A Case Inbetween Two Concerns
- the Divine Permanent Guardianship On the System of Destiny and Fate in the Universe ======================================================================================
Some may think that Allah the Sublime has innovated the system of destiny and fate in the universe and in man’s life, separating Himself from it thereafter, so that this system within the universe and society moves and acts the way the factory that has been composed by an engineer operates without his personal presence.
The universe – in turn – moves according to the law of destiny and fate innovated by Allah the Sublime at the stage of making, later on to move independently away from Allah’s reign and domination. Man too, makes his choice and acts within the circuit of destiny and fate system independent from Allah the Sublime’s will and intention; although this system originally was made by Allah’s will and intentions; this represents an old Jewish concept which claims that Allah’s reign and domination is restrained after the stage of making the universe.
[The Jews said: Allah’s hand is fettered, Be their hands fettered and they be cursed for what they uttered! Nay, Allah’s hands are widely outstretched: He spends (of His bounty) as He wills.] Al Maidah v. 64.
As we see in the verse, the Quranic concept ultimately differs from the precedent concept; the Quranic concept is represented in short in the Sublime’s speech:
[Nay, Allah’s hands are widely out-stretched]
Allah is the eternal-living; slumber does not overtake Allah nor does sleep, His guardianship over this universe never comes to an end; so the system of the universe and society only runs by Allah the Sublime’s will and intention, man and universe are never separated from Allah’s will and intention even for a single moment.
Man’s will only runs according to Allah’s will and intention as the Sublime says:
[And you shall not wish the truth and shall not be in search of the straight path unless it be the will of Allah the creator of the worlds] At Takwir v. 29.
[And you mankind do not decide something unless Allah decides so, verily, Allah is the knowing Decreer] Al Insan v. 30.
Al Sadouqu quoted the Messenger of Allah (S.A.) saying: “I narrate my speech from Allah: Allah the Sublime, Blessed be He says: O, son of Adam! By My intention you yourself intended what you wanted, and by My will you yourself willed what you wished, and by My grace upon you, you became strong enough to disobey Me, and by My support and protection you did my religious obligations… etc”.([^7])
In Ameerul Mumenien’s (A.S.) speech to the old man who inquired about their trip to (Saffin) a paragraph that says: (He has never given anybody any authorization to own something); which means that Allah the Sublime did not authorize anybody to His power and domination, rather He is always the guardian over it; and he is the Eternal Living; and whoever might think that Allah the Sublime has authorized him to do as he likes, suspending His guardianship so that he becomes independent from Allah the Sublime in his free choice and act; such a man is only degrading the authority of Allah the Great and Almighty, as is shown in the following texts:
(Al Sadougu) narrates from Huraiz bin Abdullah who quotes Abi Abdullah(A.S.):
(People have three approaches to fate, some of them claim that Allah the Great and Al mighty compels man to disobey and commit misdeeds, such people with an approach like this are doing injustice to Allah, so they are non-believers.
Others claim that man is authorized to do as he likes; these people are degrading the authority of Allah the Great and Almighty; so they too are non-believers.
The third group claims that Allah has assigned to man duties and obligations that match his potency, never assigning to him tasks that overbear it, and if man does well he will praise Allah, and if he misbehaves he asks for Allah’s forgiveness; such people are real mature Muslims.)([^8])
In this universe and in man’s life, nobody can give or holds his giving but for Allah’s will and decision; furthermore, every luxury and poverty, and every ease and difficulty in life are subject to Allah’s will and determination. Abu Abdullah(A.S.) is quoted saying:
(No act of giving or withholding a giving takes place without the will of Allah who determines whether they are part of destiny or an examination to man).([^9])
Hence Allah the Sublime maintains a permanent presence in the whole universe and in the whole space of destiny and fate, he does not miss anything, and nothing might take place within this space without His presence, He has a permanent guardianship over this universe and He is the Eternal-Living.
[There is no God but Allah the Eternal-live, slumber does not overtake Allah, nor does sleep] Al Baquarah v.255.
