And This Wounderful Educational Attitude
Following the example is not restricted to the individual and social moral field. Rather it has a very immense horizon as the vastness of the horizons of life. How much can politicians and prudent men take lessons from the creators of history and the engineers of intellect, let us look at this incident –which may appear to be a small one- in the history of Ameeralmu’amineen (A.S.), looking at what it reflects of the characteristics of the leader and the representative, and at the lessons we can derive in the sides of our life whether it is individual or social:
A nomad stood up and came to Ameralmu’amineen (A.S.) at the day of Aljamel (War) and said: O Ameeralmu’amineen’ do you say that Allah is one?
He said: people blamed him saying: Don’t you see that the Imam’s heart is busy (with the affairs of war)?!
Ameeralmu’amineen (A.S.) said: “Let him ask as what he wants is the same thing we want from the other party (i-e from our enemy!)”.
Then he (A.S.) said: “O nomad’ the saying that Allah is one has four meanings, two of them are not applicable i-e they are wrong to be attributed to Allah while the other two are right and applied to Allah (be exalted).
As to those which are wrong and not applicable to Him are the saying of one that He is one, meaning the category of numbers, this is not right because one has no second for him is not counted within numbers.
Do you not see that he who said that He is the third of three became infidel; likewise that who says that He is one of people, meaning that He is on individual of the sort which is taken from the genus this is wrong because it is a likening, our Creator is exalted from that meaning.
As to the two meanings which are right to be said about Him. The first is when one says that He is one, who has no similarity among things, and our Creator is as such. The second is when one says that He is one outside numbers (monism) which means that He is not divided in reality, mind or imagination, our creator is as such, may He be exalted”[^39]
As a comparable point of view, what a great difference between what Imam Ali (A.S.) has done there, in spite of his being busy as his comparisons described him due to the turmoil which befell Muslim during Al-Jamal war, and what Aumer ebnal khataab has done with Alasbagh ebna assal when he asked him about the “Mutashaabeh” of Qur’an although Aumer was living untroubled at Almadeena.
Ebin Hajjar narrated that a man came to Almedeena at the time of Aumer; this man is called Alasbagh bin Assal; he asked Aumer about the “Mutashaabeh” of Qur’an Aumer called on Him and beat him with his stitch till his head bleeds, he cancelled his share from “baitelmaal”, forbade people from sitting with him- then he decided to expel him to Basrah and wrote to his governor there Abu Mousa Al-Asha'ri: “I tell you that Alasbagh has burdened on himself what he has been saved and wasted what he had been entrusted, so when my letter reaches you don’t deal with him in purchase, don’t visit him when he becomes ill and if he dies don’t participate in his funeral”[^40]
AHLILBAIT (A.S.) ARE THE EXAMPLE AFTER THE PROPHET (S.W.A.):
Ahlilbait (A.S.) are one of the two “Thaqalain” (i- e the two rare things) to which the prophet (S.W.A.) ordered his nation to adhere, and to tread in their traces: he said: “I have left with you “Althaqalain” (i – e the two rare things) As long as you adhere to them you would not go astray at all, the Book of Allah, a tough rope stretched out from Heaven to earth and my house hold Ahlilbait surely they wouldn’t leave each other till they reach me at the end (the Day of Judgement) [^41]
The Islamic ideology is the central foundation of the Islamic thinking, which moulds for the Moslem his monotheistic view point to universe and life. This ideology produces to him proper concepts, which reflect the Islamic viewpoint in different fields of life as it also produces to him philanthropic emotions, and sentiments.
So the ideology represents the ingredient of power, it is the ideology, which fulfilled miracles and achieved the great victories at the dawn of Islam.
In order to motivate Moslem today to move towards revival and progress we must remind him of the civilizational donations that the ideology has bestowed upon those who preceded him, and we must stabilize his certainty of its rightness and appropriateness for all generations.
