6

Chapter Six: Words of Allah and His Messenger about the Qaim as narrated by Shia and Sunni

أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْحُلْوَانِيِّ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مَنْصُورٍ زَاجٍ عَنْ هُدْبَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْوَهَّابِ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ الْيَمَانِيِّ عَنْ عِكْرِمَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص نَحْنُ بَنُو عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ سَادَةُ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَ حَمْزَةُ سَيِّدُ الشُّهَدَاءِ وَ جَعْفَرٌ ذُو الْجَنَاحَيْنِ وَ عَلِيٌّ وَ فَاطِمَةُ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ وَ الْمَهْدِيُّ

1- Ghaibat Nomani: It is narrated from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Ishaq from Ismail bin Ibrahim Halwani from Ahmad bin Mansur Zaaj from Hudbah bin Abdul Wahab from Saad bin Abdul Hamid bin Ja’far from Abdullah bin Ziyad Yamani from Akrama bin Ammar from Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Abi Talha from Anas Ibne Malik that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“We the children of Abdul Muttalib are the chiefs of Paradise dwellers; the Messenger of Allah, Hamza, the chief of the martyrs, Ja’far with two wings, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husain, and the Mahdi.”

Ghaibat Tusi narrates an identical tradition through Muhammad bin Ali from Uthman bin Ahmad from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Hashmi from Hasan bin Fadhl Busrani from Saad Ibne Abdul Hamid and on as above.

2- Uyun Akhbar Reza: Through the chains of Tamimi, it is narrated from Imam Reza (a.s.) through his holy forefathers, from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said:

“The Hour shall not stand until ourQaim uprises. And that will be when Allah, the Glorified, gives him permission. Whoever follows him will find salvation and whoever falls behind, will perish. For Allah’s sake, for Allah’s sake! Servants of Allah! Come to him even if you have to walk on ice, for he is the vicegerent of Allah, the Exalted, and my vicegerent.”

3- Amali Saduq: Ibne Mutawakkil has narrated from Asadi from Nakhai from Naufili from Ali Ibne Saalim from his father from Thumali from Ibne Tarif from Ibne Nubatah from Ibne Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“When I was raised for Meraj to the seventh heaven, and from there to the Lote Tree, and from the Lote Tree to the Veils of Light, my Lord, the Exalted, called on me, ‘O Muhammad, you are My servant and I am your Lord. So be humble for Me and worship Me and trust Me and have confidence in Me, for I am pleased with you as a servant, as a beloved, as a Messenger, as an Apostle; and with your brother as the vicegerent and as the gateway. He is My Hujjah over My servants and the Imam for My creation. Through him, My friends are known from My enemies and through him th

party of Satan is distinguished from My party. Through him My religion will be established, and My codes observed, and My rules executed. Through you, through him, and through the Imams from your progeny, I confer mercy upon My servants and slave girls.

‘And through the Qaim from yours, I will develop My earth with My praise. Through him, I will purify the earth from My enemies and bequeath her to My friends. Through him, I will make the word of those who have disbelieved in Me low, and My word high. Through him, I will revive My lands and My servants with My knowledge. Through him, I will manifest treasures and riches with My will. I will expose the secrets and the hidden to him with My resolve; I will help him through My angels to aide him in the enforcement of My order, and uncovering of My religion. That is My friend rightfully, and the Mahdi of My servants truly.’”

The author says: Many such traditions were mentioned in the section of the traditions affirming the Twelve Imams and the section pertinent to the reasons of his holy names.

4- Uyun Akhbar Reza: It is narrated from Abdullah bin Muhammad Saigh from Muhammad bin Saeed from Husain bin Ali from Walid bin Muslim from Safwan bin Amr from Shuraih bin Ubaid from Amr Bakai from Kaabul Ahbar that he said:

“The Caliphs are Twelve. When their demise approaches and a virtuous generation comes, Allah will prolong their lives. Such has Allah promised this Ummah. Then he recited:

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُم فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ

“Allah has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them…” (Surah Nur 24:55)

He said: “Likewise did Allah, the Exalted, to the Children of Israel. It is not difficult that He may gather this Ummah in a day or half a day.And a day before your Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning.

5- Uyun Akhbar Reza: It is narrated from the chains of Tamimi that Imam Reza (a.s.) said that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“The world will not perish until a man from the progeny of Husain takes charge of my Ummah. He will fill it with justice as it shall become full of oppression and injustice.”

6- Amali Tusi: Shaykh Mufeed has narrated from Ismail bin Yahya Abasi from Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari from Muhammad bin Ismail Sawari from Abu Sulat Harawi from Husain Ashqar from Qays bin Rabi from Amash from Abaya bin Rabi from Abu Ayyub Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Fatima during his illness:

“By the One in whose Hand my soul is, there will definitely be in this Ummah the Mahdi, and he is, by Allah, from your sons.”

7- Amali Tusi: It is narrated from Al-Haffar from Uthman bin Ahmad from Abi Qalaba from Bushr bin Umar from Malik bin Anas from Zaid bin Aslam from Ismail bin Aban from Abi Maryam from Thuwayr bin Abi Fakhta from Abdur Rahman bin Abi Laila from his father that:

“The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave the standard to Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) in the battle of Khyber and Allah granted him victory. Then he mentioned how the Prophet appointed him on the day of Ghadeer. He recounted some of his excellent attributes, which the Messenger had elaborated. My father said: Then the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) wept. They asked him, “O Apostle of Allah, why are you crying?”

He said: “Jibraeel (a.s.) informed me that they will oppress him, deny him his right, wage wars against him, and kill and tyrannize his progeny after him. Jibraeel (a.s.) also informed me from his Lord, the Exalted, that this will end when their Qaim rises, at which their word will ascend and the Ummah will unite on their love, at which their enemies will be reduced, their haters disgraced, and their praisers will be many. This will happen when lands change and the servants of God are weakened and lose hope in an opening. At that time the Qaim will rise amidst them.” The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“His name is like my name, and his father’s name is like my son’s name. He is from the progeny of my daughter. Allah will manifest the truth through them and smother vanity through their swords. People will follow them, some in their love and some in their fear.” When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) stopped crying, he said: “Congregations of the Faithful! Rejoice the glad tidings of salvation, for Allah’s promise does not fail and His destiny does not falter and He is the All-Wise the All-Knowing. Victory from Allah is near. O Allah, they are my household, take away uncleanness from them and purify them, a thorough purification. O Allah, guard them, protect them and be their shepherd. Be for them, help them, assist them, honor them and do not dishonor them, and be my successor amongst them. You are All-Powerful on everything.”

8- Amali Tusi: Shaykh Mufeed has narrated from Ahmad bin Walid from Saffar from Muhammad bin Ubaid from Ali bin Asbat from Saif bin Umair from Muhammad bin Humran that Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said:

“When the fate of Husain Ibne Ali reached where it reached, the angels wailed to Allah, the Exalted and said: O Lord, is this done to Husain, your chosen friend and the son of Your Messenger? Allah raised the shadow of the Qaim (a.s.) for them and said: Through him will I avenge from his oppressors.”

9- Amali Tusi: It is narrated from a group from Abi Mufaddal from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Bishar from Mujahid bin Musa from Ibad bin Ibad from Mujalid bin Saeed from Jubair bin Nauf that he said: I said to Abu Saeed Khudri:

“By Allah, no new year comes to us but it is worse than the last, and no ruler, but he is worse than the one before him.”

Abu Saeed said: “I heard this from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). He was saying what you are saying. But I heard him say, ‘This will continue so much so that people will be born in mischief and inequity and they will not know anything but mischief and inequity, so much so that the earth will be full of corruption. No one will be able to say, Allah. Then Allah, the Exalted, will send a man from Me and my family. He will fill the earth with justice as those who have been before him will have filled it with injustice. The earth will bring out its riches and treasures to him. He will dispense wealth without counting it once. This will happen until Islam is established firmly.”

10- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Ibne Mutawakkil from Ali from his father from Harawi from Imam Reza (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“By the One Who sent me with Truth as a herald of happy tidings, the Qaim from my progeny will go into hiding with a promise from me confided in him; so much so that the majority of people will say: Allah does not need Ahle Bayt (a.s.). The remainders will doubt his birth. Whoever sees his time must adhere to his religion and not give Satan a way to him, who will take him off my path and away from my religion.Verily Satan brought out your parents from Paradise before, and Allah, the Exalted,has made satans masters of the people who disbelieve.”

11- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Ibne Idris from his father from Muhammad bin Adam from his father from Ibne Ayaas from Mubarak bin Faddalah from Wahab bin Munabbah directly from Ibne Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

When my Lord elevated me in Meraj, a call came, “O Muhammad.”“Here I am, O Lord of Dignity, here I am,” I said. Allah, the Exalted, addressed me, “O Muhammad, in what did theHigh Congregation dispute?” I said: “My Lord, I do not know.” He said to me, “O Muhammad, you should choose a premier from mankind, a brother and a successor after you.” I said: “My Lord, who should I choose? You select for me, my Lord.” Allah said to me, “O Muhammad, I select Ali for you from the mankind.” I said: “My Lord, my cousin?”

He said to me: “O Muhammad, Ali is your heir and the heir of the knowledge of those after you; he is your standard bearer on Judgment Day and the patron of your Pool. He will provide water to the believers of your Ummah who will enter upon him.”

Then Allah, the Exalted, said to me, “O Muhammad, I have taken a truthful oath over My Soul that no one will drink from that Pool who disdains you, your household and your pure progeny. Truly, truly, do I say, O Muhammad, I will enter the entirety of your Ummah to Paradise except whose who will refuse.” I said: “My Lord, is there anyone who would refuse to enter Paradise?” He said: “Yes.” I asked, “How does he refuse?”

So Allah, the Exalted, said to me, “O Muhammad, I selected you from my creation, and I selected for you a successor after you. I designated him the position of Harun from Musa, except that there will not be an apostle

after you. I put his love in your heart and made him the father of your progeny. His right after you on your Ummah is like your right on them during your lifetime. Whoever denies his right, he denies your right. Whoever refuses to take him as his master, he refuses from taking you as his master; and whoever refuses from taking you as his master, he verily refuses entering Paradise.” I fell in prostration before Him, thanking His graces upon me.

Then a caller was calling, “O Muhammad, raise your head and ask Me, I shall grant you.” I asked, “My Lord, unite my Ummah after me on the love of Ali Ibne Abi Talib, so they all may enter upon my Pool on Judgment Day.” Allah, the Exalted, said, “O Muhammad, I have outlined to My servants before I created them, and My providence is to be fulfilled, that I will destroy through him whoever I wish, and will guide through him whoever I wish. I have granted him your knowledge after you and have made him your legatee and successor after you over your family and over your Ummah, as a determination of Mine. Will not enter Paradise whoever has enmity towards him, despises him, or denies his guardianship after you. Whoever despises him despises you, and whoever despises you despises Me. Whoever is an enemy of his is an enemy of you, and whoever is an enemy of you is an enemy of Me. Whoever loves him loves you, and whoever loves you, he verily so loves Me. I have assigned this excellence to him. My grant to you is that I will bring from his offspring Eleven Men of Guidance, all of whom are from your progeny of the Chaste Lady. Isa Ibne Maryam will pray behind the last man of them. Their last man would fill the earth with equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.

I will save through him from annihilation, and guide through him from ignorance. I will heal through him the blind and cure through him the sick.” I asked, “My Lord, My Chief, when will this be?” Allah, the Exalted, said to me, “It will be when knowledge will be scarce and ignorance manifest; when reciters will be many and action scant; when murders will be plentiful and guided jurists few; when jurists of misguidance and treason will be many and poets will be countless.

When your Ummah will make their graves their mosques; when Qurans will be decorated and mosques will be adorned; when tyranny and mischief will be common; when your Ummah will encourage vice and forbid virtue; when homosexuality and lesbianism will be common; when rulers will be infidels, their friends will be aberrant, their supporters will be oppressors and their thinkers, corrupt.

At that time, there will be three eclipses - an eclipse in the east, an eclipse in the west, and an eclipse in the Arabian peninsula. Basra will be destroyed by a man from your progeny whose followers will be a certain generation of blacks. A man will rise from the progeny of Husain Ibne Ali. Dajjal will appear from the east from Sajistan and Sufyani will rise.”

I said: “My Lord, what trials will there be after me?” So Allah informed me of the mischief of the Umayyads, may He curse them, and of the mischief of the children of my uncle, and all that will happen until Judgment Day. I conferred that knowledge to my cousin when I descended on earth and conveyed the message. Praise is for Allah for this all, as apostles have

praised Him, and as everything before me has praised Him, and as all that He has created will praise Him until Judgment Day.

The author says: “In what did ‘the High Congregation’ dispute?” refers to the holy verse:

مَا كَانَ لِي مِنْ عِلْمٍ بِالْمَلَإِ الْأَعْلَى إِذْ يَخْتَصِمُونَ

“1 had no knowledge of the exalted chiefs when they contended.” (Surah Saad 38:69)

The common opinion amongst interpreters is that it alludes to the holy verse:

إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً

“I am going to place in the earth a vicegerent.” (Surah Baqarah 2:30)

and the questioning of the angels with that respect. Perhaps, Allah, the Exalted, asked His Prophet first about this and then informed him about it and explained that the earth cannot be without a Hujjah and vicegerent and then asked him about his vicegerent and appointed his successors for him. It is possible that the angels may have asked at that time about the heir of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) so Allah informed him of that. Some assertions about this were mentioned in the section of Meraj.

The saying of Allah, the Exalted, “Basra will be destroyed,” is an allusion to the story of the leader of thezanj (a certain tribe from the blacks) who rose in Basra in the year two hundred and fifty-five or fifty-six. He promised to all the blacks who were coming to him to free them and honor them. When a large number of them gathered around him, his campaign became forceful and he got the title of ‘the Leader of the Zanj.’

He believed that he was Ali Ibne Muhammad Ibne Ahmad Ibne Isa Ibne Zaid Ibne Ali Ibne Husain Ibne Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Ibne Abil Hadid says: Majority of people question his lineage, specially so the children of Abu Talib. The majority of genealogists believe that he is from the tribe of Abdul Qais and that he is Ali Ibne Muhammad Ibne Abdur Rahim and that his mother is from the Asad, from Asad Ibne Khuzaimah, and that her grandfather is Muhammad Ibne Hakim Asadi from Kufa.

Ibne Athir has said likewise inKamil and Masudi inMurujuz Zahab. However, this tradition suggests that his lineage is valid. It is worth remembering that these signs are not necessary to be contemporaneous with his victorious rise, since the objective is to describe that these incidents will occur before his rise. Comparatively, many conditions of Judgment Day that Ahle Sunnat as well as the elite congregation has narrated have appeared ages and years before the Hour. The story of ‘the Leader of the Zanj’ was contemporary with his holy birth and from that time his signs have begun appearing until he uprises. It is also possible, however unlikely, that the purpose is to describe the signs of his birth.

12- Ikmaaluddin: Ibne Masrur has narrated from Ibne Aamir from Mualla from Ja’far bin Sulaiman from Abdullah bin Hakam from his father from Saeed bin Jubair from Ibne Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“My successors and heirs and the Hujjas of Allah over the creation after me are twelve. The first one of them is my brother, and their last is my son.” It was asked, “O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who is your brother?” He said: “Ali Ibne Abi Talib.”

He was asked, “Who is your son?” He said: “He is Mahdi. He would fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression and tyranny. By the One Who sent me as an apostle with truth, even if a day is left from the world, Allah will prolong it until my son, Mahdi will rise. Then Allah will send down Ruhullah Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.), who will pray behind my son.And the earth will shine with the illumination of its Lord, and his rule will extend from east to west.”

13- Ikmaaluddin: Ibne Masrur has narrated from Ibne Aamir from his uncle from Ibne Abi Umair from Abu Jamila from Jabir Jofi from Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Mahdi is from my progeny; his name is my name and his patronymic my patronymic. He is the one from all people most similar to me in his creation and in his character. For him there will be an occultation and a wonder, in which nations will go astray. Then he will come like a meteor of piercing brightness, and fill the earth with justice and equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.”

14- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Ibne Walid from Saffar from Ahmad bin Husain bin Saeed from Muhammad bin Jamhur from Faddalah from Muawiyah bin Wahab from Abu Hamza from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Bliss be for the person who will be in the time of the Qaim of my household, who follows the Qaim during his occultation before his rise and loves his lovers and despises his enemies. Such a person is of my friends and lovers and he is the most honorable of my Ummah to me on Judgment Day.”

15- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Abdul Wahid bin Muhammad from Abu Amr Balkhi from Muhammad bin Aslam Jabli from Khattab bin Musab from Sudair from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Bliss be for the one who will be in the time of the Qaim of my household,who will be his follower before his rise, and will follow him and the Imams of Guidance before him, and turns away to Allah with disdainfrom their enemies. They are my friends and the most honorable of my Ummah to me.”

16- Ikmaaluddin: Shaykh Saduq has narrated from his father, Ibne Walid and Ibne Mutawakkil, all from Saad, Himyari and Muhammad Attar, all from Ibne Isa, Ibne Hashim, Barqi and Ibne Abil Khattab, all from Ibne Mahbub from Dawood bin Hasin from Abu Basir from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“The Mahdi isfrom my sons; his name is my name and his patronymic is my patronymic. He is, of all people, the most similar one to me in his appearance and his character. There will be an occultation and a wonder about him, so much so that people will go astrayfrom their religion. At that time, he will come like a meteor of piercing brightness, and fill it with justice and equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.”

17- Ikmaaluddin: Ibne Abdus has narrated from Ibne Qutaibah from Hamadan from Ibne Yazi from Salih Ibne Uqbah from his father from Imam Baqir (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“The Mahdi is from my offspring. There will be an occultation and a wonder for him in which nations will go astray. He will bring the treasures of the apostles and fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.”

18- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Ibne Mutawakkil from Asadi from Barmaki from Ali bin Uthman from Muhammad bin Furat from Thabit bin Dinar from Saeed bin Jubair from Ibne Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) is the Imam of my Ummah and my successor over them after me. From his offspring is the Awaited Qaim, through whom Allah, the Exalted, will fill the earth with justice and equity as it will be full of corruption and oppression. By the One Who sent me with the Truth as a Herald of Glad Tidings, those who will remain steadfast in the belief in him in the time of his occultation, they are rarer than red sulfur.”

Jabir Ibne Abdullah Ansari stood up and asked: “O Messenger of Allah, is the Qaim from your offspring going to have an occultation?” He said: “Yes, by my Lord.

وَلِيُمَحِّصَ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَيَمْحَقَ الْكَافِرِينَ

“And that He may purge those who believe and deprive the unbelievers of blessings.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:141)

Jabir, this order is a Divine Order, and a secret from the Divine Secrets, veiled from His servants. Beware not to doubt in the Divine Order, for it isdisbelief.”

19- Ikmaaluddin: Ibne Abdus has narrated from Ibne Qutaibah from Hamadan bin Sulaiman from Abdullah bin Fadhl bin Hashmi from Hisham bin Saalim from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Qaim is from my progeny. His name is my name, his patronymic my patronymic, his appearance my appearance, and his conduct my conduct. He will lead the people on my path and my law, and will call them to the Book of Allah, the Exalted. Whoever obeys him, obeys me and whoever disobeys him, disobeys me. Whoever rejects him during his occultation has rejected me; and whoever belies him, belies me. Whoever affirms his truth, affirms my truth. I complain to Allah from my beliers in his affair and rejecters of my word with regard to him and the ones who will lead my Ummah astray

from his path.And soon the oppressors will know to what final place of turning they shall turn back.”

20- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Hamadani from Ali from his father from Ibne Abi Umair from Ghiyath bin Ibrahim from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said:

“Whoever rejects Qaim from my offspring has verily so rejected me.”

21- Ikmaaluddin: It is narrated from Warraq from Asadi from Nakhai from Naufali from Ghiyath bin Ibrahim from Imam Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Whoever rejects Qaim from my offspring during the time of his occultation will die a death of ignorance.”

22- Ghaibat Tusi: A group has narrated from Talakbari from Ahmad bin Ali from Ibne Abi Darim from Ali bin Abbas from Muhammad bin Hashim Qaisi from Sahl bin Tamam Basri from Imran Qattan from Qatadah from Abi Nazra from Jabir Ibne Abdullah Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Mahdi will appear in the last period of time.”

23- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Muhammad bin Ishaq from Ali bin Abbas from Bakaar bin Ahmad from Hasan bin Husain from Mualla bin Ziyad from Alaa bin Bashir from Abdul Sadeeq Naaji from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“I give you the glad tidings of the Mahdi. He will be sent to my Ummah when people will be in dispute and concussions. He will fill the earth with justice and equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him.”

24- Ghaibat Tusi: From the same chains, it is narrated from Hasan bin Husain from Talid from Abil Hajaaf that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said:

“Rejoice in the glad news of the coming of the Mahdi,” thrice.

Then he said: “He will come during a time of dispute and severe concussions of people. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it will have become full of corruption and tyranny. He will instill devotion into the hearts of His servants and will deliver His equity to them.”

25- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from the same chain of narrators from Hasan bin Husain from Sufyan Jurairi from Abdul Momin from Harith bin Hasir from Ammara bin Juwain Abadi from Abu Saeed Khudri that: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say on the pulpit:

“Mahdi is verily from my household, from my family. He will come in the last period of time.

The heavens will send down rain for him and the earth will put forth its crops for him. He will make the earth full of justice and equity as people will have made it full of oppression and tyranny.”

26- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Muhammad bin Ishaq from Ali bin Abbas from Bakkar from Misbah from Qays from Abu Hasin from Abu Salih from Abu Huraira that he said: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.):

“Should there not remain from the world but a single day, Allah will prolong that day until a man from my household will rise. He will fill the earth with justice and equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.”

27- Ghaibat Tusi: Through the same chains, it is narrated from Bakkar from Ali bin Qadim from Fatar from Asim from Zar bin Hubaish from Abdullah Ibne Masud that he said: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.):

“Should there not remain from the world but one day, Allah will prolong that day until He sends a man from me, whose name will be like my name and his father’s name like my father’s. He will fill the earth with justice as it will be full of injustice.”

28- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Muhammad bin Ishaq from Abdullah bin Abbas from Ja’far bin Muhammad Zuhri from Ishaq bin Mansur from Qays bin Rabi etc. from Asim from Zar from Abdullah Ibne Masud that he said: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.):

“The world will not end until a man comes to my Ummah from my household who is called the Mahdi.”

29- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from a group from Bazufari from Ahmad bin Idris from Ibne Qutaibah from Fadhl from Nasr bin Muzahim from Abu Lahia from Abu Qabil from Abdullah bin Amr Ibne Aas that he narrated a long tradition, in which the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) says:

“...And then will be the rise of the Mahdi, and he is a man from the offspring of this,” pointing to Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). “Through him Allah will take away lies. Through him time will take away severity. He will remove the disgrace of slavery from your necks.” Then he said: “I am the first of this Ummah, Mahdi is the middle of it, and Isa is the last of it. And in between there is a crooked old man.”

30- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Muhammad bin Ali from Uthman bin Ahmad from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Hashmi from Ibrahim bin Hani from Naeem bin Hammad from Uqbah bin Walid from Abu Bakr bin Abu Maryam from Fadhl bin Yaqub from Abdullah bin Ja’far from Abu Malih from Ziyad bin Bunan from Ali bin Nufayl from Saeed bin Musayyab that Umme Salama, wife of the Prophet said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say:

“Mahdi is from my household from the progeny of Fatima.” Same narration is mentioned inGhaibat Tusi through another chain of narrators.

31- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from Ahmad bin Idris from Ibne Qutaibah from Fadhl from Misbah from Abu Abdur Rahman from one who says that it is narrated from Ibne Abbas that Wahab bin Munabbah asked him in a lengthy report:

“Is he from your progeny?” He said: “No, by Allah, he is not from my progeny. He is from the progeny of Ali (a.s.). Bliss be for the one wh

reaches his time. Through him Allah will relieve the Ummah’s stress, until he makes the earth full of equity and justice...”

32- Ghaibat Tusi: It is narrated from a group from Talakbari from Ahmad bin Ali from Ahmad bin Idris from Ibne Isa from Ahwazi from Husain bin Alwan from Abu Harun Abdi from Abu Saeed Khudri who narrated a long tradition, which we will summarize. He says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) to Fatima:

“Dear daughter, we the Ahle Bayt have been given seven things that no one has been given before us. Our apostle is the best of the apostles. Our successor is the best of the successors, and he is your husband. Our martyr is the best of the martyrs, and he is Hamzah, the uncle of your father. From us is the one who has two dyed wings, by which he glides in Paradise, and he is your cousin Ja’far. From us are the two heirs of this Ummah, and they are your two sons: Hasan and Husain. And from us is, by Allah, a deity other than Him is not, the Mahdi of this Ummah, behind whom Isa Ibne Maryam will pray.” Then he touched Husain’s shoulder and said thrice, “From him.”

33- Ghaibat Nomani: It is narrated from Ahmad bin Ali Bandiji from Abdullah bin Musa Abbasi from Musa bin Salam from Bazanti from Abdur Rahman bin Khashab from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said:

“The similitude of my Ahle Bayt is the similitude of the stars of the heavens. Whenever a star hides, another star rises. When a certain star from them will appear and they gaze and point at him, the angel of death comes to him and takes him. Then you will remain like that for a long period of time.

The children of Abdul Muttalib will be equal and no one will know one thing from another. At that time, your star will appear; so praise Allah and go to him.”

34- Ghaibat Nomani: It is narrated from Ahmad bin Hawza from Nahawandi from Abdullah bin Hammad from Aban bin Uthman from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that:

“One day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was at Baqi, when Ali came and gave him greetings. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to him, ‘Sit down’ and he sat him down on his right. Then Ja’far Ibne Abi Talib came and asked about the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). He was told that he was at Baqi. He also came to the apostle and gave him greetings. The Messenger sat him on his left. Then came Abbas and asked about the Apostle. He was told that he was in Baqi. He came also and gave greetings. The apostle sat him in front of him. Then the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) turned towards Ali (a.s.) and said: “May I not give you the happy tidings? May I not inform you, O Ali?” “Please do,” said Amirul Momineen (a.s.). The Apostle said: “Jibraeel was with me a moment ago and informed me that the Qaim, who will rise during the last period of time and fill the earth with equity as it will be full of oppression and tyranny, will be from your progeny from the offspring of Husain (a.s.).”

Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: “O Messenger of Allah, no good has ever come to us from Allah but on your hands.” Then he turned to Ja’far and said: “O Ja’far, may I not give you glad tidings?” “Please,” said Ja’far. “Jibraeel was with me a moment ago and informed me that the one who will do good to Qaim is from your progeny. Do you know who he is?” Ja’far said: “No.” He said: “The one whose visage will be like a dinar, will have straightly ordered teeth and his sword would be like the blaze of fire. He will enter the mountain low and come back high. Jibraeel and Mikaeel will be protecting him.”

Then he turned to Abbas and said: “O uncle of the Apostle, may I inform you of what Jibraeel has informed me?” “Please so, O Messenger of Allah,” said Abbas. “He said to me, ‘Much pain will reach our progeny from the sons of Abbas.” “O Messenger of Allah, should I abstain from women?” asked Abbas. “Allah is done with what will happen,” said the Apostle.

35- Ghaibat Nomani: It is narrated from Ibne Uqdah from Ali bin Husain from Muhammad bin Ali from Yazi from Amr bin Yunus from Hamza bin Humran from Salim Ashal that he said: I heard Imam Baqir (a.s.) say:

“Musa, the son of Imran saw in the First Book what will be given to the Qaim of Aale Muhammad (a.s.). He said: ‘O Allah make me the Qaim of Aale Muhammad (a.s.).’ It was said to him, ‘He is from the progeny of Ahmad.’ Then he looked at the Second Book and found the like of that. He made a similar wish and was given a similar answer. Then he looked in the Third Book and saw something similar. He made a similar supplication and received a similar answer.”

36- Al-Kafi: Kulaini (r.a.) has narrated from Adaa from Sahal from Muhammad bin Sulaiman from Haitham bin Ashim from Muawiyah bin Ammar from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger (s.a.w.s.) came out one day very happy as he was laughing from gaiety. People said to him:

“May Allah ever keep you laughing, O Messenger of Allah, and may He increase your happiness.” The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “There is not any day or night but Allah gives me a gift. Behold, today my Lord bestowed me with a gift that He had not bestowed by the like of it in the past.

