A Case Inbetween Two Concerns
The result we conclude from the research we have made through the speeches of the Progeny (A.S.) respectively of this sensitive cause is:
Man falls inbetween determinism and authorization in what the Progeny(A.S.) called (a case inbetween two concerns).
This position does not connote a synthesis between compulsion and authorization in the sense that man’s behaviour consists of both; rather they(A.S.) meant to deny determinism, authorization and independent behaviour.
He – on one side – is completely free to make his choice being given by Allah the Great and Almighty all the talents required for such freedom namely, the brain, the ability to distinguish things and the maturity needed.
On the other side: He – in his deed and choice – is conditioned by the laws of destiny and fate which are subject to the domination and guardianship of Allah the Sublime at the center of which, man, his choice and his deed fall.
(AsSadouqu) narrates from Huraiz bin Abdullah who quotes (AsSadiqu) (A.S.):
(People have three approaches to fate; some of them claim that Allah the Great and Almighty compels man to disobey and commit misdeeds, such people have done injustice to Allah by such an approach, so they are non – believers – Others claim that man is authorized to do, as he likes; these people have degraded the authority of Allah the Great and Almighty, so they too are non-believers.
The third group claim that Allah has assigned to man duties and actions up to his potency, never assigning to him tasks that overbear it, and if man does well he will praise Allah, and if he misbehaves he will ask His forgiveness, people as such are true mature Muslims).
AsSadougu narrated from (Sulaiman bin Jaffar Al Jaffari) who quotes Al Redha (A.S.) and says:
Somebody mentioned determinism and authorization, in front of the Imam, so he (A.S.) said:
(May I give you a fundamental opinion that you may never differ about and by means of which you can win any argument?
We said: Aye, Aye if you wish.
He (A.S.) said:
(People were never forced to obey Allah the Great and Almighty, neither have they disobeyed Him against His will; He never did neglect the people of His dominion, neither did He leave them to their own, He own, what He has made them own, and He is able to do whatever He has enabled them to do; if they accept to obey Him, He would never prevent or prohibit them to do so; and if they chose to disobey Him, He might prevent them if He wishes – from doing so; and if He did not prevent them and they themselves did that disobedience, He would not be the cause for it – He (a.s) then added: (He whoever masters the connotation of this speech can win over anybody who argues about this case).([^1])
Man might think that the space for (a case inbetween two concerns) is short in his life; while determinism and authorization occupy a wider range in it. Man actually deals directly with the system of destiny and fate all the way through his daily choices, seldom feeling the Divine guardianship and Allah domination over his life. That is a false feeling, which has developed in him due to the veil he had put between himself and Allah the Sublime, plus His hidden graces. The space for (a case inbetween two concerns) contains man’s life as a whole.
He deals with Allah the Sublime in his entire where about, deeds and moves, enjoying unknowingly Allah’s support. Allah the Sublime assists man by means of his hidden graces in a way that man does not feel, (except that whom Allah the Sublime has favoured with a special insight and knowledge).
(Al Kulaini) in (Al Kafi) and also (AsSadouqu) in his (AtTawheed) both narrated from (Yunus bin Abdul Rahman) from Abi Jaffar and Abi Abdullah(A.S.):
(Allah is too merciful to compel people to commit sins thereafter to punish them for what they have done; at the same time He is too dignified to demand something that will never be); then they were asked: is there a third position inbetween determinism and fate?
Both (A.S.) said:
(Aye, Aye; there is a position that is wider than the space between earth and heaven).([^2])
In another narration, Al Kulaini in (AlKafi) relates from (Yunus), from (Addah) who relates from (Abi Abdullah (a.s) saying:
(A man told the Imam (A.S.):
I be sacrificed for you, Did Allah compel the people to commit sins?
He (A.S.) said: Allah is too just to compel them to commit sins thereafter to punish them for what they have done.
The man said: I be sacrificed for you, did Allah authorize people to do what they like?
He (A.S.) said: If He has authorized them; He would not have limited them by His commands and prohibitions.
The man said: I be sacrificed for you, is there a position inbetween these then?
He (A.S.) said: Aye, Aye, a position more wide than the space between earth and heaven).([^3])
These texts and narrations reveal to us an important fact which we ought to take into consideration and be committed to; we should sense Allah the Sublime’s assistance and guidance in our life, we must sense Allah the Sublimes’ company in every situation, and at every move we make.
If man frees himself from the ideological debate that characterizes the mental history of Islam, returning to himself for a while, he will clearly realize that Allah the Sublime has not forsaken him even for one moment in his life; thus he has never been away from His guidance and assistance all along his life.
If Allah the Sublime forsakes the universe, it will vanish; and if Allah the Sublime has forsaken man leaving him to his own devices and to the system of destiny and fate, man long ago would have reached a dead end.
But Allah the Sublime’s providence accompanies mans progress through history, guarding him at every turning point, and every trouble, converting, supporting, protecting and granting him success at every stage.
A general reading to the Book of Allah the Sublime will deepen this feeling in us, making us realize that the Quran means to unite our life and progress along with the Divinity and Providence, rearing in us a sense of Allah’s continuous protection, guardianship and assistance.
And although the Quran is keen about emphasizing the freedom of choice as a principle, yet it never refers anywhere that man in his choice, decision and action is independent from Allah the Sublime; or that Allah the Sublime has left man to his own in respect of choice, decision and action; woe to man if Allah the Sublime leaves him to his own.
It is quite not possible for man within the frame of cause and effect law and the system of existence to be independent from Allah the Sublime in his decision, deed and choice.
But suppose we reasonably presume that; and man did become independent from Allah the Sublime and was left to his own to face the system of destiny and fate alone; he-in some of the deadlocks and crises that face him-long long ago would have fallen down reaching a dead end that has no way.
Furthermore, according to what has been said heretofore, we can deduce the basic elements that comprise the theory of the Progeny(A.S.) extracted mostly from the Holy Quran in relation to (destiny and fate) and to man’s individual and historical behaviour.
O Lord! We have believed in you and have had faith in your grace, assistance, providence and guidance for your people; and in our life, we have always felt this providence, perseverance and success inspired by you-dignified be Thy prestige. Prescribe us with the faithful and the Muslims.