Futures Studies in the European Ex-socialist Countries


[^1] Despite the GDR had adopted formally a kind of multi-party system, we will throughout this paper use the word “party” only with reference to the SED – Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (United Socialist Party of Germany).

[^2] On that session, Walter Ulbricht underlined that the working classes and the party had the task “to elaborate and to use the Marxist-Leninist societal prognostics to an extent not known before.” (Ulbricht 1967, p. 92)

[^3] Only some years later Klaus had to apologize: Cybernetics could never be a universal theory of society.

[^4] The Council of Ministers was formally the government of the GDR, actually all executive powers were concentrated in the hands of the politbureau of the SED.

[^5] In 1970 e.g. the newspaper of the communist youth organization “Junge Welt” organized a competition among its readers to the question “What will you do on Thursday, January 6, 2000?” Famous scientists contributed materials on technological and social prospects. The winners were invited to participate in a banquet on January 8, 2000 – which really took place. Comp. Steinmüller 1999

[^6] When the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future” appeared 1988, it was highly discussed in the Academy of Sciences as well as on conferences of the Evangelic Academies, in the East German Writers’ Union – and last not least in the oppositional Umweltbibliothek (Library for Environmental Problems).

[^7] “Futures studies in Poland in the works of the Futures Studies Committee ‘Poland in the 21st century’ – The Committee and its creators 1969-1999 (on the 30th anniversary of the Committee’s founding)”, Elipsa, Warsaw, 1999

[^8] See: “Action Plan for Economic Structure Reform”, Industrial Policy Bureau MITI, Tokyo, March 1998

[^9] Its full text was not published until 2000 in “Bulletin Poland 2000 Plus” 1/2000

[^10] Andrzej Krzysztof Wroblewski: “The poverty of prognoses”, Polityka 4/1997

[^11] Witold Pawlowski: “A prognosis cut short”, Polityka 1/2001

[^12] Maciej Rybinski: “Under the charm of false prophets”, Rzeczpospolita, Dec. 30, 2000-Jan. 01, 2001

[^13] “About the need for strategic concept of the development of Poland and the role of science in the restructuring of the economy”, Committee Report, ELIPSA, Warsaw 1993 and “Is it worthwhile to think about the future”, ELIPSA, Warsaw, 1993

[^14] Józef Pajestka: “Civilisational megatrends vs. the process of system transformation”. In: For the orientation on the future in Polish reforms”, ELIPSA, Warsaw, 1994

[^15] “In the perspective of the year 2010 – The road to 2010”, Futures Studies Committee “Poland in the 21st century”, ELIPSA, Warsaw, 1995

[^16] “Strategia rozwoju Polski do roku [^2020]: Synteza”, ELIPSA, Warsaw, 2000

[^17] “Strategy for Poland’s development up to the year 2020”, see above.

[^18] See: Johan Galtung: “The world in economic crisis”, Bulletin “Poland 2000 Plus” 1/2000

[^19] “Poland 2025 – long-term strategy for development”, published by the Governmental Center for Strategic Studies, Warsaw, May 2000

[^20] “The perspectives of the advanced fields of science and technology until 2010”, ELIPSA, Warsaw, 1999

[^21] For a more detailed discussion, see, Sarmir, E., 1998, pp. 22-[^27]: