A Brief of Islamic Law



  1. Istipà, is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its object is to ensure that no more urine is left in the urethra.

There are certain ways of performing Istipà, the best of which is that after the passing of urine, if the anus also has become Najis it is made Tahir first. Thereafter, from the anus up to the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be pressed three times.

  1. The moisture which is discharged from penis during wooing and courtship, is called Madh. It is Tahir, and so is the liquid which is seen after ejeculation, which is called Wadh. Similarly, the liquid which at times comes out after urination, is called wadh and it is Tahir if urine has not reached it. If a person performs Istipà’ after urinating, and then discharges some liquid doubting whether it is urine or one of the above mentioned three liquids, that liquid is Tahir.

  2. When enough time has lapsed since urinating, and one becomes sure that no urine is left in urethra, and then he sees some liquid, doubting whether it is Tahir or not, he will consider it as Tahir, even if he had not done Istipà’. If he has Wudu, it will be valid.

  3. Istipà’ is not meant for women, and if she sees any liquid and she doubts whether it is urine, that liquid is Tahir, and it will not invalidate Ghosl and Ghusl.

Impure Things (Najàsàt)

  1. The following ten things are essentially Najis:

· Urine · Faeces · Semen · Dead body · Blood · Dog · Pig · Kàfir · Wine

· The sweat of an animal who persistently eats Najàsah.

Urine and Faeces

  1. Urine and faeces of the following living beings are Najis:

· Human beings · Animals whose meat is Halal (allowed) to eat, and whose blood gushes out forcefully when its large vein (jugular) is slit.

The excretion of those animals who are Halal (allowed) to eat, but their blood does not gush forth forcefully when killed, like Halal (allowed) fish, is Tahir. Similarly, droppings of such small animals as mosquito and flies whose meat is scarce are Tahir. Of course, the uring of an animal whose meat is Halal (allowed) and its blood does not gush forth when killed, should be avoided as per obligatory precaution.

  1. The urine and droppings of those birds which are Halal (allowed) to eat, is Tahir, but it is better to avoid them.


  1. The semen of human beings, and of every animal whose blood gushes when its large vein (jugular) is cut and its meat is Halal (allowed), and as per obligatory precaution even those whose meat isHalal (allowed), is Najis.

Dead Body

  1. The dead body of a human being is Najis. Similarly the de ad body of any animal whose blood gushes forth with force is Najis, irrespective of whether it dies a natural death or is killed in a manner other than that prescribed by Islam. As the blood of a fish does not gush forth, its dead body is Tahir, even if it dies in water.

  2. Those parts of a dead body which do not contain life, like wool, hair, teeth, nails, bones and horns are Tahir.

  3. If flesh, orany otherpart whieh contains life, is cut off from the body of aliving human being, oralivinganimal whose blood gushes forth, it will be Najis.

  4. Small pieces of skin which peel off easily from the lips, or other parts of the body, are Tahir, providing they do not contain life.

  5. The liquid medicines, perfumes, ghee, soap and wax polish which are imported, are Tahir, if one is not sure of their being Najis.

  6. Fat, meat or hide or an animal, about which there is a probability that it may have been slaughtered according to the Islamic law, are Tahir. However, if these things are obtained from a non-Muslim, or from a Muslim who himself obtained them from a non-Muslim, without investigating whether the animal was slaughtered according to Islamic law, it is Halal (allowed) to eat that meat and fat, but prayer in that hide will be permissible. But, if these things are obtained from Muslim market, or a Muslim, and it is not known that he got them from a non-Muslim, or if it is konwn that he got from a non-Muslim but there is a great probability that he has investigated about it being slaughtered according to Shariah, then eating such meat and fat is permissible, provided that the Muslim has done an act on it, which is done only when the meat isHalal (allowed), like when he is selling it for eating.


  1. The blood of a human being, and of every animal whose blood gushes forth when its large (jugular) vein is cut, is Najis. The blood of an animal like a fish, or an insect like mosquito, is Tahir because it does not gush forth.

