out in the middle of the battlefield, “I killed Muhammad.”

The Prophet (a.s.) felt great pain for the loss of Mus’ab as Muslims lost one of their great leaders who were so loyal and faithful in defending Islam.

The rout of the polytheists

Muslims, and especially Imam Ali (a.s.), killed the bearers of the polytheists’ banners and most of their leaders. Their army fled followed by their women, who were crying and wailing and uncovering their legs in utmost meanness and disgrace, towards the mountain. It was not long when everything was upside-down.

The defeat of Muslims

Muslims suffered great loss in men and they faced a disaster that was about to do away with Islam. That was because when the archers, whom the Prophet (a.s.) had ordered to remain on the mountain to back the army lest the enemy might attack from behind, saw that the polytheists were defeated and saw them run away leaving behind them their arms and baggage, they left their places on the mountain and hurried to the battlefield to plunder the arms and baggage of the enemy. When Khalid bin al-Waleed, who was from the leaders of Quraysh then, saw that, he attacked with his men the Prophet’s companions from behind while they were unaware. He killed many of them most of whom were prominent leaders in the army of the Prophet (a.s.). This disaster was the result of the archers’ disobedience to the Prophet’s order.

When the Prophet (a.s.) saw this painful defeat that his army faced, he raised his hands towards the heaven praying,

“O Allah, all praise be to You.

O Allah, there is no straitening to what You enlarge and no enlarging to what You straiten, no guide to whom You make astray and no deviator to whom You guide, no giver to whom You deprive and no depriver to whom You give, no approacher to what You isolate and no isolator to what You approach.

O Allah, give to us Your blessings, mercy, favor, and sustenance.

O Allah, I ask You for the permanent bliss that does not change or disappear.

O Allah, I ask You for security on the Day of Fear and richness on the Day of Neediness.

O Allah, I am seeking Your protection from the evil of what You have given to us and what You have not given to us.

O Allah, endear to us faith and adorn it into our hearts, and make disbelief, apostasy, and disobedience hateful to us, and make us from the prosperous.

O Allah, make us die Muslims and join us to the righteous; neither disgraced nor tempted.

O Allah, fight the disbelievers who deny Your messengers and keep (people) away from Your way.

O Allah, send down on them Your wrath and torment, O You the Lord of the truth.”[1]

He also invoked Allah in the battlefield with this invocation, “O Allah, praise be to You, to You is the complaint, and You are the Assistant.”

[1] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol.3 p. 77.

Then Gabriel came down saying to him, “You have invoked with the invocation of Abraham when he was thrown into the fire and of Jonah when he was inside the whale.”[1]

The struggle of Umm Imarah

From the great women who had a distinguished role in the battle was the Prophet’s companions Umm Imarah. She did very well in this battle. Umm Sa’d bint Sa’d bin ar-Rabee’ asked Umm Imarah about her jihad before the Prophet (a.s.) and she replied, “In the morning I went to Uhud to see what people were doing. I had with me a skin full of water. I went to the Prophet (a.s.) who was among his companions while the Muslims were prevalent. When the Muslims were defeated, I surrounded the messenger of Allah and began fighting to defend him by the sword and shooting arrows until I was wounded with many wounds.”

In her shoulder there was a deep wound. Umm Sa’d asked her who wounded her and she said, “It was Ibn Qam’ah, may Allah lower him. When people (Muslims) left the messenger of Allah, he (Ibn Qam’ah) came saying, “Show me Muhammad! Let me not be saved if he is saved.” I, Mus’ab bin Umayr, and some people, who remained fixed with the messenger of Allah, blocked his way and he struck me this one, and I struck him for it many strikes, but the enemy of Allah (Ibn Qam’ah) had put on two armors.”[2] Umm Aymen, another great companion, also had a great role in this battle. She looked after the wounded warriors…[3]

Villains try to kill the Prophet

Utbah bin Abi Waqqas, one of the most hostile polytheists to the Prophet (a.s.), hit the Prophet (a.s.) with a rock and broke his  

[1] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 19 p. 131.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol.3 p. 67.
[3] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 227.

front teeth. The Prophet (a.s.) prayed Allah against him saying, “O Allah, let the year not complete to him until he shall die a disbeliever.”

Allah responded to His messenger and this villain was killed on that very day by Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah who took his (Utbah) sword and horse and brought them before the Prophet (a.s.). The Prophet (a.s.) was pleased and said to him, “May Allah be pleased with you.”[1]

Umayyah bin Khalaf was also a very bitter enemy to the Prophet (a.s.). When he met him in Mecca, he said to him, “O Muhammad, I have al-Awth (the name of his horse); everyday I feed it with a great deal of corn so that I will kill you on it.”

The Prophet (a.s.) replied to him, “But it is me who will kill you by the will of Allah.”