Jibraeel (a.s.) came to me and conveyed greetings from my Lord. He said: ‘O Muhammad, Allah, the Exalted, has chosen seven persons from Bani Hashim, the likes of whom He has never created amongst the predecessors, nor will He amongst the remainders: You, O Messenger of Allah, are the chief of the apostles; Ali Ibne Abi Talib, your successor, is the chief of the successors; Hasan and Husain, your grandson, are the chiefs of the legatees; Hamzah, your uncle, is the chief of the martyrs; Ja’far, your cousin, flying in Paradise, glides with angels wherever he desires; and from you is the Qaim, behind whom Isa Ibne Maryam will pray when Allah brings him down to earth. He (the Qaim) will be from the progeny of Ali and Fatima, and from the offspring of Husain (a.s.).”

37- Kashful Ghummah: Ali bin Isa Irbili has inKashful Ghummah written that forty traditions were compiled by Hafiz Abu Naeem Ahmad Ibne Abdullah. These forty traditions have reached me, all with respect to the affair of the Mahdi (a.s.). I will bring them in the same continuous manner in which he has narrated them. However, I only suffice on mentioning the name of the narrator.

  1. Prosperity during his time: It is narrated on the authority of Abu Saeed Khudri from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: “From my Ummah will be the Mahdi. If his life is short, [his reign] will be seven years, otherwise eight, or otherwise nine. My Ummah will enjoy blessings in his time, the like of which no virtuous or evil person has ever enjoyed. The heaven will be showering over them abundantly and the earth will not withhold any of its plants.”

  2. Justice of Mahdi: On the authority of Abu Saeed Khudri, it is narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: “The earth will be full of oppression and tyranny. Then a man from my household will rise and make it full of equity and justice. He will rule for seven or nine years.”

  3. The same narrator says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Hour shall not come until a man from my Ahle Bayt rules over the earth, filling it with justice and equity as it shall be full of oppression. He will rule for seven years.”

  4. Mahdi is from the progeny of Fatima: It is narrated from Zuhri, from Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.) from his father (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Fatima, “The Mahdi is from your progeny.”

  5. Mahdi is the chosen one of Allah: Ali Ibne Hilal narrates from his father: I came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) as he was in his terminal illness. Fatima was at his head and she was crying profusely until her sobs rose. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) raised his head to her and said: “My darling, what is making you cry?” She said: “I fear the loss after you.” He said: “My darling, don’t you know that Allah, the Exalted, looked down on earth and selected your father. He sent him with His message. Then he looked down and selected your husband and sent me revelation to marry you to him.

O Fatima, Allah, the Exalted, has given us, Ahle Bayt, seven characteristics, which He has not given to anyone before us nor will He give to anyone after us. I am the Seal of the Messengers and the most dignified of the apostles before Allah, the Exalted, and the most cherished of the creation to Allah, the Exalted, and I am your father. My successor is the best of the successors, and the most cherished of them to Allah, the Exalted, and he is your husband.

Our martyr is the best of the martyrs and the most cherished of them to Allah, the Exalted, and he is Hamzah Ibne Abdul Muttalib, your father’s and your husband’s uncle. Ours is the one who has two wings and flies in Paradise with angels wherever he wishes, and he is the cousin of your father and the brother of your husband. Ours are the two princes of this Ummah, and they are your sons, Hasan and Husain, and they are the chiefs of the youths of Paradise-dwellers, and their father, by the One Who sent me with the Truth, is better than them.

“O Fatima, by the One Who sent me with Truth, from their offspring is the Mahdi of this Ummah. When the world is in anarchy and chaos, when mischief manifests and roadways are blocked, when people loot each other, with no elder pitying any youngster, nor any youngster respecting an elder, at that time, Allah will send from the progeny of these two the one who will conquer the fortresses of misguidance and open sealed hearts. He will establish religion in the latter days as I established it. He will fill the earth with equity as it will be full of oppression.

O Fatima, grieve not and cry not, for Allah, the Exalted, is more compassionate and more benevolent to you than I am; and that is due to your position from me and your station in my heart. Allah married you to your husband, who is the greatest of all people in stature, the most dignified of them in position, the most compassionate of them to the public, the fairest of them in equity, and the wisest of them in judgment. I beseeched my Lord, the Exalted, that you be the first one to join me from my family.” Amirul Momineen (a.s.) says, “Fatima did not live after that but for seventy-five days until Allah united her with her father.”

  1. The Mahdi is from the Progeny of Husain (a.s.): Huzaifah bin Yaman says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) addressed us and recounted things that will happen in the future. Then he said: “If there should not remain from the world but a single day, Allah, the Exalted, will prolong that day until He sends a man from my progeny, whose name is my name.” Salman (a.s.) stood up and asked: “O Messenger of Allah, from which of your sons?” “From this son of mine,” said he, putting his hand on Husain (a.s.).

  2. The Village from which the Mahdi Will Rise: Abdullah Ibne Umar says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Mahdi will rise from a village called Kara.”

  3. Mahdi’s Visage: Also Huzaifah says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Mahdi is from my offspring. His face is like aglittering star.”

  4. Complexion and Physique: Huzaifah also narrates: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi is a man from my progeny. His complexion is Arabic and his body is Israelite. There is a mole on his right cheek, like a glittering star. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth and birds of the sky will be happy in his rule.”

  5. His Forehead: Abu Saeed Khudri says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Mahdi is from us, with an open forehead and a high nose.”

  6. His Nose: Abu Saeed Khudri narrates from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: “The Mahdi is from us the Ahle Bayt, a man from my Ummah. He has a high nose. He will fill the earth with equity as it will be full of corruption.”

  7. Mole on the Right Cheek: Abu Amama Bahili says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “There will be four truces between you and the Romans. The fourth one will be on the hands of a man from the house of Hercules and it will last for seven years.” “O Messenger of Allah,” called a man from the tribe of Abdul ­Qais, who was called Mustawrid Ibne Ghayalan, “who will be the Imam of the people that day?” “The Mahdi from

my offspring, a man of forty years and with a face like a glittering star. There will be a black mole on his right cheek. He will be wearing two Qatari cloaks, seeming as he was from the men of the children of Israel. He will extricate treasures and conquer the cities of polytheism.”

  1. His Teeth: Abdur Rahman Ibne Auf says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Allah will verily send a man from my household whose teeth will be at distance from one another and whose forehead will be broad. He will fill the earth with equity and distribute wealth bountifully.”

  2. The Virtuous Imam: Abu Amama says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) addressed us and mentioned Dajjal. He said: “Medina will expel uncleanness like mill’s melting furnace purges uncleanness out of iron. That day will be proclaimed the day of salvation.” Umme Sharik asked, “Where are the believers on that day, O Messenger of Allah?” “They are few on that day,” he said. “The majority of them will be at Jerusalem. Their Imam will be the Mahdi, a virtuous man.”

  3. Allah sends him openly: Abu Saeed Khudri says that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi will rise in my Ummah. Allah will send him openly. The Ummah will enjoy and the cattle will rejoice. The earth will bring forth its plants and he will distribute wealth equally.”

  4. Cloud shades him: Abdullah Ibne Umar says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), ‘The Mahdi will rise while there will be a cloud over his head from which a caller will be calling:This is the Mahdi, the Vicegerent of Allah; follow him.”

  5. Angel Over his head: Abdullah Ibne Umar says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Mahdi will rise while an angel will be over him, calling:This is the Mahdi, follow him.”

  6. Glad Tidings of the Prophet about Mahdi: Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “I give you the glad tidings of the Mahdi. He will be sent to my Ummah during a time of peoples’ dispute and concussions. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression and tyranny. The dwellers of the heaven and the earth will be happy from him. He will distribute wealthsahaha.” A man asked him, “What issahaha?” He said: “Equality between the people.”

  7. Mahdi’s Name: Abdullah Ibne Umar says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Hour shall not come until a man from my progeny will rule. His name is like my name. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression and tyranny.”

  8. His Patronymic: Huzaifah says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “If there should not remain but a single day from the world, Allah will send a man therein whose name is my name, his character my character, and his patronymic is Abu Abdullah.”

  9. Name of Mahdi: Ibne Umar says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The world will not go away until Allah sends a man from my household. His name will be like my name, and his father’s name like my father’s. He will fill it with equity and justice as it will be full of tyranny and oppression.”

  10. His Equity: Abu Saeed Khudri says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “Verily the earth will be beset with oppression and hostility. Then a man will arise from my Ahle Bayt, who will fill it with equity and justice, as it will be replete with tyranny, hostility and oppression.”

  11. His Character: Abdullah Ibne Umar says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “A man will rise from Ahle Bayt; his name will be like mine and his character will be like mine. He will fill the earth with equity and justice.”

  12. His Magnificence: Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “In latter days when mischief manifests, a man will come who is called the Mahdi. His grants will be so very pleasant.”

  13. His Knowledge of the Prophet’s Conduct: Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “A man will rise from my Ahle Bayt and act upon my conduct. Allah will send down for him blessings from the heavens. The earth will bring forth its bliss. Through him the earth will be beset by equity and justice, as it will be replete with oppression and tyranny. He will rule over this Ummah for seven years and will disembark at Jerusalem.”

  14. His advent with standards: Thawban says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “When you see black standards coming from Khurasan, then come to them even if you have to crawl on snow, for the Vicegerent of God, the Mahdi is amidst them.”

  15. His coming from East: Abdullah bin Umar said: We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) when a group of Bani Hashim youths came. When the Prophet saw them, his eyes filled with tears and his color changed. The companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, we see in your visage something which we dislike.” He said: “We, the Ahle Bayt, Allah have chosen the hereafter over this world. My Household will see trials, banishment and ostracism after me, until a people comes from the east carrying black standards. They will demand the right and will be denied. So they will wage wars and will be victorious and will be given what they asked for. But they do not accept it until they proffer it to a man from my Household. He will fill the earth with equity and justice, as they have beset it by tyranny. Whoever reaches that time from amongst you must come to them even if he has to crawl over ice.”

  16. Revival of Islam’s Honorability through the Mahdi: Huzaifah says: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say, “Pity for this Ummah from tyrannical rulers! How will they be murdering and frightening the pious until one has to acknowledge obedience to them! The God-fearing believer will put on with them on his tongue and run away from them in his heart. When Allah, the Exalted, desires to render Islam honorable again, He will break every hostile tyrant. And He is All-Powerful over anything He desires and to set this Ummah right after its corruption.”

He said: “O Huzaifah, even if there should not remain but a single day from the world, Allah will prolong that day until a man from my Household rules. Fights will be waged on his hands and Islam will become manifest. He will not violate His promiseand He isSwift in reckoning.”

  1. Prosperity of Muslims during Mahdi’s Rule: Abu Saeed Khudri narrates that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “My Ummah will enjoy a leisure in the time of the Mahdi (a.s.) the like of which they have never

enjoyed. The heavens will shower over them bountifully and the earth will not leave any vegetation but to bring it forth.”

  1. Mahdi is a Chief of Paradise: Anas Ibne Malik says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “We, the sons of Abdul Muttalib are the chiefs of Paradise: I, my brother Ali, my uncle, Hamzah, Ja’far, Hasan, Husain and the Mahdi.”

  2. Mahdi’s Kingdom: Abu Huraira says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “If there should not remain but one night for the world, a man from my Household will rule therein.”

  3. Mahdi’s Caliphate: Thawban says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “Three men, all of them sons of a caliph, will be killed before your treasure, which will not go to anyone of them. Then black standards will come and they will massacre them, a massacre never done by any nation. Then the Caliph of God, the Mahdi, will come. When you hear him, come to him and pledge allegiance to him, for he is the Caliph of God, the Mahdi.”

  4. Pledging Allegiance to Mahdi: Thawban says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Black standards will come from the east. As if their hearts are iron ingots. Whoever hears about them must come to them and pledge them allegiance, even if they have to crawl over ice.”

  5. Mahdi will bring the hearts together: Amirul Momineen (a.s.) says, I said: “O Messenger of Allah, is the Mahdi from us Ahle Bayt (a.s.) or from the others?” He said: “Rather, he is ours. Allah will complete the religion through him, as He opened it through us. Through us, they are rescued from mischief, as they were rescued from polytheism. Through us, Allah will bring their hearts together as brothers after the hostility of mischief, as He brought them together as brothers in their religion after the hostility of polytheism.”

  6. No use of living after the Mahdi: Abdullah Ibne Masud says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Even if there should not remain for this world but a single night, Allah will prolong that night until a man from my Household becomes the ruler. His name is like my name and his father’s name is like my father’s. He will fill it with equity and justice as it will be beset by oppression and tyranny. He will distribute wealth equally. Allah will cast contentment in the hearts of this Ummah. He will rule for seven or nine years. There is no pleasure in life after the Mahdi.”

  7. His Conquest of Constantinople: Abu Huraira says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Hour shall not rise until a man from my Household rules over. He will conquer Constantinople and Mount Dailam. Even if there should not remain but one day from the tenure of this world, Allah will prolong that day until he conquers it.”

  8. He will appear after tyrant rulers: Qais Ibne Jabir narrates from his father, from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “After me there will be caliphs, and after the caliphs emirs, and after the emirs tyrant kings. Then a man from my Household will rise who will fill the earth with justice after it will be beset with tyranny.”

  9. Isa (a.s.) prays in his lead: Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Ours is the one that Isa Ibne Maryam will pray behind him.”

  10. He converses with Isa bin Maryam (a.s.): Jabir Ibne Abdullah Ansari says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.) will descend. Their leader, the Mahdi will say, ‘Come lead our prayers.’ He will say, ‘Behold, there is a certain leader over us, as a token of dignity from Allah, the Exalted, for this Ummah.”

  11. Abdullah Ibne Abbas says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Never shall perish an Ummah in the beginning of which I am, in the end of which is Isa Ibne Maryam and at the middle of which is the Mahdi.”

38-Kashful Ghummah: It is mentioned inKashful Ghummah that Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi has brought the following in his bookKifayatut Talib fi Manaqib Ali Ibne Abi Talib , in the beginning of which he has said: “I have compiled this book without relying on Shia sources, to make the argument stronger.” He has this to say about the Mahdi:

Chapter 1: His advent in the last period of time

Abu Dawood narrates in hisSunan from Zarr from Abdullah that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The world will not cease to exist until a man from my Household governs over the Arabs. His name is like my name.”

Abu Dawood also narrates inSunan that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) narrates from the Prophet (s.a.), “Even if not more than one day is left from the world, Allah will send a man from my Household. He will fill it with justice as it will be full of corruption.”

Through several narrators from Asim Abiri inManaqib Shafi, in which the aforementioned tradition is recorded with the following addition, “Even if there should not remain from the world but one day, Allah will prolong that day until He sends a man from me - or from my Household - his name will be like my name and his father’s name will be like my father’s name. He will fill the earth with justice and equity as it will be beset with oppression and injustice.”

Kanji says: Tirmidhi has mentioned the tradition in his book ofJame, but has not recorded, “His father’s name will be like my father’s.”

Abu Dawood has mentioned it though. In the majority of the traditions, narrated by memorizers of traditions and reliable narrators, it has only, “his name is my name.” The narration “his father’s name is like my father’s name,” is an addition to it. Even if it is correct, it means “his father’s name has my father’s name,” that is, Husain’s patronymic is Abu Abdullah, which comprises the name of the Prophet’s father, indicating that he will be from the progeny of Husain, not Hasan. It is also possible that it is a mistake of transcribers, who have recordedibni ( my son) asabi ( my father). It must be interpreted on these grounds in order to remove any contradiction amongst the traditions.

The author ofKashful Ghummah says: Our Shia scholars do not endeavor to interpret this tradition differently than what it literally means, because the name of the Hujjah and his father’s name are recorded in their

books. The Ahle Sunnat, however, has suggested that if there is a segment that adds something to the traditions, then it is necessary to suggest that it is an addition, so there may be harmony amongst the traditions.

Chapter 2: Mahdi is from my progeny and from the Progeny of Fatima

Saeed Ibne Musayyab says: We were in the presence of Umme Salama and talked about the Mahdi. She said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say, “The Mahdi is from my Household from the offspring of Fatima.”

Ibne Majah has also narrated this in hisSunan. The same narrator narrates from her: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say, “The Mahdi is from my Household from the offspring of Fatima (a.s.).” Abu Dawood narrates this in hisSunan. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “The Mahdi is from us Ahle Bayt. Allah will straighten his affair in one night.”

Chapter 3: Mahdi is a leader of Paradise

Anas Ibne Malik says: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say, “We the children of Abdul Muttalib are the chiefs of the dwellers of Paradise - I, Hamzah, Ali, Ja’far, Hasan, Husain and the Mahdi.”

Chapter 4: Allegiance to the Mahdi

Ibne Majah has recorded in hisSahih that Thawban says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Three people will be killed before your treasury; all of them will be sons of a caliph and the treasury will not become of anyone of them. Then black standards will rise from the east. They will kill you in a massacre that no nation has killed like it.” Then he said something I do not remember. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “When you see him, pledge allegiance to him, even if you have to crawl over ice, because he is the Caliph of Allah, the Mahdi.”

Chapter 5: People of the east will support the Mahdi

In the same way, Ibne Majah has narrated in hisSunan from Abdullah bin Harith bin Jaza Zubaidi that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “People will come from the east and will prepare for the Mahdi.”

Abdullah bin Masud says: We were with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) when a group of youths from Bani Hashim came…Ibne Asim Kufi narrates inKitab Futuh from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he said: “Bliss for Taliqan!

Because Allah, the Exalted, has treasures therein, which are neither of gold nor silver. Rather, there are believing men who know Allah with thorough cognition. They are also the aides of the Mahdi in the last period of time.”

Chapter 6: Duration of his rule

Tirmidhi has narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that he said: We feared that something may happen after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), so we asked him about it. He said: The Mahdi will be in my Ummah. He will rise and live for five or seven or nine. The doubt is narrators. Abu Saeed says:

We asked him, “What is that?” He said: “Years.” He said: “A man will come to him and say: O Mahdi give me wealth.’ He will throw into his sheet so much as he can carry.” At the end of the report, Tirmidhi says that it is a good tradition.

On the authority of others as well as Abu Saeed the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi will be in my Ummah, if short for seven years, otherwise for nine years. During this period, my people will rejoice a leisure the like of which they have never seen. The earth will give its blessings and will not forbid anything from them. Wealth on that day will be like grains. Men would rise and ask, ‘O Mahdi, give me something.’ He would say, ‘Take.’”

It is narrated on the authority of Umme Salama, wife of Prophet (s.a.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “At a dispute that will occur at a caliph’s death, a man from the people of Medina will come out fleeing to Mecca.

Some Meccans will come to him and will have him rise, while he is not fond of it. They will pledge allegiance to him betweenRukn andMaqam. A Syrian army will be dispatched towards him, which will be swallowed into the earth at Baidha, a locality between Mecca and Medina. When people see this, saints of Syria groups of Iraq come to him and pledge allegiance to him.

Then a man will come whose maternal uncles will be from the tribe of Kalb. He will send an army to them and will be victorious over them. This will be an army of the Kalb. Disappointment is for the one who does not witness the booties of Kalb. He will distribute the wealth and will rule over the people on the conduct of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and will elevate Islam to its pinnacle all over the earth. He will stay for seven years, then he will pass away and Muslims will pray over him.”

Chapter 7: Isa bin Maryam (a.s.) prays behind the Mahdi

Abu Huraira narrates from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: “How would it be like when Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.) will come down to you and your Imam is yours?”

Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi says: This tradition isHasan andSahih, and there is a consensus on its authenticity narrated by Muhammad Ibne Shahab Zuhri. Bukhari and Muslim have narrated it in theirSahihs.