We can summarize the important role, which the ideology played in building man on all levels as follows:
1- ON THE INTELLECTUAL LEVEL: It considered man to be a respected being. It regards sin as an incidental thing, which can be treated by repentance. Hence it makes man feel that he has the ability to advance it does not disappoint him of Allah’s mercy and pardon.
The Islamic ideology released man from the political dictatorship of unjust governors. It also freed him from the habit of idolizing human beings, it granted him his freedom but it confined it to the limits of Islamic law least it results in chaos; it also connected human freedom with the servitude to Allah only and the attentive, voluntary submission to His authority.
It also freed man from his lusts and from worshipping the phenomenons of nature around him.
It also freed him from legendries and myths in beliefs and behavior.
It carried out the operation of building man through the operation of releasing the mind, so it gave mind a great position, it recognized its role, opened to it vast cognitive horizons. It also opened to it the window of the unseen, and released it from the captivity of the narrow circle of senses, directed his creative power towards contemplation and taking lessons of Allah’s signs in horizons and selves and considered its contemplation one of the best worships.
The ideology did not restrict itself to this but it directed the energy of the mind to discover the laws of history, which control over nations and peoples. It also directed the mind to know the wisdom of “Teshreea” (the Islamic laws) to solidate Moslem’s certainty of the suitability of his “Share’a” to every time and place.
It also urged the Moslem from another side, to acquire science and knowledge, it-connected knowledge with belief. Every separation between them leads to destructive results. It also directed the mind to independent contemplation and attentive notes, to derive the results from certain premises and call the Muslim not to imitate others in understanding the basic principals of religion.
2- ON THE SOCIAL LEVEL:
The Islamic ideology played a big changing role, which the pre-Islamic man thinks about himself and his interests he became after being interacted with the elixir of the Islamic ideology, ready to sacrifice every expensive and precious thing for the sake of his religion and the interests of his society.
The ideology has eradicated the contrast between the subjective motives, which motivate man to achieve his own interests and the interests of the community by agitating the social feeling of the individual towards the others.
The Islamic ideology has grown this feeling through several manners some of them that are: by awakening the feeling of responsibility for others and by developing the spirit of sacrifice and altruism of the individual and urging him to be molded in the block of community.
From another side, the Islamic ideology has changed the social relations among the individual: from relations based fanaticism for kinship, or on the basis of color or money or race, to more sublime relations based on moral foundations: piety, virtue, and human brother hood.
The ideology changed the individuals from the state of contradiction and conflict to the state of association and co-operating, so they formed a mighty nation after they had been separated conflicting tribes for which other nations do not pay any attention.
In addition to that the Islamic ideology had changed the pre-Islamic habits which insult the human’s dignity and cause him to suffer hardships.
3- ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL LEVEL: The ideology participated in creating a feeling of safety, and security to the human being whatever hardships are around him.
It followed different manners to lighten the miseries which man faces suddenly, some of these manners are:
Showing the nature of this world as it is a place of afflictions and examination filled with the currents of tribulations, which befall man from every direction.
So it is impossible for man to seek rest and relaxation in this world. He has to seek success in this divine examination, as it is a place of performing man’s duties.
The ideology has enlightened the bitterness of afflictions through its emphasis that they involve every good reward; it also drew man’s attention to the great affliction, which is the affliction with one’s religion, which enlightens the impresses of small secular distresses.
The belief had released spirits, from the fears, which paralyses man’s activities withhold his energy, it also urged man to know himself as it is very difficult to get control over it and curb it without this knowledge. It is then, impossible to know Allah (be exalted) without knowing the self.
We have deduced, throughout the research, that the psychological dangerous diseases such as fanaticism, miserliness and egocentrism, lead to very dangerous social and political results, such as the affliction which blew away Moslems in “Alsaqeefa” that Imam Ali (A.S.) showed its psychological roots.
4- ON THE MORAL LEVEL:
The Islamic ideology played a creative role in building the moralities of the Moslem individual; it founded those moralities on religious bases which involves good and bad reward they are not mere moral recommendations free from responsibility, on the contrary with positive laws which abolished from the individual’s soul the feeling of Allah’s observation and so they invalidated the foundation of morals, since morals lose the guarantees of perseverance without faith.
