Chapter Two: His names, titles, patronymic and their reasons
الدَّقَّاقُ وَ ابْنُ عِصَامٍ مَعاً عَنِ الْكُلَيْنِيِّ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْفَزَارِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُمْهُورٍ الْعَمِّيِّ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنِ الثُّمَالِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ الْبَاقِرَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أَ لَسْتُمْ كُلُّكُمْ قَائِمِينَ بِالْحَقِّ قَالَ بَلَى قُلْتُ فَلِمَ سُمِّيَ الْقَائِمُ قَائِماً قَالَ لَمَّا قُتِلَ جَدِّيَ الْحُسَيْنُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ ضَجَّتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِالْبُكَاءِ وَ النَّحِيبِ وَ قَالُوا إِلَهَنَا وَ سَيِّدَنَا أَ تَغْفَلُ عَمَّنْ قَتَلَ صَفْوَتَكَ وَ ابْنَ صَفْوَتِكَ وَ خِيَرَتَكَ مِنْ خَلْقِكَ فَأَوْحَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَيْهِمْ قَرُّوا مَلَائِكَتِي فَوَ عِزَّتِي وَ جَلَالِي لَأَنْتَقِمَنَّ مِنْهُمْ وَ لَوْ بَعْدَ حِينٍ ثُمَّ كَشَفَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَنِ الْأَئِمَّةِ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَيْنِ ع لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ فَسَرَّتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ بِذَلِكَ فَإِذَا أَحَدُهُمْ قَائِمٌ يُصَلِّي فَقَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِذَلِكَ الْقَائِمِ أَنْتَقِمُ مِنْهُمْ
1- Ilalush Sharai: Daqqaq and Ibne Isaam have together narrated from Kulaini from Qasim bin Alaa from Ismail Fazari from Muhammad bin Jamhur Ammi from Ibne Abi Najran from Abu Hamza Thumali that:
I asked Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.): “O son of Allah’s Messenger, aren’t all of you Establishers(Qaimeen) of Truth?” He said: “Indeed so.” I asked him then, “Why has Qaim been named ‘the Establisher’(Qaim)?” He said: “When my forefather, Husain, may Allah bless him, was martyred, angels wailed to Allah, the Exalted, and cried and whimpered. They said: ‘Our Lord, our Master, are You going to ignore people who killed Your chosen friend and the progeny of Your chosen and selected friend from Your creation?’
Allah, the Exalted, revealed to them, ‘Relax My angels. By My Honor and Majesty, I will take revenge from them, even if it be after a while.’ Then Allah, the Exalted, manifested the Imams from the progeny of Husain (a.s.) which made the angels happy. They saw one of them standing(Qaim), offeringprayers. Allah, the Exalted, said: ‘Through that Standing one(Qaim) I shall avenge from them.”
2- Ilalush Sharai: Shaykh Saduq has narrated from his father from Saad from Hasan bin Ali Kufi from Abdullah bin Mughira from Sufyan bin Abdul Momin Ansari from Amr bin Shimr from Jabir that he said:
A man came to Abu Ja’far (a.s.) while I was present there, and said: “May Allah have mercy on you. Take these five hundred dirhams and spend them in their appropriate venues, for they are the Zakat of my wealth.”
“Rather, you take them and spend them on your neighbors, orphans and the needy and amongst your Muslim brothers,” replied the Imam. “This will happen when our Qaim rises, for he will distribute equally and establish equity in the creation of the All-Merciful, amongst their virtuous and their
evil. Whoever obeys him, has obeyed Allah, and whoever disobeys him, disobeyed Allah.
He has been called Mahdi, because he will guide to a hidden affair, bringing out the Torah and the rest of books of Allah from a cave in Antioch. He will issue verdicts amongst the followers of Torah according to Torah, and amongst followers of Injeel according to Injeel, and amongst followers of Zabur according to Zabur, and amongst followers of Quran according to Quran.
