A Brief of Islamic Law


  1. To say AllahuAkbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory, and one of its Rukns. And these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. If a person pronounces these words incorrectly, or utters their translation, it will not be volid.

  2. It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbirat-ul-Ihram for an obligatory prayer, his body is steady, and if he pronounces Takbir-ul-Ihram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.

  3. One should pronounce Takbir. Surat-ul-hamd, other Surah, Dhikr and Du'a (supplication) in such a manner that he should at least hear the whisper. And if he cannot hear it because of deafness or too much noise, he should pronounce them in such a manner that he would be able to hear, if there was no impediment.

  4. If a person is dumb, or has some defect in his tongue rendering him unable to pronounce Allahu Akbar, he should pronounce it in whatever manner he can. And if he cannot proounce it at all, he should say it in his mind, and should make a suitable sign with his finger for Takbir, and should also move his tongue and lips if he can. But a person who is born dumb, should move his tongue and lips like someone who pronounees the takbir, and made signs with his fingers, too.

  5. It is Mustahab for a person pronouncing the first Takbir of the prayer, and also the Takbir which occur during the prayer, to raise his hands parallel to his ears.

Qiyam (To Stand)

  1. To stand erect while saying Takbirat-ul-Ihram, and to stand before the Ruku are Rukns of the prayers. but, standing while reciting Surat-ul-Hamd and the other Surah and standing after performing the Ruku, are not Rukn and if a person omits it inadvertently, his prayer is in order.

  2. It is obligatory for a person to stand a while before and after pronouncing Takbir, so as to ensure that he has pronounced the Takbir while standing.

  3. If a person forgets to perform Ruku, and sits down after reciting Surat-ul-Hamd and other Surah, and then remembers that he has not performed Ruku, he should first stand pu and then go into Ruku. If he does not stand up first, and perform Ruku while he is bowing, his prayer will be void because of not having performed standing before Ruku.

  4. When a person stands for takbirat-ul-Ihram or Qira'ah (recitation), he should not walk, nor should he incline on one side, and as an obligatory precaution, he should not move his body nor lean on anything in normal condition. However, if he is helpless, and is obligatory to lean on something, there is no harm in it.

  5. If while standing, a person forgetfully walks a little, or inclines on one side, or leans on something, there is no harm in it.

  6. When a person is engaged in obligatory Dhikr in the prayer, his body should be still, and, as an obligatory precaution, it applies to Mustahab Dhikr also.And when he wishes to go a little backward or forward, or to move his body a little towards right or left, he should not recite any thing at that time.

  7. If he recites something Mustahab while in motion, for example, if he says Takbir while going into Ruku or Sajdah, his Dhikr will not be correct provided that he has said it with the intention of a Dhikr ordered to be said in prayers, but hisSalat will be valid. Bi-hawli-llahi wa quwwatihi aqumu wa aq'ud should be said in the state of rising.

  8. If a person becomes unable to stand while offering prayer, he should sit down, and if he is unable to sit, he should lie down. However, until his body becomes steady, he should not utter any of the obligatory Dhikr.

  9. As long as a person is able to offer pravers standing, he should not sit down. For example, if the body of a person shakes, or moves when he stands, or he is obliged to lean on somthing or to inclinc his body a bit, he should continue to offer prayer standing in whatever manner he can. But, if he cannot stand at all, he should sit upright, and offer prayer in that position.

  10. If a person is offering prayerin a sitting position, and if after reciting Surat-ul-Hamd and other Surah, he is able to stand up and perform Ruku, he should first stand, and then perform Ruku. But, if he cannot do so, he should perform Ruku while sitting.

  11. If a person who can stand, fears that owing to standing he will become ill or will be harmed, he can offer prayer in a sitting position and if he fears sitting, he can offer the prayer in a lying posture.

Qira'ah (Reciting the Surat-ul-Hamd and Other Surah of holy Qur'an)

  1. In the daily obligatory prayers, one should recite Surat-ul-Hamd in the first and second Rak'ahs, and thereafter one should recite another Surah and on the basis of precaution it should be one complete Surah.

  2. If the time left forSalat is little, or if person has to helplessly abandon the Surah because of fear that a thief, a beast, or anything else, may do him harm, or if he has an important work, he can ablandon the other Surah. In fact, there are situations when he should avoid it, like when the Salat time at his disposal is limited, or when in certain fears.

