A Brief of Islamic Law

Change (inqilab)

  1. Any wine which becomes vinegar by itself, or by mixing it with vine gar or salt, becomes Tahir.

  2. If the juice of grapes ferments by itself, or when heated, it becomes Halal (allowed). However, if it boils so much that only one third of it is left, it becomesHalal (allowed). It has already been mentioned in rule 60 that the juice of grapes does not become Najis on fermentation.

VI. Transfer (Intiqal)

  1. If the blood of a human being, or of an animal whose blood gushes forth when its large vein is cut, is sucked by an insect, normally known to be bloodless, and it becomes part of its body, the blood becomes Tahir. This process is called intiqal.

VII. Islam

  1. If an unbeliever testifies Oneness of Allah, and the Prophethood of prophet Muhammad(s), in whatever language, he becomes a Muslim. And just as he was Najis before, he becomes Tahir after becoming a Muslim, and his body, along with the saliva and the sweat, is Tahir.

  2. If an unbeliever professes Islam, he will be Tahir even if another person is not sure whether he has empaced Islam sincerely, or not. And the same order applies even if it is known that he has not sincerely accepted Islam, but his words or deeds do not betray anything which may be contrary to the confirmation by him of the Oneness of Allah, and of prophet Muhammad(s) beingprophet of Allah.

VIII. subjection (TABA ‘IYYAH)

  1. Tabaiyyah means that a Najis thing becomes Tahir, in subjection of another thing becoming Tahir.

  2. When wine is transformed into vinegar, its container, up to the level wine reached on account of fermentation, will become Tahir. And so will the cloth or other thing which is usually put on it, if it has became Najis due to the wine. But, if the back part of the container become Najis because of contact with wine, it should be avoided, as an obligatory precaution, even after wine has transformed into vinegar.

  3. If an unbeliever empaces Islam, his child in subjection to him becomes Tahir. Similarly, if the mother, grandfather or grandmother of a child empaces Islam, the child will become Tahir, provided that it is in their custody and care and there is not a Kàfir relative closer than them with it, and if the child has attained the age of under standing and discerning, it does not show inclination to unbelief.

  4. The plank or slab of stone on which a dead body is given Ghusl, and the cloth with which his private parts are covered, and the hands of the person who gives Ghusl and all things washed together with the dead body, become Tahir when Ghusl is over.

100.When a person washes something with water to make it Tahir, his hands washed along with that thing, will be Tahir when the thing is Tahir.

  1. If cloth etc. Is washed with under-Kurr water and is squeezed as usual, allowing water to flow off, the water which still remains in it is Tahir.

  2. When a Najis utensil is washed with under-Kurr water, the small quantity of water left in it after spillig the water of final wash, is Tahir.

IX. Remoral of Najis-ul ‘Ayn

  1. If body of an animal is stained with a Najis-ul-Ayn like blood or with something which has become Najis, for example, Najis water, its body becomes Tahir when the Najasah disappears. Similarly, the inner parts of the human body, for example inner parts of mouth, or nose or inner ears which become Najis with an external Najasah,become Tahir, after the Najasah has disappeared. But the internal Najasah, like the blood from the gums of the teeth,does not make inner mouth Najis. Similarly, any external thing which is placed internally in the body,does not become Najis when it meets with the internal Najasah. So if the dentures come in contact with blood from the gums, it does not require rinsing. Of course, if it contacts a Najis food, it must be made Tahir with water.

  2. If food remains between the teeth, and blood emerges within the mouth, the food will not be Najis if it comes in contact with that blood.

  3. Those parts of the lips and the eyes which overlap when shut, will be considered as inner parts of the body, and they need not be washed when an external Najasah reaches them. But a part of which one is not sure whether it is intenal or external, must be washed with water if it meets with an external Najasah.

X. Istipa’ of an animal which Eats Najasah

  1. The dung and urine of an animal which is habituated to eating human excrement,is najis, and it could be made Tahir by subjecting it to "Istipà", that is, it should be prevented from eating Najasah, and Tahir food should be given to it,till such time that it may no more be considered an animal which eats Najasah.

