A Case Inbetween Two Concerns

  1. Man’s Responsibility For His Deed ====================================

This point pertains to the previous one. If man (at the stage of beginnings) was to make his free choice in selecting the way he ought to follow, then necessarily he will accept the responsibility of the aftermath and the results that follow (however certain they might be). Such a responsibility is determined by the choice of man. At the same time, man’s internal feeling of responsibility signifies his free choice. Al Quran deepens man’s feeling of responsibility. The Sublime says:

[(And then will be stated), now stop them for certain questions to be asked] Surah As Saffat v. 24.

[Then we shall surely question those (people) to whom the Messengers were sent and We shall also question the Messengers (about their conveying the Message)] Al Araf v. 6.

[So by your Creator and Nurturer (O, Messenger!) We shall certainly call all of them to account] Surah Al Hij/ v. 92.

[And surely you will be questioned about the things that you used to do] Surah An Nahl v. 93.

[There you will be questioned about the bounties that you were bestowed (and you did not value them and did not express your thanks for having them)] At Takathur v.8

Hence, as long as man owns his freedom of choice in behaviour, his deeds are dedicated to him; furthermore he holds the responsibility for the results out coming from his deeds.

(Al Kulainy) in (Al Kafi) related, so did (As Sadouqu in (AL Tawheed) who narrated from Al Hussein bin Ali Al Washaa' from Abi AL Hassan Al Redha (A.S.). He said I asked him:

Did Allah authorize the people to act?

He (A.S.) said: Allah is too dignified to do such a thing.

I said: Did He oblige them to commit misdeeds?

HE (A.S.) Said: Allah is too just and too wise to do such a thing.

Then He (A.S.) said: Allah the Great and Al mighty said: O man (son of Adam) your good deeds are due to Me and your bad deeds are due to you, you have committed your disobediences by the power I have given you).[^28]

8. God’s domination over the movement of destiny and fate in the universe along history

Heretofore we came to know that (destiny and fate) rule over the universe and history, then we came to know that it is a divine system created and innovated by Allah the Sublime, thereafter we said that this system is only there, by the support of Allah the Sublime in every minute and occasion, never has it been apart from Allah even for one minute, and Allah the Sublime is the Eternal live and Guardian for this system, His sovereignty, domination and guardianship extends over the whole universe.

Now we say: Allah the Sublime’s relation with the universe is not limited to His guardianship and maintenance of the system, rather Allah the Sublime over dominates the universe.

This point requires some explanation:

The system of destiny and fate that rules over the universe is not a one-dimensional system, rather it is a multidimensional one whose every single dimension runs in a complete accordance and accuracy that responds to its laws, Allah the Sublime over masters all these dimensions, He abrogates whatever He wills and keeps confirmed whatever He wills, and with Him is the preserved book.

Hence, although the system of destiny and fate is a fixed one that can not be altered, yet it is subject for the sovereignty and domination of Allah the Sublime who can abolish or confirm it, changing whatever He chooses, abolition here does not connote canceling or retarding this system, rather it means changing it into another phase which only could be done by the ultimate sovereignty of Allah the Sublime who says:

[Allah abrogates whatever He wills and keeps confirmed whatever He wills, and with Him is the preserved book] Surah ArRa'd v. 39.

Man deals with the system of destiny and fate moving, laboring and making his choices within this system which is subject to the ultimate domination and guardianship of Allah the Sublime; hence man can not be independent from the will of Allah neither in his movement nor in his deeds within the circuit of this system, especially that it is a mediator connected to Allah the Sublime and subject to his guardianship and sovereignty at every minute.

As Sadouqu in AL Tawheed related from Abdullah bin Maymoon Alqudah who said:

A man who used to follow (Beni Aumayah) came to meet Abi Abdullah Al Sadiqu or Abi Jaffar Al Baquer(A.S.), we become concerned about his safety(A.S.) so we said:

Will it not be better if you hide yourself as long as he is not right here yet?

He (A.S.) said: (Rather give him the permission to get in, for the Messenger of Allah(S.A.) said:

Allah the Great and Almighty masters the tongue of whoever wants to say and the hands of whoever wants to do. He can only say what Allah wills and he can only extend his hand by the will of Allah.

The man then got in to the Imam, asked him about few things in which he came to believe, and then he left).[^29]

9. The divine law of assistance and negligence and its role in the life of people

No doubt, Allah the Sublime bestowed on people the ability to choose an action at decisive points, bestowing on them at the same time, consciousness, brain and the ability to distinguish things, giving them evidences to assist them; all this is true, and we believe that there is no mercy superior to this; but Allah the Sublime who over dominates the universe and man, supports man at every junction whenever it becomes difficult for him to make a choice; favoring him with success, support and prosperity if ever he sought obedience.

But if he sought disobedience, Allah would not leave him to his own, rather He would fail him at his sinful endeavour in an attempt to push him away from it.

If ever man insisted and became stubborn, Allah the Sublime would leave him to his own, giving him up and deluding him.