  3. If a person realises before bowing for Ruku, that he has not recited al-Hamd and Surah, he should recite them, and if he realises that he has not recited the Surah, he should recite the Surah only. But, if he realises that he has not recited al-Hamd only, he should recite al-Hamd first and then recite the Surah again. Moreover, if he bends but before reaching the Ruku realises that he has not recited surah or only al-Hamd and Surah or only al-Hamd, he should stand up and act according to the foregoing rules.

  4. It is not necessary to recite a Surah after al-Hamd in Mustahab prayer, even if that prayer may have become obligatory due to Nadhr (vow). But, as for some Mustahab prayers like Wah shah prayer, in which a parti cular Surah is recommended, if a person wishes to act according to the rules, he should recite the prescribed Surah.

  5. It is obligatory, as a precaution, for a man to recite al-Hamd and the other Surah loudly, while offering Fajr, Maghrib or Isha prayer, and it is obligatory also, as a precaution, for a man and a woman to recite al-Hamd and the other Surah silently while offering Tuhr and A?r prayers.

  6. A woman can recite al-Hamd and other Surah in Fajr, Maghrib and Isha prayers loudly or silently. But, if a non-Mahram hears her voice, and if it is Halal (allowed) for her to be heard by a non-Mahram man, she should recite them silently, and if she recites them loudly, as a precaution, her prayer will be void.

  7. If a person intentionally prays loudly where he should pray silently, and vice versa, as a precaution his prayer is void. But, if he does so owing to forgetfulness, or not knowing the rule, his prayer is in order. And if he realises that he is doing a mistake while reciting al-Hamd and the other Surah, it is not necessary to recite again what he has recited not following the rule.

  8. A person should say his prayer correctly, and if one cannot by any means recite the whole of Surat-ul-Hamd, he should recite it as he can provided that the part pronounced correctly is considerable ; but if that is a very small part, then as an obligatory precaution, he should add to it some verses of Qur'an which he can recite correctly. And if he cannot do that, he should add some Tasbih to it. But if someone cannot recite al-Hamd correctly at all, then there is no necessary replacement for it.

  9. If a person does not utter a certain word of al-Hamd or the other Surah intentionally or while he is negligently ignorant, or utters one letter for another, like Z for D, or changes the inflections, by adding a vowel kike A or I where not needed or changing their pronunciations in such a manner that the word is considered as incorrect, or does not render Tashdid (pronouncing the letter hard as if there is two letters) properly, his prayer is void.

  10. If a person has learnt a word which he believes to be correct, and recites it that way in prayers, but comes to know later that he has been reciting it incorrectly, it is not necessary for him to offer the prayers again.

  11. The recommended precaution is that while offering prayer, one should not recite the ending word of any phrase, with Waqf (i. e. not to utter the last vowel) if one wishes to join it to the next phrase. Nor should one utter the last vowel of a word (do Wasl) when one wishes to pause. For example, if you recite Ar-Rahman-ir-rahimi and then pause before starting the next word, it is not proper, but you should continue with no pause. Similarly, in the same vorse, that is, Ar-Rahman-ir-Rahim, if you utter the last consonant (M’) without the vowel (I), you should do a pause and not attach the verse to Maliki yawmid-din.

  12. In the third and fourth Rak'ahs of prayer, one may either raed only al-Hamd or Tasbihat (i. e. Subhana-llahi wal-hamdu li-llahi wa la ilaha illa-llahu wa-llahu akbar) which may be said once, although it is better to say it three times. It is also permissible to recite al-Hamd in one Rak'ah, and Tasbihat in the other, but it is better to recite the latter in both.

  13. It is obligatory, as a precaution, for men and women that in the third and fourth Rak'ahs, they should recite al-Hamd or Tasbihat silently.

  14. If a person doubts whether he has pronounced a verse or a word correctly, like, whether he has uttered Qul Huwa-llahu Ahad correctly or not, he may ignore his doubt. However, if he repeats that verse or word correctly as a precautionary measure, there is no harm in it. And if he doubts several times he may repeat as many times. However, if it becomes an obsession, it is better no to reapeat.

Ruku (Bowing)

  1. In every Rak'ah, a person offering prayer should, after reciting the Surahs (Qira'ah), bow to an extent that he is able to rest all his finger tips, including the thumb on his knees. This act is called Ruku.

  2. There is no harm, if a person bows to the extent prescribed for Ruku, but he does not rest his fingertips on his knees.

  3. Bending should be with the intention of Ruku. If a person bends for some other purpose (e. g. to Kill an insect), he cannot reckon it as Ruku. He will have to stand up and bend again for Ruku, and in so doing, he will not have added any Rukn, nor will his prayer be void.