In the battle of Uhud, this villain came towards the Prophet (a.s.) crying out, “O liar, where shall you run away?”

Some Muslims blocked his way, but the Prophet (a.s.) ordered them to clear the way for him. The Prophet (a.s.) took a bayonet and threw it at Umayyah and it scratched his neck. He shouted out, “Muhammad killed me.”

His fellow men said to him, “You have lost your mind! You often took arrows out of your ribs, and this is not but a scratch.”

He said to them, “If this, which is in me, is in the people of Thil Majaz, Rabee’ah, Mudhar, or the whole people of the earth, they will die. If he spits at me, he will kill me.” He died on his coming back to Mecca.

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2, p. 233.

Danger surrounds the Prophet

When most of Muslims ran away from the battlefield, dangers surrounded the Prophet (a.s.) and he was wounded by the enemies.  His front teeth were broken and his upper lip was cut and it bled on his holy face. He wiped the blood while saying, “How would a people, who stained (with blood) the face of their prophet while inviting them to Allah, be successful?”[1]

He fell into a hole that Abu Aamir had dug and concealed so that Muslims would fell into unknowingly. Imam Ali (a.s.), held the Prophet’s hand and Talha lifted him (by the other) until he stood up.[2]

Abu Sufyan asked some man to call out in the battlefield that Muhammad had been killed. When the Muslims heard that, they ran away here and there. Some companions tried to write to Abu Sufyan asking him for protection.

However, Imam Ali (a.s.) defended the Prophet (a.s.) against the polytheists so courageously. The Prophet (a.s.) asked him, “O Ali, what did people (Muslims) do?”

Imam Ali (a.s.) said, “They broke the covenant and ran away.’

A group from Quraysh attacked the Prophet (a.s.) who said to Imam Ali (a.s.), “Suffice me against these people!”

Imam Ali (a.s.) attacked them and they ran away. Another group of about fifty men attacked the Prophet (a.s.) who again said to Imam Ali, “Suffice me against these people!” He attacked them and killed four men from the children of Sufyan bin Uwayf as he killed six men from the first battalion. A third battalion attacked the Prophet (a.s.) headed by Hisham bin Umayyah who was killed by the imam and the rest of his men fled. A  

[1] Encyclopedia of Imam Ameerul Mo’minin Ali bin Abi Talib, vol. 2 p. 18.
[2] Ibid.

fourth group headed by Bishr bin Malik attacked the Prophet (a.s.). Imam Ali (a.s.) killed Bishr and the group ran away.

Thus, Imam Ali (a.s.) protected the Prophet (a.s.) after harvesting the heads of the heroes of Quraysh. Gabriel was astonished at Imam Ali’s great struggl in defending the Prophet (a.s.); therefore, he (Gabriel) said to the Prophet (a.s.), “This comfort (of Imam Ali) has astonished the angels.”

The Prophet (a.s.) said to him, “And what prevents him from that since he is from me and I am from him.”

Gabriel added proudly, “And I am from you both.”[1]

In this ordeal, Imam Ali (a.s.) was beside the Prophet (a.s.) as a sacrifice to him. He met sixteen strikes that sent him down to the ground but Gabriel lifted him up. [2]

Then, a group of truthful Muslims hurried to defend the Prophet (a.s.) from among whom there were:

1. Anas bin an-Nadhr

When the Muslims fled and Abu Sufyan rumored that the Prophet (a.s.) had been killed, Anas bin an-Nadhr faced the Muslims and said determinedly, “What do you do with life after him (the Prophet). Die for what he died for.” He fought courageously until he was martyred.[3] 

2. Thabit bin ad-Dahdaha

He was one of the heroes and prominent Muslims. When he saw the defeat of Muslims and heard the caller of Abu Sufyan calling out that Muhammad had been killed, he said to the Ansar, “O people of the Ansar, come to me! Come to me! I am Thabit bin  

[1] Encyclopedia of Imam Ameerul Mo'minin Ali bin Abi Talib, vol. 2 p. 18.
[2] Encyclopedia of Imam Ameerul Mo'minin Ali bin Abi Talib, vol. 2 p. 18.
[3] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 246.

ad-Dahdaha. If Muhammad was killed, surely Allah is alive that never dies. Defend your religion, and surely Allah will support and make you prevail.”

Some men from the Ansar responded to him, and they together attacked a group of men from Quraysh among whom were Khalid bin al-Waleed, Amr bin al-Aas, Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, and Dhirar bin al-Khattab. Khalid bin al-Waleed killed him by his spear and killed the men with him.[1]

3. Abu Dujanah

He was one of the prominent mujahidin.  He bent his back before the Prophet (a.s.) to protect him against arrows lest no one would hit him.