All riches and wealth will come to him, be they beneath the earth or over it, and he will say to people, ‘Come to the riches for which you forsook your relatives, shed blood, and committed forbidden acts.’ He will dispense wealth in a way no one has done before.” Abu Ja’far said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: ‘He is a man from me. His name is like mine. “Allah will protect me through him. He will act on my conduct and fill the earth with equity and justice and light as it will be filled with oppression, inequity, and vice.’”
The author said: “This will happen” refers to the imperativeness of submitting Zakat to the Imam. “So he will issue verdicts amongst the followers of Torah according to Torah,” does not contradict the coming narrations asserting there will remain no one, but he will accept Islam, since this can be interpreted on the grounds that he will reason to them from their books, or will issue verdicts and judgments as such in the beginnings before the rise of his rule and the manifestation of his truth. “Allah will protect me through him” means Allah protects my right and my reverence with respect to him; so He will aide him and succor him. Or it may mean that Allah will make him such that people will infer his right and his reverence for his grandfather.
3- Maniul Akhbar: Shaykh Saduq states:
“Qaim has been named thus as the rising/standing one, because he will rise after his name has been forgotten.”
4- Ikmaaluddin: Ibne Abdus has narrated from Ibne Qutaibah from Hamadan bin Sulaiman from Saqar bin Abi Dalf that he said: I heard Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) say:
“The Imam after me is my son; his command is my command; his word is my word; and obedience to him is obedience to me. Imamate after him belongs to his son, Hasan; his command is his father’s command; his word is his father’s word; and obedience to him is obedience to his father.”
Then he became silent, so I said: “O son of Allah’s Messenger, then who is the Imam after Hasan?” He cried very profusely and then said: “After Hasan (a.s.), is his son, the Establisher of the Truth(Qaim bil-Haqq), the Awaited Savior.” I asked him, “O Son of Allah’s Messenger, why is he named Qaim?” He said: “Because he will rise after the oblivion of his name and the apostasy of the majority of the believers in his Imamate.” Then I asked, “And why is he named Muntazar (the Awaited)?”
He said: “Because the days of his occultation will be many and its time will be long, with the sincere ones awaiting his rise and the doubters
denying it, and the deniers ridiculing it. There will be many predictors then of the time of his rise. The hasty will be annihilated and the submitters will be rescued.”
5- Ghaibat Tusi: Kulaini has narrated from Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) that:
“When Imam Zamana (a.s.) was born, he said: The oppressors assumed that they will kill me in order to discontinue this succession. How did they see the might of Allah!”
He named him Muammal (the one in whom hopes rest).
6- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Fadhl from Musa bin Sadan from Abdullah bin Qasim Hadhrami from Abi Saeed Khurasani that he said:
I asked Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.), “Is the Mahdi and the Qaim the same?”
He said: “Yes.”
I asked, “For what reason has he been named the Mahdi?”
He said: “Because he will be guided to every hidden matter. And he is named Qaim, because he will rise after his name dies. He will establish a mighty enterprise.”
7- Irshad: Muhammad bin Ajlan narrates from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that he said:
“When the Qaim rises, he will call people to Islam anew and will guide them to an order that is worn out and the masses have been led astray from it. The Qaim has been named the Mahdi, because he will lead to an order that is led astray from and he is named Qaim for his rise with the Truth.”
8- Tafsir Furat: Ja’far bin Muhammad Fazari has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) in reference to the Divine words:
فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلاَ يُسْرِف فِّي الْقَتْلِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنْصُورًا
“We have indeed given to his heir authority, so let him not exceed the just limits in slaying; surely he is aided.” (Surah Isra 17:33)
… he said: “This is Husain.” Sohe may not exceed in killing and he is Mansur (helped, assisted, and aided), the Imam said: “Allah has named the Mahdi, al-Mansur as He has named Ahmad, Muhammad, and Mahmud, and as He has named Isa Masih.”
9- Kashful Ghumma: Abil Khashab says: Narrated to me Muhammad bin Musa Tusi from Abdullah bin Muhammad from Qasim Ibne Uday that he said:
“It is said that the patronymic ofKhalaf Salih (The Virtuous Heir) is Abul Qasim and he has two names.”
The author says: His holy names were mentioned in the previous chapter. They will also come in the chapter of “Those who have met him”, and other chapters.