  2. If an animal whose meat is lawful to eat, is slaughtered in accordance with the method prescribed by Shari`ah, and enough blood flows out, the blood which is still left in its body is Tahir. However, the blood which goes back into the body of the animal due to peath, or because of its head having been at a higher level at the time of its slaughtering, is Najis.

  3. As a recommended precaution, one should refrain from eating an egg which has even the smallest amount of blood in it. However, if the blood is in the yolk (yellow portion), the albumen (white portion) will be Tahir, as long as the skin over the yolk is not torn.

  4. If the blood which comes from the gums of the teeth, vanish as it gets mixed with the saliva, the saliva is Tahir.

  5. If the blood which dries under the nail or skin, on account of being hurt, can no longer be called blood, it is Tahir. But if it is called blood and is presented on the surface, it will be Najis. Thus if a hole appears in the nail or the skin, and it is difficult to remove the blood and to make it Tahir for the purpose of Ghosl or Ghusl, one should perform Tayammum (ablution with soil).

  6. If a person cannot discern whether it is dried blood under the skin, or that the flesh has turned that way because of being hit, it is Tahir.

  7. When a wound is healing, and pus forms around it, that substance is Tahir if it is not known to have been mixed with blood.

Dogs and Pigs

  1. Dogs and pigs are Najis, and even their hair, bones, paws and nails, and every liquid substance of their body, is Najis.


  1. A person w ho does not believe in Allah or his oneness, is Najis. Similarly, ghulat who believe in any of the holy twelve Imàms as God, or that they are incarnations of God, and khawarij and nawasib who express enmity towards the holy Imàms, are also Najis. And similar is the case of those who deny Prophet hood, or any of the necessary laws of Islam, like prayer and fasting, if they result in denying the holy prophet (s). As regards the people of the Scripture (i.e.the Jews, the Christians and the Magian), they are considered Tahir


  1. Wine is Najis and everything else which in toxicates a person is not Najis.

  2. All kinds of industrial alcohol used for painting doors, windows, tables, chairs etc are Tahir.

  3. If grape juice ferments by itself, or on being cooked, it is Tahir, but it is Halal (allowed) (unlawful) to drink it. Also, as an obligatorw precaution, boiled grope is Halal (allowed) to eat, but is not Najis.

  4. If dates, currants, raisins, or their juice ferment, they are Tahir and it isHalal (allowed) (lawful) to eat them.

  5. Beer,which lightly intoxicates, and is called Fuqa, is Halal (allowed), and as an obligatory precaution, is Najis. But barlew juice, which does not intoxicate at all, is Tahir andHalal (allowed).

Sweat of an Animal Who Persistently Eats Najasah

  1. The perspiration of a camel which eats human Najasah is Najis and as an obligatory precaution, the perspiration of every animal which is habituated to eat human Najasah, is Najis.

  2. The perspiration of a person who enters the state of Janàbah (major ritual impurity) by an unlawful act is Tahir, and praying with it is in order.

Ways of Proving Najasah

  1. There are three ways of proving the Najasah of anything:

· One is certain, or satisfied that something is Najis.

· If a reliable person who possesses, contro lsor ma nages a thing, says that it is Najis and he or she is not accused of lying.

· If two just men testify that a certain thing is Najis, provided that their testimony deals with the reason for Najaasah, for example they say the thing has met a blood or urine.

If one just man testifies this, the obligatory precaution is to avoid it.

How a Tahir thing Becomes Najis

  1. If a Tahir thing touches a najis thing and either or both of them are so wet that the wetness of one reaches the other, the Tahir thing will become Najis. But it will not become Najis with numerous consecutive transmission. For example, if the right hand of a person becomes Najis with urine, and then,while still wet, it touches his left hand, the left hand will also become Najis. Now, if the left hand after having dried up, touches a wet clloth, that cloth will also become Najis, but, if that cloth touches another wet thing, it cannot be said to be Najis. In any case, if the wetness is so little, that it does not affect the other thing, then the Tahir thing will not become Najis, even if it had contacted a Najis-ul-Ayn.