It is narrated from Jabir Ibne Abdullah that he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say, “An assembly of my Ummah will ceaselessly wage wars in the cause of righteousness and purity until Judgment Day. Then Isa Ibne Maryam will come down. Their leader will say to him, ‘Come and lead our prayers.’ He will say, ‘Behold, one of yourselves is the leader for the rest, as a token of dignity from Allah for this Ummah.”

Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi Kanji says: This is aHasan andSahih tradition, narrated by Muslim in hisSahih.

If the former tradition is subject to a different interpretation, it is not possible to interpret this tradition in a different manner, as it explicitly

declares that Isa (a.s.) will accept the leadership of the Imam of the Muslims, who at that day will be Mahdi (a.s.). Therefore, to interpret Isa saying, “Your Imam is from you” to mean “he leads you according to your book” is unjustified. The following is conceivable to be asked: Considering these traditions are valid, which state that Isa will pray behind the Mahdi (a.s.), will fight under his command and kill Dajjal, and considering leadership in prayers as well as leadership in Jihad obviously denotes superiority, and as the narrators and validity of these traditions are authentic before the Sunni, just as the Shia narrate them in a parallel manner - which is the valid form of consensus of Muslims, since the belief and stance of any other group other than the Shia and the Sunni is discarded and not worthy of attention - the question rises that who is higher, the Imam or his follower.

The answer to this query is that they both are leaders, one a prophet and the other an imam. And when one of them is the leader of the other when they are together, the Imam is the leader of the prophet. Both are above the reproach of any reproacher. They are both infallible from committing disdainful acts, hypocrisy, and pretending what they are not. None of the two call to anything that is outside the boundaries of the Shariah.

Having said this, the Imam is better than his follower for the Shariah has brought a strong proof with that regard, which is the saying of the Prophet (s.a.), “A person will lead the congregation who is the best of them in the recitation of the Quran; and should they be equal in that, their most knowledgeable will lead; and should they be equal in that, their most wise will lead; and should they be equal in that, the one who has preceded them all in migration will lead; and should they be equal in that, the one who has the most beautiful face will lead. “Should the Imam know that Isa is better than him, it will not be permissible for him to lead Isa, for he knows the Shariah well and for Allah, the High, has made him beyond every abominable act.

Likewise, should Isa know that he is better than him, it will not be permissible for him to follow the Imam, for Allah has made him clean from hypocrisy and pretension. Rather, since it is established that the Imam is more knowledgeable than Isa, it is permissible for him to lead him. Likewise, as Isa knows that the Imam is more knowledgeable than him, he follows him and prays behind him.

Should this not be the case, it will not be allowed for anyone to wage Jihad under the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) or under anyone. What substantiates our position is the holy verse:

إِنَّ اللّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

“Surely Allah has bought of the believers their persons and their property for this, that they shall have the garden; they fight in Allah’s way, so they slay and are slain; a promise which is binding on Him in the Taurat and the Injeel and the Quran; and who is more faithful to his

covenant than Allah? Rejoice therefore in the pledge which you have made; and that is the mighty achievement.” (Surah Taubah 9:111)

Since the Imam is the representative of the Prophet in his Ummah and it is not permissible for Isa (a.s.) to get ahead of the Prophet, likewise is the case with respect to his representative.

This is further strengthened by Ibne Majah’s long narration about the descent of Isa (a.s.): Umme Sharik binte Abi Akar said: “O Messenger of Allah, where will be the Arabs on that day?”

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) replied, “They will be few at that time. Most of them will be at Baitul Maqdas. Their Imam will be in front of them leading them for Morning Prayers when Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.) descends. That Imam will move back to have Isa move in the front to lead the prayers of the people. Isa will put his hand between his shoulders and say to him, ‘Lead us.’” This is aSahih and confirmed tradition narrated by Ibne Majah in his book from Abu Amama Bahili.

Chapter 8: His looks

Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi is mine. He is of broad forehead and high and slightly curved nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it will be full of oppression and injustice. He will rule for seven years.” Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi says, this is aHasan and Sahih tradition narrated by Abu Dawood and many others such as Tibrani.

Ibne Shirawaih Dailami narrates inKitab Firdos from Ibne Abbas: The Messenger of Allah (a.s.) said: “The Mahdi is the peacock of the folks of Paradise.”

The former source also narrates from Huzaifah Ibne Yaman that the Messenger of Allah (a.s.) said: “The Mahdi is from my offspring. His face is like the glittering moon. The color is an Arabic color and the body is an Israelite body. He will fill the earth with equity as it will be replete with injustice. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth and the birds in the air will be pleased with his caliphate. He will rule for twenty years.”

Chapter 9: Mahdi is from the progeny of Imam Husain (a.s.)

Darqutni has mentioned inAl-Jarah wa Tadil narrating from Abu Harun Abdi that he said: I came to Abu Saeed Khudri and asked him, “Did you witness the Battle of Badr?” “Yes,” he said. “Would you please speak to me of something you heard from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) about Ali and his excellence?” I entreated him. “Yes, I will relate it to you,” he said. “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was in a malady from which he eventually recovered. As I was sitting on the right side of the Messenger (a.s.), Fatima came to visit him. When she saw the weakness in the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) a cry smothered her throat and her tears trickled down her cheeks. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to her, “What is letting you weep, O Fatima?” “I fear the loss, O Messenger of Allah,” she said. “Don’t you know, O Fatima, that Allah looked down on earth and chose your father from them and sent him as an apostle; and then He looked down at the earth again and chose your husband from them and

sent me a revelation, on the virtue of which I married you to him and took him as my successor?

Don’t you know that you are in the grandeur of Allah? He married you to the greatest of them in knowledge, the most forbearing of them in clemency, and the foremost of them in Islam.” She became extremely happy. Desiring further insight into the virtues, all the virtues, which Allah has ordained for Muhammad and his Household, he said to her, “Ali has eight great praises: Belief in Allah and His Messenger, his wisdom, his wife, his sons Hasan and Husain, his call to the virtue, and his forbiddance from the wrong.

O Fatima, we, Ahle Bayt (a.s.) have been given six qualities, none of the predecessors has been given one of them, nor anyone of the coming ones will attain them. Our apostle is the best of the apostles, and he is your father; our successor is the best of the successors, and he is your husband; our martyr is the best of the martyrs, and he is Hamzah, your father’s uncle.

From us are the two heirs of this Ummah, and they are your sons, Hasan and Husain; and from us is the Mahdi of the Ummah, behind whom Isa will pray.” Then he touched Husain’s shoulder and said: “From him is the Mahdi of the Ummah.”

Chapter 10: Munificence of the Mahdi

It is mentioned inSahih Muslim that Abu Nadhira says, We were with Jabir Ibne Abdullah. He said: “It is near that no harvest or money will reach the people of Iraq.” “By whom would that be?” We asked, “By the non-Arabs.” Then he said: “It is near that no money or crop will reach the people of Syria.” “By whom would that be?” “By the Romans.” Then he remained silent for a while and then said: “Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.): ‘There will be a caliph at the end time of my Ummah who will dispense wealth as by scattering it.” Abu Nadhira and Abul Aala Rayyani were asked, “Is he Umar Ibne Abdul Aziz?” “No,” they said. Abu Nadhira narrates from Abu Saeed Khudri, saying: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “One of your caliphs will disperse wealth with extreme generosity and without counting it.”

It is mentioned inMusnad Ahmad bin Hanbal that Abu Saeed Khudri says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “I give you the glad tiding of the coming of the Mahdi. He will be sent to my Ummah when people will be in disputes and concussions. He will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it will be beset by oppression and injustice. The dwellers of the heavens and the dwellers of the earth will be pleased with him. He will distribute wealth correctly.” Someone asked, “What is correctly?” He said: “Equally between the people.

Allah will instill lack of need in the hearts of the Ummah of Muhammad (a.s.) and will stretch His equity so much so that a caller will call, ‘Who is there who has a need for wealth?’ And no one rises from the people except one man, who says. The caller says, ‘Go to the treasurer and tell him that the Mahdi orders you to give me riches.’ He says to the treasurer:Throw, while he is collecting the riches in the skirt of his shirt. Remorse overwhelms him and he says, ‘I have been the greediest soul from the Ummah of Muhammad and have failed the contentment that dominates them. He returns the riches but they are not taken back from him. It is said to him, ‘We do not take back

something we have given away. ‘This will be for seven or eight or nine years. Then there is no pleasure in life after the Mahdi.” Abu Saeed Khudri says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “After a great passage of time and the appearance of mischief there will be a man called Mahdi. His grants will be so much very pleasurable.”

Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Kanji Shafi says, “This is aHasan (good) tradition, recorded by Abu Naeem Hafiz.”

Chapter 11: Mahdi is not Isa Ibne Maryam (a.s.)

Ibne Majah has narrated from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he said: I said: “O Messenger of Allah, is the Mahdi from us, Aale Muhammad (a.s.) or from the others?” The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “No, he is from us. Allah will make the religion perfect through him as He initiated it through us. Through us, they will be saved from mischief, as they were saved from polytheism. Through us Allah will bring their hearts together after the hostility of the mischief, as He brought their hearts together after the hostility of polytheism. They will become through us, brothers after the hostility of the mischief: as they became brothers in their religion after the hostility of polytheism.”

Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi says: This is a highlygood tradition recorded by narrators in their books, such as Tibrani, Abu Naeem and Abdur Rahman Ibne Himad.

Ibne Majah has also narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “When Isa Ibne Maryam will come down. Their leader, the Mahdi, will say, ‘Come and lead our prayers.’ Isa will reply, ‘One of yourselves is the leader of you, as a token of dignity from Allah, the High, to this Ummah.”