4. Disobedience and peoples’ misdeeds are committed only by Allah’s destiny and fate; Allah is never disobeyed against His will
If every incident in this universe as well as in man’s life is determined by destiny and fate, and if destiny and fate only run by Allah’s will and permission, inevitably then all man’s deeds of good or evil, obedience or disobedience, should only take place and formulate by Allah’s permission and will; hence man’s sins and disobediences may never be excluded from the circuit of Allah’s authority, destiny, fate and leave. The Sublime said:
[Though they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s leave] Al Baquarah v. 102.
[And if Allah had willed they would not have done so] Al Ana'm v. 137.
[And had Allah so willed they would not have fought] Al Baquarah v. 253.
[And had Allah willed, He would have taken away (by thunder and lightning) their faculties of hearing and seeing] Al Baquarah v. 20.
If man disobeys God the Great and Almighty, he will rather disobey Him by means of the power, potency and authority bestowed on him by Allah the Sublime; and if Allah the Sublime confiscates his power and potency man would not be able to disobey Allah, it is a fact the Quran authenticates and we ought to admit regardless of the lengthy arguments Al Asha'irah arise about this topic.
The late Al Kulainy narrates from Hamza bin Hemran who said: I asked Abi Abdullah(A.S.) about the ability to act, he did not answer me; I tried again saying: May Allah amend your stance in the hereafter I say: Allah the Sublime Graces be upon Him did not assign to the people tasks that exceed their ability and did not ask them things beyond their capability, they themselves would no do anything of the kind only by Allah’s will, leave, destiny and fate.
Abu Abdullah (A.S.) said: (This is Allah’s religion to which I and my Dynasty adhere).([^10])
Ali bin Ibrahiem Al Hashmi said: I heard Abdull Hassan Musa bin Jaffar(A.S.) saying:
(Nothing ever might be except for Allah’s leave, will, fate and destiny).([^11])
(As Sadouqu) in Al Tawheed narrates from Ali bin Yaquteen who narrates from Abi Ibrahiem(A.S.) who said: (Ameerul Mumenien (A.S.) passed by some people in Al Kuffah who were enthusiastically discussing fate, he (A.S.) asked the major one who was talking: Are you able to act by Allah’s leave, with Allah’s leave or without Allah’s leave?
The man did not know what to say.
He (A.S.) said: if you claim that you are able (by) Allah, so you will have nothing to do with your deeds; and if you claim that you are able (with) Allah, you will make your self a partner in His dominion; and if you claim that you are able without Allah you will claim yourself a god other than Allah the Great and AL mighty).([^12])
AL Kulainy narrates from Ali bin Al Hakim and Abdullah bin Yazeed, all of them narrating from a man from Bassrah who said: I asked Aba Abdullah(A.S.) about ability. He (A.S.) said: (can you do whatever Allah has not made?
I said: no!
He (A.S.) said: (can you forsake whatever Allah has made?
I said: no!
Abu Abdullah said: (Then when are you able to act?
I said: I do not know!
He (A.S.) said:
(Allah has created the people giving them the device of ability, but never authorizing them fully to act, thus they are able to act in time of action by means of the act itself in case they made that act. If they did not make it (under Allah’s domination they would not be able to make something which they have not done; for Allah the Great and Almighty is too great and dignified to be disobeyed (in His dominion) by anybody).
The man from Basrah said: People then are compelled to act aren’t they?
He (A.S.) said: (If they were compelled to act, their misdeeds would have been excused and forgiven).
The man said: Then they have been authorized to act the way they like, are not they?
He (A.S.) said: No!
The man said: Then what about them?
He (A.S.) said: (Allah knew that they will act, so He gave them the device of action, if ever they act, they will be able to act.)
The man from Bassrah said: I testify here it is right, and you are really the progeny of Muhammad the prophet and the Messenger.([^13])
The late AL Kulainy narrates from Muhammad bin Abi Abdullah who relate from Sahl bin Zyad and Ali bin Ibrahiem who relates from Ahmed bin Muhammad and Muhammad bin Yahya narrating from Ahmed bin Muhammad relating from Ali bin Al Hakam who narrates from Salih Al Neely who said: I asked Aba Abdullah(A.S.): Are the people able to do anything?