  2. When a syrup or oil is in a fluid state, in a manner that if some quantity of it is removed, it does not leave an empty trace, the entire quantity will become Najis immediately when even their slightest part becomes Najis. But if it has solidified, so that when some part of it is removed, a trace of emptiness is seen, only that part which has come in contact with Najasah will be Najis, even if the empty trace gets filled up later. So, if the droppings of a rat fall on it, only that part on which the droppings have fallen will become Najis, and the rest will remain Tahir.

Rules Regarding Najàsàt

  1. To make the script and pages of holy Quran Najis, and violate its sanctity, is undoubtedly Halal (allowed), and if it becomes Najis, it should be made Tahir immediately with water. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it is Halal (allowed) to make it najis even if no violation of sanctity is intended, and it is obligatory to make it Tahir by rinsing it.

  2. It is Halal (allowed) to eat or drink or make others eat or drink something which has become Najis. However, one may give such a thing to a child, or an insane person. And if a child or an insane person eats or drinks Najis thing on his own accord, or makes food Najis with his Najis hands before consuming it, it is not necessary to stop him from doing so.

  3. If a person sees someone eat drink something Najis, or pray with a Najis dress, it is not necessary to admonish him.

Mutahhirat (Purifying Agents)

  1. There are twelve things which make Najis objects Tahir:

(i) Water (ii) Earth (iii) The Sun (iv) Trancformation (Istihalah) (v) Change (Inqilab) (vi) Transfer (Intiqal) (vii) Islam (viii) Subjection (Tabaiyyah) (ix) Removal of original Najasah (x) Confining (Istipà) of animal which feeds on Najasah (xi) Disappearance of a Muslim (xii) Draining of the usual quantity of blood from the slaughtered body of an animal.


  1. The interior of a Najis vessel, or utensil, even if it has been made Najis with wine, must be washed three times if less than Kurr water is used, and as per obligatory percaution,the same will apply if Kurr or running water is used. If a dog drinks water or any other liquid from a utensil, the utensil should be first scrubbed with Tahir earth,and after washing off the dust, it should be washed twice with running, Kurr or under Kurr water. similarly, if the dog licks a utensil, it should be scrubbed with dust before washing. And if the saliva of a dog falls into the utensil, or somewhere of its body meets the utensil, as per obligatory precaution, it should be scrubbed with dust and then washed with water three times.

  2. If a utensil is licked by a pig, or if it drinks any liquid from it, or in which a rat has died, it should be washed seven times with running water, or Kurr or lesser water. It will not be necessary to scour it with dust.

  3. A Najis utensil can be made Tahir with under_Kurr water in two ways:

(i) The utensil is filled up with water and emptied three times.

(ii) some quantity of water and poured in it, and then the utensil is shaken, so that the water reaches all Najis parts. This should be done three times and then the water is spilled.

  1. If a Najis thing is immersed once in Kurr or running water, is such a way that water reacher all its Najis parts, it becomes Tahir. And in the case of a carpet or dress, it is not necessary to squeeze or wring or press it. And when body or dress is Najis because of urine, it must be washed twice even in Kurr water.

  2. When a thing which has become Najis with urine, is to be made Tahir with under_Kurr water, it should be poured once, and as water flows off eliminating all the traces of urine,the thing will become Tahir. But if dress or body has become Najis because of urine, it must be washed twice to be made Tahir. when a cloth or a carpet and similar things are made Tahir with water which is less than Kurr, it must be wrung, or squeezed, till the water remaining in it runs out.

  3. If anything becomes Najis with the urine of a suckling child, who has not yet started taking solid food, the thing will be Tahir if water is poured over it once, reaching all parts which had been Najis.

  4. If anything becomes Najis with Najasah other than urine, it becomes Tahir by first removing the Najasah and then pouring under-Kurr water once allowing it to flow off. But, if it is a dress etc, it should be squeezed so that the remaining water should flow off.

  5. If the exterior of soap becomes Najis, it can be made Tahir, but if its interior becomes Najis, it cannot become Tahir, and if soap or not, its interior will be considered Tahir.

  6. A Najis thing does not become Tahir unless the najis_ul_Ayn is removed from it,but there is not harm if the colour, or smell of the Najasah remains in it. So, if blood is removed from a cloth, and the cloth is rinsed with water, it will become Tahir even if the colour of blood remains on it.