It is known that the ideology followed several manners to urge individuals to be adorned with good morals and avoid bad morals, some of them are: Showing the affects of good and bad morals in this world and the other world.
It also followed the manner of introducing the “good example” in order to connect the individuals with the examples of the ideology and its leaders in order to be influenced with their good morals and imitate them in their life history.
[^1] Kenzel Aumaal 11: 240/ 31969.
[^2] Rawzatel Waaeizeen: Al Fattaal alnisabouri: 376- Aleazzi Qum.
1 Ausoul Alkaafi: 2: 99/ 1 Ketaab aleimaan Walkufur..
2 Almehajjah Albaiza’a 5: 89.
[^5] Tuhafil A’ukool: 200.
[^6] Almeezaan fi tefseerel Qur’an, Alaamah Altabatabaei 11: 157. Ala’alemi foundation edition 3.
[^7] Mustadrekel wasseil: 2: 283.
[^8] Almahajjah albaiza’a 5: 93.
[^9] Ershaadelkuluub: 1-2: 133.
[^10] The same source.
[^11] Ausoulilkaafi: 2: 100/ 7 Ketaabil eimaan walkufur, baseereti library publications- Qom.
[^12] Ausoul alkaafi 2: 101/ 12, kitaabil eimaan wal kufur.
[^13] Alakhlaaq sayed Abdullah Shubber: 70.
[^14] Tuhafel aukool: 38.
[^15] Tuhafel Aukool: 98.
[^16] Tuhafel Aukool: 356.
[^17] Ausoul Alkaafi 2: 100/ 8 ketaabil eimaan walkufur.
[^18] Ausoul Alkaafi 2:321/ 4 ketaab eimaan walkufur.
[^19] Fi rehaab aeima Ahlilbait (A.S.) sayyed Mohsin Alameen 4: 69 from Tuhafil aukoul.
[^20] Mekaarim alakhlaaq: altebressi: 17.
[^21] Alkhesaal, Alsadooq 2: 621, Hadeeth the 400.
[^22] Behaarel anwaar 77: 1213, from Keshfil mehajjah lithamaratel muhjjah: 157, ch. 154, Alnajjaf Alashraaf.
[^23] Behaarel anwaar 78-53, Alghurer: Aamed.
[^24] Ahzaab: 33: 21.
[^25] Alkalam 68-4.
[^26] Ala’araaf 7: 199.
[^27] Majmaelbaiaan: Altabressi 3: 89- Alhayaat library publications the year 1980 A.H.
[^28] Nehjil balagha, Subhi Alsaalih 228/ sermon 160.
[^29] Sherhnahjil balagha: Ebna abbil Hadeed 7: 84.
[^30] Almuraaja’at, sayyed Abdulhussan Sharrafideen 23, 8th murajaah.
[^31] Sherh alnehj, Ebnaabil hadeed 7: 76.
[^32] Sherh alnehj, Ebna abilhadeed 18: 273.
[^33] Mekaarim alakhlaaq: Altebressi: 113.
[^34] Mea’ani Alakhbaar: Alsadouq: 191.
[^35] Nehjilbalaagha: subhil alsaalih 439 leter: 53.
[^36] Tuhaf Al-Ikoul, p. 176.
[^37] Al-Ihtijaj by Al-Tebressi vol.1-2, p. 315.
[^38] Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyah Al-Jamia, p. 69-Qom.
[^39] Ketaab Alkhesaal, Alsheikh Alsadouq: 2/ ch. Of Alwaahid, pub.: Jama’atalmuderreseen Qom and Ma’ani Alakhbaar: 5 baab alwaahid.
[^40] Alessabah fi temyeez elsahaabah: Ebnahajjar alaskalaani 2: 198- Dar Ehyaalturaath alarabi pub: 1st, , 1328 H.
[^41] Behaar el anwaar 23: 106 and kenzel aumaal 1: 172, the Hadeth has many other ways from both sides.