XI. Disappeance of aMuslim

  1. When body, dress, household utensil, carpet or any similar thing, which has been in the possession of an adult Muslim or an underage Muslim who is capable of distinguishing between purity and impurity, becomes Najis, and there after that Musl’m disappears, the things in question can be treated as Tahir, if one believes that he may have rinsed them.

  2. A scrupulous person who can never be certain about a Najis becoming Tahir, he should follow the method used by the common people.

XII. Flowing out of a slau ghtered Animal’s Blood in Normal Quantity

  1. As stated in rule 98, if an animal is slaughtered in accordance with the rules prescribed by Islam, and blood flows out of its body in normal quantity, the blood which still remains in the body of the animal is Tahir.

Rule of Gold and Silver Utensils

  1. It is Halal (allowed) to use gold and silver vessels for eating and drinking purposes, and as an obligatory precaution, their general use is also Halal (allowed). However, it is not Halal (allowed) to have them in possession as item of decoration. Similarly, it is not Halal (allowed) to manufacture gold and silver vessels, or to buy and sell them for possession or decoration.


  1. In Ghosl, it is obligatory to wash the face and hands (including the forearms), and to wipe the front portion of th head and the upper part of two feet.

  2. The length of the face should be washed from the upper part of the forehead, where hair grow, up to the farthest end of the chin, and its peadth should be washed to the part covered between the thumb and the middle finger. If even a small part of this area is left out, Ghosl will be void. thus, in order to ensure that the prescribed part has been fully washed, one should also wash a bit of the adjacent parts.

  3. If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in the eyepows, or corners of his eyes, or on his lips, which does not permit water to reach them and that suspicion is reasonable, he should examine it before performing Ghosl, and remove any such thing if it is there.

  4. If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair growing on the face, like beard, liphair etc, he should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, and it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath it.

115.While performing Ghosl, it is not obligatory that one should wash the inner parts of the nose, nor of the lips and eyes which cannot be seen when they close. however, if one is not sure that all parts have been washed, in order to ensure, it is obligatory that some portion of these parts (i.e. inner parts of nose, lips and eyes) are also included. And if a person did not know how much of the face should be washed, and does not remember whether he has washed his face thoroughly in Ghosl already performed, his prayers will be valid, and there will be no need to do fresh Ghosl for the ensuing prayers.

  1. The hands and forearms, and as an obligatory precaution the face, shold be washed from above downwards, and if one washes the opposite way, his Ghosl will be void.

  2. After washing the face, one should first wash the right forearm and hand and then the left forearm and hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.

  3. If one is not sure that the elbow has been washed thoroughly, in order to ensure, he should include some portion above the elbow in washing.

  4. If before washing his face, a person has washed his hands up to the wrist, he should, while performing Ghosl, wash them again up to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes only the forearms up to the wrist, his Ghosl will be void.

    1. While performing Ghosl, it is obligatory to wash the face and the hands and forearms once, and it is recommended to wash them twice. Washing them three or more times is Halal (allowed). As regads to which washing should be treated as the first, it will depend upon pouring water on the face or hand so much that it cover them thoroughly, leaving no room for precaution, with the intention of Ghosl. So, if one pours water on his face ten times, in order to cover it thoroughly, with the intention of the first washing for Ghosl, there is no harm. The first washing realises only when one washes with the intention of Ghosl. Thus, he can wash his face or hands several times, and in the final wash, make the intention of washing for Ghosl. But if he follows this procedure, the face or the hands should not be washed more than once again, as an obligatory precaution, even if without the intention of washing for Ghosl.
  5. After washing both the hands and forearms, one performing Ghosl should wipe front part of the head with the wetness of his hand: and the recommended precaution is that he should wipe it with the palm of his right hand, from the upper part of the hand, downwards.

  6. The part on which wiping should be performed, is the one fourth of the head posterior to the forehead it is sufficient to wipe however mucha tany place in this part of the head.