Ibne Majah says: This is aSahih and Hasan tradition. These explicit statements clearly indicate that the Mahdi is other than Isa. The narration, “There is no Mahdi except Isa Ibne Maryam,” is solely narrated by Ali Ibne Muhammad Ibne Khalid Jundi, theMuezzin of Jund.

Shafi Matlabi says about him, “He was careless in narrating.” Narrations from the Apostle about the Mahdi are in inordinate numbers with multitudes of narrators, describing that he will rule for seven years and will fill the earth with justice, that Isa Ibne Maryam will come with him and will assist him in killing Dajjal at the gate of Ladd in Palestine, that he will be the leader of this Ummah on that day and that Isa will pray behind him, and all the other details of his enterprise.

Shafi has mentioned this in the bookRisala that our chain of narration connects to it. If we narrate it, however, the chain of narration will be long. At any rate, it is a matter of consensus that should the narrator of a tradition be known for indifference and lack of care in narrating, his narrations do not have credibility and are rejected.

Chapter 12: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is the first, Isa (a.s.) is the last and the Mahdi is in the middle

Ibne Abbas narrates that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “This Ummah will not perish and that I am in its beginning, Isa is in its end and

the Mahdi is in its middle.” Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi says, This is aHasan tradition narrated by Abu Naeem and Ahmad Ibne Hanbal.

Chapter 13: His name and his looks

Huzaifah said: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “Even if not more than one day remains from this world, Allah will send a man whose name is my name, his physique is my physique and his patronymic is Abu Abdullah.” Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Ibne Muhammad Shafi says, This is aHasan tradition.

Chapter 14: Village from where he will rise

Abdullah Ibne Umar says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi will rise from a village called Kuraa.” Abu Naeem inAwali says that it is aHasan tradition.

Chapter 15: Clouds will shade him

Abdullah Ibne Umar says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi will rise and there will be a cloud over his head, from which a caller will be calling:This is the Mahdi, the Caliph of Allah.

Chapter 16: The angel that will come with the Mahdi

Abdullah Ibne Umar says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi will rise while there is an angel over his head calling:This is the Mahdi! Follow him!” ThisHasan tradition is narrated by numerous scholars like Abu Naeem, Tibrani etc.

Chapter 17: His Complexion and Physique

Huzaifah says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi is a man from my progeny, his color is an Arabic color and his physique is an Israeli physique. On his right cheek there is a mole like a glittering star. He will fill the earth with equity as it will be full of oppression. The dwellers of the earth and the dwellers of the heavens and the birds in the air will be pleased with his rule.” Numerous tradition scholars have narrated this tradition.

Chapter 18: His right cheek mole

Abu Amama Bahili says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “There will be four truces between you and the Romans. The fourth one will be on the hands of a man from the house of the Hercules and it will last for seven years.” “O Messenger of Allah,” called a man from the tribe of Abdul Qais, who was called Mustawrid Ibne Ghayalan, “who will be the Imam of the people that day?”

“The Mahdi from my offspring, a man of forty years and with a face like a glittering star. There will be a black mole on his right cheek. He will be wearing two light white cloaks from Qatwan, seeming as he were from Bani Israel. He will extricate treasures and conquer the cities of polytheism.” Tibrani has narrated this tradition inMojam Kabeer .

Chapter 19: Mahdi’s teeth

Hafiz Abu Naeem has written inAwali that Abdur Rahman Ibne Auf says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Allah will send a man from my household whose teeth will be at a distance from one another and whose forehead will be broad. He will fill the earth with equity. He will grant riches in grants.”

Chapter 20: Conquest of Constantinople

Abu Naeem has narrated that Abu Huraira narrates that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Hour shall not rise until a man from my Household reigns. He will conquer Constantinople and Mount Dailam. If there should not remain more than a day, Allah will prolong that day until he conquers it.”

Chapter 21: His rule comes after tyrant rulers

]Abu Naeem has written inFawaid and Tibrani inMojam Akbar that Jabir Ibne Abdullah says: Said the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), “There will be caliphs after me, and after caliphs, emirs, and after emirs tyrant kings. Then the Mahdi from my Household will rise. He will fill the earth with justice as it will be replete with oppression.

Chapter 22: Mahdi is a virtuous Imam

Hafiz Abu Naeem Isfahani has mentioned that Abu Amama narrates: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) addressed us and mentioned Dajjal and said: “Medina will expel its uncleanness like melting furnace purges impurities out of iron. That day will be proclaimed the day of salvation.” Umme Sharik asked, “Where are the believers on that day, O Messenger of Allah?” “They are few on that day,” he said. “The majority of them will be at Jerusalem. Their Imam will be the Mahdi, a virtuous man.”

Chapter 23: Prosperity of the Ummah during his rule

Abu Saeed Khudri says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “My Ummah will enjoy leisure in the time of the Mahdi (a.s.) the like of which they have never enjoyed. The heavens will shower over them bountifully and the earth will not leave any of its vegetation but that it brings it forth.”

Chapter 24: Mahdi is the Caliph of Allah

Thawban says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Three men, all of them sons of a caliph, will be killed at your treasure, which will not go to anyone of them. Then black standards will come and they will massacre them, a massacre never done by any nation. Then the Caliph of God, the Mahdi, comes. When you hear him, come to him and pledge allegiance to him, for he is the Caliph of God, the Mahdi.”

Chapter 25: Mahdi is living and alive

He is alive and living since the time of his occultation until now and there is no impossibility therein, as Isa, Khizr and Ilyas, all divine saints, and Dajjal and Satan, both enemies of Allah are alive. The fact that they are all living is proved by the Book and the Sunnah. While the adversaries agree on this, they deny the possibility of Mahdi’s being alive. They deny it for two reasons: First, the length of his life and second, for he lives in the

underground cellar, according to their understanding, while no one provides him food and water.

After that the author Muhammad Ibne Yusuf Kanji Shafei makes the following argument: Isa (a.s.) is still alive on the basis of the verse:

وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلاَّ لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ

“And there is not one of the followers of the Book but most certainly believes in this before his death…” (Surah Nisa 4:159)

Not all of them have believed in him since the revelation of this verse to this day. Therefore, this belief in him must take place in the last period of the world. The proof for Isa’s life from the Sunnah is the narration of Muslim in hisSahih on the authority of Nawas Ibne Saman. In a long tradition about the story of Isa, it is stated, “Then Isa Ibne Maryam will descend by the eastern white minaret of Damascus wearing two garments, placing the palm of his hand over the wings of angels.” Also the tradition mentioned earlier, “How would you be like when the son of Maryam comes down and the Imam is from yourselves.” Khizr and Ilyas are alive on the virtue of the assertion of Ibne Jarir Tabari, “Khizr and Ilyas are living and walking on earth.”

There is also the narration of Muslim in hisSahih on the authority of Abu Saeed Khudri, saying: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave us a long address about Dajjal. Amongst the things he said was, “He will come while it is forbidden for him to enter the interior of Medina. He will end up near a suburb of Medina. Then a man will come to him who is of the best of the people and will say, ‘I bear witness that you are Dajjal about whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has spoken to us.’

Dajjal will say, ‘If you kill this man and then bring him back to life, what do you say, would you doubt me?’ They will say, ‘No.’ “So Dajjal kills him and then brings him to life. The man says as he is brought back to life, ‘By Allah, you do not possess any more skill than I do.’ Dajjal wants to kill him, but cannot overpower him.”

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibne Saad says: It is said that this man is ­Khizr (a.s.). These were the words of Muslim in hisSahih , as we narrated.

The proof that Dajjal is alive is the tradition of Tamim Dari and the tradition of Jasasa and the beast that spoke to them. It is a reliable narration, which Muslim has registered in hisSahih and has said: This clearly establishes that Dajjal is alive.

The proof of the existence of the accursed Iblis is the many verses of the Divine Book, such as, Satan said:

قَالَ فَأَنظِرْنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ {14} قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ المُنظَرِينَ

“He said: Respite me until the day when they are raised up. He said: Surely you are of the respited ones.” (Surah Araaf 7:14-15)

The proofs of the existence of the Promised Mahdi (a.s.) have come in the Book and Sunnah. Saeed Ibne Jubair says in the Tafsir of the holy verse:

لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

“…that He might cause it to prevail over all religions, though the polytheists may be averse.” (Surah Baraat 9:34)”

“He is the Mahdi from the progeny of Fatima. As for someone who says that he is Isa, there is no contradiction between the two views, because Isa will be an aide to the Imam.” Maqatil Ibne Sulaiman and those interpreters who have followed him have said in the Tafsir of the holy verse:

وَإِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ لِّلسَّاعَةِ

“And most surely it is a knowledge of the hour…” (Surah Zukhruf 43:61)

“He is the Mahdi, who will be in the last period of time and after whose rise there will be Judgment Day and its signs.”

The answer to the question with respect to the length of his life can be on the basis of narration or rationality. As for the traditions, it was just mentioned that the three definitely exist in the last period of time and none of the three is to be followed but the Mahdi, because he is the Imam of the Ummah in the last period of time and because Isa (a.s.) will pray behind him, as narrated in the reliable books of hadith, and will certify the veracity of his claim. The third of the three is the accursed Dajjal, who is alive and existent. As for the rational argument for their existence, it is as follows: Either their existence is within the bounds of Divine power or it is not. It is impossible to be outside the bounds of Divine power, because the Essence Who initiated the creation from nothing and then perishes it and then brings it back to existence after destruction, must have the power to keep it in existence. Then it is either that this continuous existence is the subject of Divine Will or the subject of the Ummah’s choice. It cannot be the subject of the Ummah’s choice, because if it were so, then it should be possible for anyone of us to choose such a lengthy life for himself and his progeny. This is not within our power and therefore, must be the subject of God’s power. On the same token, the existence of these three entities is either for a reason or not for a reason. If it is without any reason, it would be an act devoid of wisdom, which cannot be the work of God.