  7. Meat or fat which becomes Najis, can be made Tahir with water like all other things. same is the case if the body or dress or utensil has a little grease on it, which does not revent water from reaching it.

  8. Tap water which is connected with Kurr water is considered to be Kurr.

  9. If a person washed a thing with water, and becomes sure that it has become Tahir, but doubts later whether or not he had removed the Najis_ul_Ayn from it, he should wash it again, and ensure that the Najis_ul_Ayn has been removed.

  10. If a ground which absorbs water (e.g. land on the surface of which there is fine sand) becomes Najis, it can be made Tahir even with under Kurr water.

  11. If the floor which is made of stones, or picks or other hard ground, in which water is not absorbed, becomes Najis, it can be made Tahir with under Kurr water, but, it is necessary that so much water is poured on it that it begins to flow. And if that Water is not drained out, and it collects there, it should be drawn out by a vessel or soaked by a cloth.


  1. The earth makes the sole of one’s feet and shoes Tahir, provided that the following four conditions are fulfilled:

(i) The earth should be Tahir. (ii) The earth should be dry, as a precaution. (iii) As an obligatory precaution, the Najasah should have stuck from the earth.

(iv) If najis-ul- Any, like blood or urine, or something which has become Najis, like najis clay, is stuck on the sole of a foot, or a shoe, it will be Tahir only if it is cleared by walking on earth, or by rubbing the foot or the shoe against it. therefore, if the Najis-ul-Any vanishes by itself, and not by walking or rubbing on the ground, the foot or the sole will not be Tahir by earth, as an obligatory precaution. And the earth should be dust or sand, or consisting of stones or laid with picks ; which means walking on carpet, mats, green grass will not make the sole of feet or shoes Tahir.

  1. It is a matter of Ishkal that walking over a tarred road. or a wooden floor will make the Najis sole of feet and shoes Tahir. ( In other words, as an obligatory precaution, tarred road or wooden floor does not make Najis sole of feet or shoes Tahir.)

  2. When the Najis sole of one's foot or shoe becomes Tahir by walking on earth, the parts adjacent to it, which are usually blotched with mud, become Tahir.

  3. If a person moves on his hands and knees, and his hands or knees become Najis, it is a matter of Ishkal (it is improbable) that they become Tahir by such movement. Similarly, the end of a stick, the bottom of a prosthetic leg, the shoe of quadruped and the wheels of a car or a cart etc. would not become Tahir.

III.The Sun

  1. The sun makes the earth, building,and the walls Tahir, provided the following five conditions are fulfilled:

(i) The Najis thing should be sufficiently wet, and if it is dry, it should be made wet so that the sun dries it up.

(ii) Any Najis-ul-Ayn should not be remained on it.

(iii) Nothing should intervene between the Najis thing and the sun. Therefore, if the rays fall on the Najis thing from behind a curtain, or a cloud etc, and makes it dry, the thing will not become Tahir. But, there is no harm if the cloud is so thin that it does not serve as an impediment between the Najis thing and the sun.

(iv) Only the sun should make the Najis thing dry. So, if a Najis thing is jointly dried by the wind and the sun, it will not become Tahir. However, it would not matter if the wind blows so lightly that it can be said that the thing has dried by the sun. (v) The sun should dry up the whole Najis part of the building all at once. if the sun dries the surface of the Najis earth, or building, first, and later on dries the inner part, only the surface will become Tahir, and the inner portion will remain Najis.

  1. If the sun shines on Najis earth, and one doubts later whether the earth was wet or not at that time, or whether the wetness dried up because of the sunshine or not, the earth will remain najis. Similarly, if one toubts whether Najis-ul- Ayn had been removed from the earth, or whether there was any impediment preventing direct sunshine, the earth will remain Najis.

IV. Transformation (Istia*àlah)

  1. If a Najis thing undergoes such a change, that it assumes the category of a Tahir thing it becomes Tahir ; for example, if a Najis wood burns and is reduced to ashes,or a dog falls in a salt-marsh and transforms into salt, it becomes Tahir. But a thing does not become Tahir if its essence or category does not change ; like, if wheat is ground into flour, or is used for baking pead, it does not become Tahir