Commentary : Verse 4
(4) وَآتُواْ النَّسَاء صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا
- " And give women their dowries as a free gift, but if they, of themselves, be pleased to give up to you something of it, then consume it with pleasure and wholesomely."
Concerning the above verse where this term has been applied, it can be explained that the Arabic term /nihlah/, as Raqib Esfahani has said, is derived from /nahl/ in the sense of 'bee'. Since a bee gives honey to people and expects nothing, so, a present is also called /nihlah/. An Islamic tradition indicates that the finest properties should be used in three occasions: 1. Dowry - 2. Hajj pilgrimage -3. Shroud. If you spend your best properties in paying dower, your offsprings will be of the righteous. (1)
Paying dower of the wife (which is her right) is obligatory.
Dower sum is not the rate of a lady, but it is a wedding gift and the sign of affection and friendship.
" And give women their dowries as a free gift, ..."
Dowry is the gift of man to the woman, and never it is her cost. However, we must know that dower is a financial support for the woman at the probable time of separation and as a compensation of her damage.
A woman has the right of possession of her dower. Thus, the parents and relatives of the lady have no right at all to take it for themselves.
A woman is free to take her dowry or donate it.
"... but if they, of themselves, be pleased to give up to you something of it, ..."
(1) Atybab-ul-Bayan, commentary, vol.4, p. 12
- A wholesome wealth is that which whose owner bestows willingly and pleasantly.
"... but if they, of themselves, be pleased to give up to you something of it, then consume it with pleasure and wholesomely."
- The extrinsic consent is not enough, but heartily consent is essential when the Qur'an says: " of themselves". Then, unwillingly given or compulsory remits are not valid.
Commentary : Verse 5
(5) وَلاَ تُؤْتُواْ السُّفَهَاء أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَاماً وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُواْ لَهُمْ قَوْلاً مَّعْرُوفًا
- " And do not give the feeble-minded your property which Allah has made for you a (means of) support, but feed them and clothe them therewith, and speak to them with kind words."
In Islamic literature distrustful winebibbers, in Arabic, are called /safih/ 'feeble-minded'. Therefore, personal properties and public properties should not be put under the authority of some unreliable persons. Some Islamic traditions indicate that the vast sense of the term "feeble -minded" covers evil-doers, too.
The secret that property should not be given unto their control is that ' property ' is the consistence of the society. Thus, giving any position, responsibility and secret imformation, upon which the consistence of the society depends, to the persons who are habitually wrong-doers, is not right.
Those who are feeble-minded, winebibbers, and unrestrained should not be authoritative in economy and wealth.
When the feeble-minded have authority over even their own property, it is economically harmful for your property, too. (It is notable that the verse says: " your property " and it does not say: their property) .
"And do not give the feeble-minded your property which Allah has made for you a (means of) support, ..."
- In daily affairs, economical expediencies of the society and mental development ought to be noted to.
" And do not give the feeble-minded your property...."
The feeble-minded persons are not admissible to use their properties themselves.
The financial and economical authorities of the system should be chosen from among some upright and experienced persons.
" And do not give the feeble-minded ..."
The contractors of the economical agreements must not be some wrong-doers and sinners.
Wealth is a means of rising-up. Then, if wealth is not utilized as a means of rising-up in a country, the economical system there is ill and its excecutor is a feeble-minded person even if he has got P.H.D. in economics.
Wealth is for the consistence of life, economics, and the leaver of the system.
"... which Allah has made for you a (means of) support, ..."
- Capitals must not remain stagnantly. The wealth of the orphans and the feeble-minded persons should also be applied in the current of production and profitableness, so that its income can be enough for their lives to run and nothing of their capital would be spent.
"... but feed them and clothe them therewith, ..."
- The spiritual status and personality of the deprived must be regarded to.
"... and speak to them with kind words."