4. Ziyad bin Imarah

He did very well in defending the Prophet (a.s.). The arrows and spears of Quraysh hit him until he fell to the ground unconscious. He was carried to the Prophet (a.s.) and he put his head on the Prophet’s leg, but after no long his soul went high towards its Creator.[2]

5. Abu Talha

he was too sincere in defending the Prophet (a.s.) and sacrificing him by himself. He was expert in archery. He spread his quiver before the Prophet (a.s.) and said to him, “My soul is sacrificed for your soul, and my face is a guard for your face.”

He kept on shooting his arrows against the enemy army, and the Prophet (a.s.) ordered some man to put arrows near to him. The Prophet (a.s.) was overlooking the enemy when Abu Talha was shooting. He said to the Prophet (a.s.), “O prophet of Allah, may  

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 246.
[2] Ibid., p. 231.

my father and mother die for you! Do not overlook them lest an arrow from their arrows hits you. May my neck be the sacrifice for yours.”[1]

6. Amr bin al-Jamuh

He was one of the best Muslims. He was lame having four courageous sons who all fought with the Prophet (a.s.) in all his battles. In the battle of Uhud, they wanted to prevent their father from going to the war saying to him, “Allah the Almighty has excused you because you are lame. He has exempted you from jihad.”

He was not satisfied, and he hurried to the Prophet (a.s.) saying to him sadly, “My children want to prevent me from this way, but, by Allah, I hope that I shall walk with my lameness in the Paradise.”

The Prophet (a.s.) said to him, “As for you, Allah has excused you and there is no jihad on you.”

When the Prophet (a.s.) saw his eagerness to gain martyrdom, he said to his children, “You may not prevent him that Allah may grant to him martyrdom.”

He left the Prophet (a.s.) pleasedly and delightedly. He fought courageously in the battlefield until he was martyred.[2]

7. Sa’d bin ar-Rabee’

He gave a wonderful picture of faith and heroism in Islam. He fought everywhere in the battlefield. The Prophet (a.s.) was very careful of him. He asked his companions to look for him. Some man from the Ansar went looking for him and he found him breathing his last. He came near and said to him, “The

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 231.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol. 3 p. 73,74.

messenger of Allah ordered me to see whether you are alive or dead.”

He said to him faintly, “I am dead. Inform the messenger of Allah and said to him that Sa’d bin ar-Rabee’ says to you: may Allah reward you with all goodness as ever He has rewarded a prophet on behalf of his nation. And send my greeting to your people and say to them: Sa’d bin ar-Rabee’ says to you: there shall be no excuse to you near Allah if your prophet is touched while there is an eye twinkling among you.” After no long, his soul left high to the heaven.[1] 

8. Aasim bin Umar bin Qatadah

His eye was hit in the battle and it fell down on his cheek, but the Prophet (a.s.) returned it by his hand. After that, it was the best and sharpest one of his eyes. His children often prided on this charisma.

9. Al-Usayrim

He was Amr bin Thabit from bani Abd al-Ashhal who became Muslim on the Day of Uhud. He held his sword and joined the Muslim army. He was wounded and he fell to the ground in the battlefield. Some men from his tribe, who had come to look for their killed men, saw him and said to each other, “This is al-Usayrim. What brought him here whereas he denied Islam?” They asked him, “What brought you here O Amr! Is it a pity for your people or love to Islam?” He said, “But it’s the love of the Prophet of Islam. I believed in Allah and His messenger and turned a Muslim. Then, I took my sword and came with the messenger of Allah. I fought until I faced what I faced.” Soon, he died between them. They mentioned that to the messenger of  

[1] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol. 3, p. 78. Sa’d was one of the chiefs on the Night of al-Aqabah.

Allah who said, “He is from the people of the Paradise.” In another tradition it was mentioned that the Prophet (a.s.) said, “He has entered the Paradise.” He offered no prayer,[1] because he was martyred on the same day when he turned a Muslim, and (the faith in) Islam would cancel whatever (sin) before.

10. Mukhayreeq

He was from Bani Tha’labah. On the Day of Uhud, he said to the Jews, “O community of the Jews, you have already known that the supporting of Muhammad is obligatory on you.” Then he took his sword and said, “If I am killed, all my possessions should be for Muhammad. He can do with them whatever he likes.”

He joined the Prophet (a.s.) in Uhud and fought with him until he was killed. The Prophet (a.s.) possessed his (Khuwayreeq) properties and made them entailment in the way of Allah, and this was the first entailment in Medina.[2]

The end of the war

The war ended with the victory of Quraysh and the defeat of Muslims. Many Muslim leaders and famous companions were martyred in this battle. The Prophet (a.s.) declared that this was the last battle where Muslims were defeated. He said to Imam Ali (a.s.), “The polytheists shall not defeat us like it (this battle) at all until Allah will grant to us victory.”[3]

Anyhow, Abu Sufyan left the battlefield with his army while filled with joy and delight.  