He (A.S.) said: (If they make an act, they are only able to do it by means of the ability which Allah gave them).
I said: And what is this ability?
He(A.S.) said: (The device is similar to a fornicator who was able to fornicate when he did, and if ever he has given it up, preferring not to commit fornication he would have been able to do so. Then he (A.S.) added:
Before committing the deed more or less he has no ability, but he was able to act or forsake acting during the time of doing.
I said: Why should Allah torture him then?
He (A.S.) said: He tortures him for the pretext He has already shown him, and for the device of ability implemented in him by Allah, Allah never compels anybody to disobey Him, neither does He inevitably will anybody to disbelieve; but when he disbelieves it is part of Allah’s will, and it is part of Allah’s will and knowledge that no good will befall such people.
I said: Then Allah wanted them to disbelieve, did not He?
He (A.S.) said: (I do not say this, rather I say: Allah already knew that they will disbelieve so he wanted them to do so for he knew their intention, this is not an inevitable will, rather it is the will of free choice).([^14])
As Sadouqu narrated from Hafss bin Qurtt who related from Abi Abdullah As Sadiqu(A.S.):
(The Messenger of Allah(S.A.) said: That who claims that Allah commands the people to commit misdeeds and sins only lies to Allah, and that who claims that good and evil take place without the permission and will of Allah such a claimant in fact has cast Allah off his authority and dominion; and that who claims that sins are committed without reliance on Allah’s potency is in fact lying to Allah, and Allah for lying to Him will drive him to hell.)([^15])
As Saheh quotes As Sadouqu in Al Tawheed and AL Uoyoon as saying:
My father told us that Saad bin Abdullah said that Ahmed bin Muhammad bin Khalid AL Barqui had told him (relating from his father from Sulaiman bin Jaffar Al Jaffari from Abi Al Hassan Al Redha(A.S.) who commented on the matter of Determinism and Authorization by Saying:
(May I give you a fundamental suggestion that you may never differ about and by means of which you can win any argument?
We said: Aye Aye if you whish.
He (A.S.) said: People have never obeyed Allah the Great and Almighty by force, neither have they disobeyed Him in spite of Him, He never did neglect the people in His dominion, never leaving them to their own; He possesses what He has made them possess; He is able to do whatever He has enabled them to do; if they accept to obey Him He would never prevent or prohibit them to do so, and if they choose to disobey Him, He might prevent them – if he wishes -, and if he does not and they went so far to commit that disobedience, He would not be the cause for it.
He (A.S.) then said: He whoever masters the connotation of this speech can win over anybody who argues about this case.([^16]) AL Kulainy also related from Ismaiel bin Jaber who said:
“In the mosque of Al Madinah there was a man lecturing a mass of people about fate. I said: “listen man, can I ask you something? He said: go on ask? I said: could it be that something against the will of Allah the Sublime get done under His dominion? The Man pondered for a long while then raised his head and said:
Listen man: If I say yes there are things done under His dominion against His will, - I then – shall be affirming that He is overwhelmed. And if I say that only the things He wants, get done under His domination, I shall be affirming that sins and wrongdoings are done by Allah’s will and leave.
The narrator relates that on telling Aba Abdullah (A.S.) that incident with the man’s answer, He (A.S.) pondered for a while thus to say:
(Speaking otherwise he would have died.)([^17])
As Sadouqu in Al Towheed quotes Ali bin Musa Al Redha As: (My father narrated from his fathers up to Al Hussein bin Ali (A.S.) who said:
I heard my father Ali bin Abi Taleb (A.S.) says:
Man’s deeds are classified into three categories:
Virtues (supererogatory deeds).
Allah the Great and Almighty’s command, consent, determination, destiny and fate, will and knowledge, fulfill the duties.
The virtues: (supererogatory deeds) are done with out Allah’s command but by His consent, fate, destiny, will and knowledge.
The sins: are committed without Allah’s command but by His fate, destiny, will and knowledge, thereafter He will punish man for them).([^18])
This is a forthright text signifying that whatever sins and wrongdoings man may commit, they only may be committed by Allah’s fate, destiny and knowledge, never by Allah’s command.