Therefore, it must be for a reason indicated by the Divine Wisdom. We will mention the reason of the existence of each one of the three. The reason Isa is still alive is the verse:

وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلاَّ لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ

“And there is not one of the followers of the Book but most certainly believes in this before his death…” (Surah Nisa 4:159)

They have not all believed in him until this day, and this must happen until the last period of time. The accursed Dajjal has not done anything since the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) told us, “The One Eyed Dajjal will come to you. A mountain of bread is going to be with him, which will travel with him.” And the other signs of his. Therefore, this must occur in the last period of time.

Imam Mahdi exists, because since the beginning of his Occultation until this day of ours, he has not filled the earth with justice and equity, as predicted in the narrations, therefore, this must happen in the last period of time. These reasons have all combined to fulfill the declared destiny. Therefore, the reason of the existence of the three - Isa, Mahdi and Dajjal is for the clear mission lying ahead. They are two virtuous men, a Prophet and

an Imam, and an enemy of God, Dajjal. We narrated the traditions from the Sahih books of Hadith about the existence of Isa (a.s.) and Dajjal, so what makes the existence of Mahdi (a.s.) impossible? Whereas his existence is in the bounds of God’s power and he is the sign of the Prophet (s.a.). Therefore, he comes first to exist then the other two, because if the Mahdi (a.s.) exists, he is the Imam of the Age, who will fill the earth with justice and equity; therefore, his existence is prudent and a favor for the people.

Dajjal on the other hand, if he lives, he will create mischief in the world, as he will claim godhood and will assault the Ummah. However, his existence is a test from God so the obedient servants are purged out from the disobedient ones and the good from the evil.

The reason that Isa is living is that the followers of the Injeel and the Torah believe in him and that he will verify the Prophethood of the Master of the prophets, Prophet Muhammad (a.s.) and will explain the message of the Imam to the believers and certify his claims, by praying behind him and helping him and calling the people to the Muslim faith.

Therefore, the existence of the two is secondary to the existence of the Imam. So how can the two who are secondary exist while the one who is prior to the two does not? If that is possible then an effect should also be able to exist without its cause, which is rationally impossible. We said that the existence of the Mahdi (a.s.) is the reason for the existence of the two, because the existence of Isa (a.s.) lonely by himself and not in his capacity as an aide to the religion of Islam and as a witness of the truth of Imam is impossible, because if it were possible, he would be independent in his governance and his call, and this will invalidate the call of Islam.

The Prophet of Islam said: “There is no prophet after me. Permissible is what Allah has rendered permissible on my tongue until Judgment Day and forbidden is what Allah has made forbidden on my tongue until Judgment Day.” Therefore, Isa must be an aide and a supporter for him. Likewise is the case of Dajjal. He cannot exist in the last period of time if there is no Imam for the Ummah to whom they shall refer, because if it were so, Islam will be subjugated forever and its call will be false. Therefore, the existence of the Imam is principal and prior to the existence of Dajjal. The rejection that the Imam remains in the cellar (sardab) without anyone serving him water and food can be answered in two ways.

One is that Isa (a.s.) is in the heavens without anyone serving him food and drinks and he is a man like the Mahdi (a.s.). If he can stay like that in the heavens, likewise the Mahdi (a.s.) can in the cellar. Then Shaykh Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yusuf bin Muhammad Shafei narrates some traditions.

39- Kashful Ghumma: It is mentioned inKashful Ghumma that Muhammad bin Talha says: Of the authentic traditions about the Mahdi narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is the report of Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi from Abu Saeed Khudri that he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: “The Mahdi is from me. He has a broad forehead, a high nose that has a slight curve, and will fill the earth with equity and

justice just as it will be replete with oppression and tyranny. He will rule for seven years.”

One of such traditions is the report of Abu Dawood from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Even if a single day remains from the world, Allah will send a man from my Ahle Bayt, who will fill the earth with justice just as it will be full of injustice.”

One of such traditions is the report of Abu Dawood from Umme Salma, wife of the Prophet that she said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi is from my Ahle Bayt, from the progeny of Fatima.”

One of such traditions is the report of Baghawi, Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Huraira who said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “How would you be like when the son of Maryam comes down and your Imam is from yourselves?”

One of such traditions is the report of Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi from Abdullah bin Masud that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Even if a single day remains from the world, Allah will prolong that day until He sends a man from me, or from my Ahle Bayt; his name will be like my name and his father’s name like my father’s; he will fill the earth with equity and justice just as it will be full of injustice and oppression.”

In another report, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has said: “A man comes from my Ahle Bayt, his name is like my name.” These traditions are from Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi.

One of such traditions is the report of Abu Ishaq Ahmad bin Muhammad Thalabi from Anas bin Malik that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “We, the descendants of Abdul Muttalib are the lieges of Paradise; I, Hamza, Ja’far, Ali, Hasan, Husain and the Mahdi.”

The author says: Sayyid Ibne Tawus has narrated the same inTaraif, on the authority ofManaqib Ibne Maghazali .

Muhammad bin Talha says: If it should be said: One of these attributes do not correspond to the Imam of the Age, as his father’s name is not the same as the Prophet’s father’s name. Then he answers this after laying out two premises: One, it is prevalent in the Arabic language to use the word father with respect to great grandfather, as in the verse, The path of your father Ibrahim, and the verse, I followed the religion of my fathers Ibrahim… In the tradition of the Meraj, Jibraeel says, “This is your father, Ibrahim.”

Secondly, the word of ‘ism’ or name many a time is used to refer to patronymic. For instance, Bukhari and Muslim have narrated that the Messenger of Allah, bliss be for him and his kin, named Ali Abu Turab and that he was not fond of another name more than Abu Turab, using ‘ism’ to refer to patronymic. The poet, Mutanabbi says:It is the grandeur of your position to be ‘named’ Munabbah. Whoever gives you a patronymic, he has given you a name amongst the Arabs.

Then he says, Since the Hujjah is from the offspring of Abu Abdullah Husain (a.s.), the Prophet referred to the patronymic asism or name, alluding succinctly to the fact that he will be from the progeny of Husain (a.s.).

The author says: These narrations quoted by us are taken from the manuscripts of Bukhari and Muslim that are in our possession. We also have in our possession an old manuscript ofSharh Sunnah of Baghawi from which we mention the following traditions:

It is mentioned on the authority of Abu Tufayl that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “Even if a single day remains from the world, Allah will send a man from my Ahle Bayt, who will fill the earth with justice just as it will be full of corruption.”

It is mentioned on the authority of Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) mentioned the trials befalling this Ummah so much so that a man will not find a refuge from tyranny and then Allah will send a man from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) who will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it shall be beset by injustice and oppression. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth will be happy from him. The heaven will not leave any of its blessings, but send it generously, the earth will not leave any of its plants but to bring it forth, so much so that the living ones will wish the dead. He will live in that for seven or eight or nine years.

It is mentioned on the authority of Umme Salma that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “The Mahdi is from my Ahle Bayt from the progeny of Fatima. He will act among the people according to the conduct of the Prophet. He will remain seven years and then he will die and Muslims will pray over him.”

It is mentioned on the authority of Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said with regard to the event of the Mahdi: Then a man will come and say: O Mahdi, give me, give me. He will throw to him all that man can carry. Abu Saeed says: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: “A Caliph will come in the last period of time who will distribute unaccountable wealth.”

The author says: Ibne Athir has narrated on the authority of a number of companions ten traditions about the Mahdi, his name, personality and that Isa (a.s.) will pray behind him, which we have omitted to maintain brevity. What we have recorded is sufficient for the man of reason to prove the point.

40- Taraif: Thalabi has mentioned in the interpretation of Haa Meem Ain Seen Qaaf that Seen refers to Sana or the lofty position of the Mahdi and Qaaf refers to the Quwwa (power) of Isa (a.s.) when he comes down and eliminates the Christians and destroys the Churches. He also narrates that the Prophet said with reference to the story of the people of the cave that the Mahdi will greet them and Allah, the Exalted will bring them back to life for him and then they will go back to their resting places and will not rise until Judgment Day.

41- Taraif: Ibne Shiruwayh has mentioned inFirdos , quoting through his chains from Abbas from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said: Mahdi is the peacock of the people of Paradise.

42- Kifayatul Athar: It is narrated from Muhammad Ibne Hanafiyyah on the authority of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), “O Ali, you belong to me and I belong to you. You are my brother and my support. When I die, loathing hidden in the breasts of the people will manifest at you. There will be a dumb dark mischief after me in which every secret and close relation will be dropped. That will happen when the Shia will lose the Fifth from the sons of the Seventh. The dwellers of the heavens and the earth will grieve his departure.

How abundant will be the believing men and women who will be sorry, grieved, and confused for missing him.” Then he lowered his head in contemplation for a moment and then raised his head and said: “My father and mother be the ransom of my namesake, my look-alike, and the look-alike of Musa Ibne Imran. There are garments of light over him, which shine with glitter of sanctity. As if I see them in their utmost despair when they are called with a cry that is heard from faraway as it is heard from the near. This will be a call of benevolence for the believers and a cry of chastisement for the hypocrites.”

I asked, “What is that call?” He said: “Three calls in Rajab. The first will be: Behold, the curse of God be on the oppressors. The Second will be: The Near Event draws nigh. The Third will be that they will see an obvious body with the sun, calling: ‘Behold, God has sent so-and-so, recounting his lineage until Ali, peace be with him. This will entail the destruction of the oppressors. Then relief will come and Allah will heal the breasts of the believers and He will take away the rage of their hearts.”

I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, how many Imams are there going to be after me?” He said: “Nine after Husain. Their ninth is their Qaim.”