As Sadouqu in (Oyown Akhbar Al Redha) narrated from (Tameem Al Quhraishy), from his father, from (Ahmed bin Ali AlAnssari) relating from (Yazeed bin Omayer bin Muawiah Al Shami) and said:

I got in to meet Ali bin Musa Al Redha(A.S.) who was at (Marow), then I said to him, O son of the Messenger of Allah! We have been told that Jaffar bin Muhammad Al Sadiqu (A.S.) said:

(Neither determinism, nor authorization, rather a case in between two concerns): what does this mean?

He (A.S.) said: (That who claims that Allah himself does our deeds thereafter to torture us for them is a believer in determinism, and that who claims that Allah the Great and Almighty had authorized the Imam’s (A.S.) to decide for the people and determine their means of living is a believer in authorization; the one who believes in determinism is an atheist, and the one who believes in authorization is a polytheist.

I said: O, son of the Messenger of Allah! What then is the case inbetween two concerns?

He (A.S.) said: (There is away to do whatever they were commanded to do, and to give up whatever they were commanded not to do).

I said: Does Allah the Great and Almighty have a will and a desire to make them do or not do so?

He (A.S.) said:

Allah shows his will in accepting man’s obedience’s as He has commanded him to do; He also shows his will in forsaking man and rejecting his wrong doings as He has commanded him not to do them.

I said: then Allah the Great and Almighty determines them?

He (A.S.) said: yes, man cannot do good or evil unless Allah wishes and decides.

I said: Then what does Allah’s determination and decision mean?

He (A.S.) said: Allah decides people’s reward and punishment for their deeds, both in this mundane world and in the hereafter.

But if man insisted on disobedience and revolt, Allah the Sublime will forsake him leaving him to his own devices, depriving him from the grace of faith.

It has been narrated that (As Sadoqu) in his (AlUyoon) said: (Abdul Wahed bin Muhammad bin Abdoos Al Attar) told us that (Muhammad bin Ali Qutaibah Al Nissaboory) narrated from (Hamdan bin Silman Al Nissaboory) who said: I have asked AL Redha (A.S.) about the meaning of Allah the Great and Almighty’s verse:

[And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, expands his breast for Islam, and whomsoever He wills to be left in their error, He makes his breast closed and narrow] AL Anam v. 125.

He (A.S.) said: (He whom Allah means to convert in this life so as to gain heaven and the better other life, Allah expands his breast to faith in Him, to rely and depend on Him to attain what he had been promised of rewards. And he whom Allah means to mislead and delude from heaven and the better other life in the hereafter as a punishment for his disbelief and disobedience in life, Allah makes his breast closed and narrow so he becomes always suspicious about his atheism, and his heart becomes feeble for his disbelief, on and on as if he is climbing up to the very sky. Thus, Allah inflects those who refuse to believe with an ignominious chastisement.)

You have already known the meaning of expanding and narrowing the breast.

([^1]) This is a linguistic matter that is related to the lyxical Arabic connotation of the world (Al Quadar) Translator.

([^2]) Usul Al Kafi 1: p 121/4. the Islamic library 1388 Hijrat.

([^3]) Usul Al Kafi 1: 119 – 120. Ketab Al Tawheed.

([^4]) Al Tawheed – Al Sadougu. 380.27. Islamic Publishing institute. Qum.

([^5]) AL Kafi 2: 58.7.

([^6]) Al Tawheed. AL Sadouqu – 371/4.

([^7]) Al Tawheed – Al Sadouqu: 340/10, 338/6. Also see (Usul Al kafi): 1: 142/6 and (Behar Al Anwar) 5: 57/104.

([^8]) Behar AL Anwar 5: 9-10/14.

([^9]) Al Kafi 1: 152/1.

([^10]) Usul Al Kafi 1: 124/4 Kitab Al Tawheed (Al Sadouqu) 3/340.

([^11]) Ibid 1: 150/1.

([^12]) Ibid 1: 161 – 162/2 and Al Tawheed (As Sadouqu) 352/23 and Behar Al Anwar 5: 39/61.

([^13]) Usul Al Kafi: 1: 193/1.

([^14]) Ibid 1: 123/3. Ketab AL Tawhed.

([^15]) Ibid 1: 158/6 and Tawheed As Sadouqu 359/2 and Behar AL Anwar 5: 53/58.

([^16]) Al Tawheed. As Sadouqu 7.361 And Behar Al Anwar 5: 16/22.

([^17]) Al Kafi 1: 159/7. Ketab AL Tawheed.

([^18]) Al Tawheed As Sadouqu: 369/9 and Behar Al Anwar 5: 29/36.

([^19]) Al Intessar – Ak Khayat: 179 extracting from (Munisat AL Amel) p. 30 – 32.

([^20]) Man and Destiny. Al Shaikh Al Muttahary. 38.

([^21]) Usul Al Kafi 1: 117/3.

([^22]) Ibid 1: 117/4. Ketab AL Tawheed.

([^23]) AL Tawheed – As Sadouqu 8/369.

([^24]) Ibid 11/371.

([^25]) Al Muktar Fi Al Jabr wal Ekhtiar. Sayyed Muhammad Ali Al Sadiquy: 123.

([^26]) Usul Al Kafi; 1: 121/9. Ketab AlTawheed.

([^27]) Ibid 1: 120/2.

[^28] Ibid 1: 157/3 Ketab AL Tawheed.

[^29] AL Tawheed (As Sadouqu) 3/337.