  4. A person who performs Ruku in the sitting position, should bow down till his face is parallel to his knees.

  5. It is better that in normal situations one should say in Ruku Subhana-llah three times or Subhan a rabbiy-al-azimi wa bi-hamdih once. But actually, uttering any Dhikr is sufficient and as an obligatory precaution it should be to the extent of the above Dhikr. However, ifSalat time is short, or if one is under any pressure, it will be sufficient to say Subhana-llah once. A person who cannot utter Subhana rabbiy-al-azimi wa bi-hamdih” correctly, he should say another Dhikr like `Subhana-llah` three times.

  6. The Dhikr of Ruku should be uttered in succession and in correct Arabic.

  7. In Ruku, the body should be steady, and one should not purposely move or shake oneself resulting in not being steady, even if, as a precaution, he or she is not reciting the obligatory Dhikr. And if someone does not observe this steadiness, his prayer, as a precaution, will be void, even if he repeats the Dhikr in steady state.

  8. If at the time of uttering the obligatory Dhikr of Ruku, he loses steadiness by mistake or involuntarily because of uncontrollable vigorous movement, it will be better that after his body resumes steadiness he repeats the Dhikr. However, if the movement is so negligible that steadiness is not lost, or if he just moves his fingers, there is no harm on it.

  9. If a person intentionally recites the Dhikr of Ruku before he has proper ly bowed down, and before his body becomes still, his prayer will be void, unless he repeats the Dhikr in steady state. But if he has uttered it by mistake before steadiness, it is not necessary to repeat it again.

  10. If a person intentionally raises his head from Ruku before completing obligatory Dhikr, his prayer is void. If he raises his head by mistake, repeating the Dhikr is not necessary.

  11. If a person cannot bow down for Ruku properly, he should lean on something and perform Ruku. And if he cannot perform Ruku ‘even after he has leaned, he should bow down to the maximum extent he can, so that it could be customarily recognised as a Ruku. And if he cannot bent at all, he should make a sign for Ruku with his head.

  12. If a person supposed to make a sign with his head for Ruku ‘is unable to do so, he should cloes his eyes with the intention of Ruku, and then recite Dhikr. And for rising from Ruku, he should open his eyes. And if he is unable to do even that, he should make an intention of Ruku in his mind, and then, as a precaution, make a sign of Ruku with his hands and recite Dhikr. In this case, the precaution is to add to this act, it possible, making a sign for Ruku ‘whli sitting.

  13. If a person cannot perform Ruku while standing, but can bend for it while sitting, he should offer prayer standing and should make a signwith his head for Ruku.

  14. After the completion of the Dhikr of Ruku, one should stand straight, and as a precaution proceed to Sajdah after the body has become steady. If one goes to Sajdah intentionally before standing, the prayer is void. also, as a precaution, the prayer will be void, if one goes to sajdah intentionally before the body is steady.


  1. A person offering prayer should perform two sajdhs after the Ruku, in each Rak'ahs of the obligatory as well as Mustahab prayer. Sajdah occurs when one places his forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah)

While performing Sajdahs during prayer, it is obligatory that both the palms and the palms and both the big toes are placed on the ground. Forehead in this rule means, as a precaution, the middle of it, that is the rectangle bounded by the eyepows on below, and the limit of hair on above.

  1. Two Sajdahs together are one Rukn (elemental), and if a person omits to perform two Sajdahs in one Rak'ah of an obligatory prayer, whether intentionally or owing to forgetfulness or ignorance, or as an obligatory precaution if he adds two more sajdahs in one Rak'ah due to forgetfulness or ignorance with no negligence, his prayer is void.

  2. If a person omits or adds one Sajdah intentionally, his prayer becomes void. And if he omits or adds one Sajdah forgetfully, the prayer will not become void, and the rule when omitting one Sajdah, will be explained in the rules of Sajdat-us-Sahv.

  3. If a person who can keep his forehead on the ground, does not do so whether intentionally or forgetfully, he has not performed Sajdah, even if other parts of his body may have touched the ground. But, if he places his forehead on the earth, but does not keep other parts of his body on the ground, or does not utter the Dhikr by mistake, his Sajdah is in order.

  4. It is better in normal situation to say `Subhana-llah` three times, or `Subhana rabbiy-al-a'la wa bi-hamdih” once. And he should utter these words in succession and in correct Arabic. Actually any other Dhikr will suffice, but as an obligatory precaution, it should be to the extent of the above Dhikrs.

  5. If a person intentionally utters the Dhikr of Sajdah before his forehead reaches the ground and his body becomes steady his prayer will be void, unless he repeats the Dhikr when the body becomes steady in Sajdah, and if he raises his head from Sajdah intentionally before the Dhikr is completed, his prayer is void.