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 3 p. 73.
[2] As-Seera an-Nabawiyyah by ibn Katheer, vol. 3 p. 72.
[3] Ibid., p. 84.

The Prophet (a.s.) and his companions buried the martyrs in the very place of the battle. Many of the martyrs were from the memorizers of the Holy Qur'an where a fragrance like that of musk emanated from their tombs. Some carried their killed men to Medina, but the Prophet (a.s.) returned them to the battlefield where they were martyred.[1]

In the year forty of Hijra, Mo’awiyah the son of Hind made water flow in this graveyard and ordered people to move their deads to another place and they did while the graveyard was wet.[2] He did that to avenge himself on them, though it is impermissible to violate the tombs of Muslims, but they must be revered especially the tombs of martyrs. Anyhow, Mo’awiya the son of Abu Sufyan did that, because he was too far from the principles and rulings of Islam.

The Prophet marches with his army to fight Abu Sufyan

The Prophet (a.s.) ordered his companions, who were still in the battlefield and especially those who fought with him, to move on for fight. They responded to him and set out. Then Allah revealed about them this verse, (As for those who heard the call of Allah and His messenger after the harm befell them (in the fight); for such of them who do right and ward off (evil), there is great reward).[3]

The Muslim army marched until it arrived in Hamra’ al-Asad, eight miles from Medina. The Prophet (a.s.) and his army remained there three days and then they went back to Medina. This was a wonderful military plan that the Prophet (a.s.)  

[1] As-Seera al-Halabiyyah, vol. 2 p. 250.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Qur'an, 3:172.

planned to make Abu Sufyan, who regretted for going back to Mecca without keeping on fighting and doing away with the rest of Muslims especially after obtaining the victory over them, think that the Prophet (a.s.) had prepared an army stronger than his and that the army was on the way to chase him and his army.

Ma’bad al-Khuza’iy was a polytheist, but he was loyal to the Prophet (a.s.). He passed by the Prophet (a.s.) while he was in Hamra’ al-Asad and said to him, “O Muhammad, by Allah, it was painful to us what happened unto your companions. We liked that Allah might save them to you.” Then he left the Prophet (a.s.) and set out towards Mecca. In ar-Rawha’, he met with Abu Sufyan who decided to come back to fight the Prophet (a.s.) again after the people of Quraysh had said to him, “We have killed the leaders and the heroes of Muhammad’s army and we want to return to do away with the rest of them.” Abu Sufyan said to Ma’bad, “What do you have, Ma’bad?”

Ma’bad said, “Muhammad has set out chasing you with a gathering that I have never seen like it. They feel burning desires to fight you. Those, who had left him (the Prophet), joined him and regretted for what they did. They had anger against you that I have never seen like it.”

Abu Sufyan felt fear and said worriedly, “Woe unto you! What are you saying?”

Ma’bad said, “By Allah, I see that you shall not leave until you shall see the forelocks of horses.”

Abu Sufyan said, “We have already determined to do away with them.”

Ma’bad said, “But I see that you may not go on that…” He recited to him some verses of poetry on the matter that made

Abu Sufyan give up his intention to fight again, and this was a victory to Islam.

The results of the battle of Uhud

The battle of Uhud left, on the Islamic side, some painful consequences such as:

1. The joy of Quraysh

The people of Quraysh went back to Mecca playing the trumpets of victory for what they achieved against the Muslims and the great losses they caused to them in lives and properties. The most delighted ones of them at all were Abu Sufyan, his wife Hind, and the Umayyads who felt they had avenged themselves on the Prophet (a.s.) by killing his uncle Hamza and the other heroes of Muslims. Before going to his home, Abu Sufyan went to the Kaaba to greet Hubal, the greatest of idols, and thank it for that victory, and then he went to his house and slept with his wife Hind to fulfil his vow that he had made in not sleeping with her until he would defeat Muhammad.

2. The delight of the polytheists and the Jews

The polytheists and the Jews became very delighted at the defeat and the great losses the Muslims faced in that battle. They thought that the authority and the power of Islam shook and became disturbed. In their meetings, they talked mockingly about the fate of Muslims. Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salool, the head of polytheists, did not participate in the fight because the Prophet (a.s.) did not listen to his suggestion or because he was angry at his allies from the Jews and the Christians; therefore, he rejoiced at the losses that Muslims faced in this battle.

Anyhow, all the enemies of Islam rejoiced at this defeat of Muslims and announced their joys at this disaster that had afflicted the Prophet (a.s.) and his followers, and they wished if

it would happen again so that the banner of Islam might be folded forever.

3. Deeming Muslims weak

After the battle of Uhud, the Arab tribes deemed the Muslims weak. After they feared Muslims and feared the prevalence of Islam over them, they began, after the damages that had befallen the Muslims, attacking them intending to do away with them.