Chp 3 Hanbalites and Corporalism
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GROUND OF CORPORALISM RELIES ON EXPRESSIONS
References of theology and biography profess that followers of corporalism formed majority of the ruling authorities retinue and the Hashawites who partisanly clung to whatsoever is narrated. "Corporalism was commonly spread among the incognizant narrators and majority of hadithists." Ibnul-Jawzi asserts.
Some to no avail attempted at supporting the Hanbalites. That matter was constant and familiar to the degree that Az-Zamakhshari recorded the following poetry foot in his Al-Kashaf part 2 page 573:
If I claim being Hanbalite They would affirm I am gloomy incarnationist odious corporalist.
AlFakhr Ar-Razi's AlMetalibulAliya volume 2 part 2 page 25:
Providing Evidences On Allah's Impracticability Of Being A Corporeality.
Two famous opinions regarding this question are rendered by scholars:
Majority of people agreed upon promoting Allah the Praised the Exalted against corporeity and occupancy. Others claimed Allah's occupying a definite location. Those are the corporalists who disputed in some questions. Some claimed Allah's having mankind appearance while others denied so. Regarding the earlier Muslim anthropomorphists claimed the Lord's being a young man while the Jew anthropomorphists claimed His being an
old man. They also disputed about the Lord's moveableness. A group of the
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Karramites(17) admitted Allah's coming going moving and subsiding while others denied so. Majority of Hanbalites admit.
Al-Fakhr ArRazi's Al-MetalibulAliya volume 1 part 1 page 26:
Corporalists disputed about Allah's going and coming. The believers in His being a brilliance deny His having organs and limbs; like a head hand or leg. Majority of Hanbalites confirm existence of such organs and limbs.
AlKhattabi's Me'alimusSunen part 4 page 302:
The trend followed by scholars and jurisprudents was dedicating to the extrinsic meanings of doctrinal texts respecting the divine attributes. They abstained from probing purports and interpretation since they realize their unattainability to understand such affairs. Some master hadithists erred during their commentary on hadith of Allah's descending to the lowest heavens. "If it is claimed that our Lord descends to the lowest heavens some may interrogate about way of descending. This may be answered that Allah descends as He wills. If the wonderment whether our Lord moves or not is put it may be answered that He moves when He wills and does not when He wills.
By these words Al-Khattabi adopts school of commendation. He represents that the divine attributes should be taken as they are without interpretation. These words of commenders prove that they were the seed from which the third school was emerged and the hay the followers held fast. They claimed that the worthy ancestors referred to the physical demeanor of language which is in fact corporeality by preserving appearances and depending exclusively on explicit indications of the divine attributes texts.
The following text of AtThehbi shows that Al-Ghezzali had led a campaign against corporalism and corporalists.
Siyeru A'laminNubela part 17 page 558:
This course adopted by the worthy ancestors was clarified by Abul-Hassan and his acquaintances. It indicates submission to Quranic and prophetic texts. IbnulBaqillani Ibn Fawrak and Al-Kebbar adopted this opinion which lasted to Abul-Me'ali. In time of Sheik Abu Hamid various discrepancies and divergence occurred to this opinion.
This saying shows that corporalism attained its climax in reign of Seljukian dynasty on the hands of Abul-Me'ali Al-Juweini An-Nisapuri ImamulHaramein who died in 478 A.H. After people of Nisapur had banished him the Seljukians favored and assigned him as a tutor in Al-Madrasa An-Nidhamiya school in
- Karramism is an Islamic theologian faction, founded by Mohammed Bin Karram.
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Baghdad. In his last days AbulMe'ali adopted this concept after he had been interpreter.
Al-Ghezzali who succeeded him contradicted his opinions creating a noise by defending the interpreters. Through a considerable number of books of exegesis it was noticeable however that Al-Ghezzali aimed at pleasing the corporalists.
In Al-Aqa'idulIslamiya volume 2, a thorough chapter is given over to exhibiting standings of the anthropomorphists and the corporalists in reference books of the Sunnis our brothers.