  6. If a person utters the Dhikr of Sajdah by mistake before his forehead reaches the ground and realises his mistake before he raises his head from Sajdah, he should utter the Dhikr again when his body is steady, but if when the forehead has reached the ground, and before the staidness of the body, he utters the Dhikr, it is not necessary to repeat it.

  7. If after raising his head from Sajdah, a person realises that he has done so before the completion of the Dhikr of Sajdah, hid prayer is in order.

  8. If at the time of uttering Dhikr of sajdah, a person intentionally lifts one of his seven parts of the body from the ground, hisSalat will be void, provided that it is inconsistent with the steadiness required for Sajdah.This rule applies also, as an obligatory precaution, when one is not uttering any Dhikr.

  9. If a person raises his forehead from the ground by mistake, before the completion of the Dhikr of Sajdah, he should not place it on the ground again, and he should treat it as one Sajdah. However, if he raises other parts of the body from the ground by mistake, he should place them back on the ground and utter the Dhikr.

  10. After the Dhikr of the first Sajdah is completed, one should sit till the body is steady, and then perform the second Sajdah.

  11. It is necessary that there should be nothing between the forehead of the person offering prayer, and the thing on which Sajdah can be offered. Hence if the Turbah is so dirty that the forehead does not reach the Turbah itself, the Sajdah is void. But if only the colour of the Turban has changed, there is on harm.

  12. In Sajdah a person offering prayer should place his two palms on the ground and as an obligatory precaution, he should place the surface of the palm if possible. In a state of helplessness, there will be no harm in placing the back of the hands on the ground, and if even this is not possible, he should, on the basis of precaution, place the wrists of hands on the ground. And if he cannot do even this, he should place any part of the forearm up to his elbow on the ground, and if even that is not possible it is sufficient to place the arms on the ground.

  13. In Sajdah, a person should place his two big toes on the ground, but it is not necessary to place the tips of the toes. If he places the outer or the inner parts of the toes, it will be proper. But if he places instead of the big toes, any other smaller toes on the ground, or the outer part of his feet, or if his big toe does not rest on the ground due to very long nails, his prayer will be void. And if a person does not follow this rule due to ignorance or carelessness, he has to pray again.

  14. The Turbah or other thing on which a person performs Sajdah, should be Tahir to a size required for correctness of Sajdah. If, he places the Turbah on a Najis carpet, or if one side of the Turbah is Najis, and he places his forehead on its Tahir part, there is no harm in it.

  15. If a person can sit but cannot make his forehead reach the ground, he should bow as much as he can, provided that his bowing is customarily considered as Sajdah, and should place the Turban or any other allowable thing on something high, and place his forehead on it. But his palms, his knees and toes should, if possible be on the ground as usual.

  16. If a person with the above situation cannot find something high on which he may place the Turbah, or any other allowable thing, and he cannot find any person who would raises the Turbah etc. For him, then he should raise it with his hand and do Sajdah on it.

  17. If a person cannot perform Sajdah at all or can bow very little so that it cannot be customarily considered as Sajdah, he should make a sign for it with his head, and if he cannot do even that, he should make a sign with his eyes. And if he cannot make a sign even with his eyes he should make an intention for Sajdah in his mind and, on the basis of obligatory precaution, make a sign for Sajdah with his hands etc. And recite the obligatory Dhikr.

  18. If the forehead of a person is raised involuntarily from the place of Sajdah, he should not, if possible, allow it to reach the place of Sajdah again and this will be treated as one Sajdah even if he may not have uttered the Dhikr of Sajdah. And if he cannot control his head, and it reaches the place of Sajdah again involuntarily, both of them will be reckoned as one Sajdah, and if he has not uttered the Dhikr, as a recommended precaution, he will do so with the intention of Qurban, but not as a part of prayer.

  19. At a place where a person has to observe Taqiyyah (concealing one's faith in dangerous situation) he can perform Sajdah on a carpet, or other similar things, and it is not necessary for him to go elsewhere, or delay the prayer so that he is able to pray freely at that place without Tagiyyah. But if he finds that he can perform Sajdah on a mat, or any other allowed objects, without any impediment, then he should not perform Sajdah on a carpet or things like it.

  20. The obligatory precaution is that in the first Rak'ah ofSalat and in the third Rak'ah which does not contain Tashahhud (like the third Rak;ah in Tuhr, A?r and Isha prayers) one should sit for a while after the second Sajdah before rising.