Commentary : Verse 6

(6) وَابْتَلُواْ الْيَتَامَى حَتَّىَ إِذَا بَلَغُواْ النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُواْ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأ ْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَفَى بِاللّهِ حَسِيبًا

  1. " And do test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage. Then, if you find in them maturity, make over to them their property and do not consume it wastefully and hastily lest they should grow up; and whoever (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain (from taking something of the property of the orphans) and whoever is poor, let him devour reasonably. Then, when you make over to them their property, take witnesses over them; and Allah is enough as a Reckoner."

Commentary :

Another instruction has been given in this verse about the orphans and the fate of their property. It begins thus:

" And do test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage...."

Then, it continues saying that, at this time, if you find enough maturity in them that they are able to run their affairs upon their own property, return it to them. It says:

"... Then, if you find in them maturity, make over to them their property..."

Here, it remarks to the guardians again that they should not devour the property belonging to the orphans wastefully before the orphans grow up. It says:

"... and do not consume it wastefully and hastily lest they should grow up; ..."

Another matter is that if the guardians of the orphans are rich, they must never take anything, under any plea, from the property of the orphans. But if they are poor, for the labours they bear to protect orphans' properties, they, observing justice, can only take their recompenses from those properties. Here is the concerning statement : "... and whoever (of the guardians) is rich, let him abstain (from taking something of the property of the orphans) and whoever is poor, let him devour reasonably...."

Then, it refers to the last ordinance of this group of ordinances about the guardians of the orphans. It orders that when you want to deliver their property to them, to avoid any accusation or any conflict, take witnesses. It says thus:

"... Then, when you make over to them their property, take witnesses over them; ..."

At the end of the verse it remarks that you must know that the real reckoner is Allah and the most important thing is this fact that your account is clear with Him. So, if you commit any treachery, which is concealed to the witnesses, He will reckon it. Therefore, it says:

"... and Allah is enough as a Reckoner."

Commentary : Verse 7

(7) لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصيِبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاء نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

  1. " Men shall have a portion of whatever the parents and the near relatives leave, and women shall have a portion of whatever the parents and the near relatives leave, be it little or much, (it is) a decreed portion."

Occasion of Revelation :

One of the companians of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) passed away. His cousins divided his wealth among themselves though he had left some small children, and they gave nothing of it to his wife and children. According to their custom, affected from the Age of Ignorance, they believed that only those were inheritors who had the power of fighting.

Then, responding to the grievance of the wife of that man and receiving the Divine revelation of the above verse, the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) called the above mentioned cousins and told them to return the properties to the principle inheritors.

Commentary :

  1. In the law of Islam, not only men but also women have the right of inheritance, and the religion of Islam is the protector of the rights of women, too.

" Men shall have a portion of whatever the parents and the near relatives leave, and women shall have a portion of whatever the parents and the near relatives leave, ..."

  1. In this religion, division of inheritance basing on the power and ability of fighting is forbidden.

  2. The principal is the justly division of inheritance, not its amount.

"... be it little or much, ..."

  1. The standard of the portion of inheritance is invariable.

"... (it is) a decreed portion."