Logic For Islamic Rules

The Aim of the Verse: He Deviates Whomsoever He Likes and Guides Whomsoever He Likes?

Question: The Justice of Allah is a principle of our faith and we believe that Allah does everything on the basis of Justice and equity. Then what is the aim of the 93rd verse of Surah Nahl that: He causes to err whom He pleases and guides whom He pleases, and other such verses and traditions? If guidance and error is from Allah, how far is it related to divine justice that we should be punished for error and rewarded for being guided?

Answer: Some Quranic verses explain others. There are many verses, which should be studied along with other verses in order to reach the correct interpretation.

The captioned verse which mentions error and guidance is also this type. Therefore in order to understand it correctly we have to refer to other verses that also mention error and guidance.

This verse says that Allah guides whom He likes. In another verse, for example in the 26th verse of Surah Baqarah it said: He does not cause to err by it (any) except the transgressors.

In addition to this the 34th verse of Surah Mo-min says: Thus does Allah cause him to err who is extravagant, a doubter.

These two verses explain how some people become deprived of the mercy and favors of Allah and how they deviate from the straight path of life and righteousness. Keeping in view these two verses we can understand the meaning of the verse

 in question. When we study this verse with other verses of the same topic we realize that those who are deprived of divine mercy are none but transgressors, extravagant and unjust people.

Therefore we must keep it in mind that the deprivation of sinful people from Divine mercy is a natural thing. The goodness of every person is related to the fact that he must train all his physical and spiritual capabilities in the proper way. According to literary terminology these capabilities are termed as action. And the best way of achieving this is to act on the law sent by the Almighty on the Holy Prophet (a.s.) for the humanity. Those who ignore these laws and teachings and fall into sinful deeds, they are deprived from goodness. They do not remain eligible that Allah should bestow His mercy on them and that they should be guided. They lose their eligibility for getting Taufeeq (Divine assistance) and the previous verses mention that they are left in error due to their sins.

In the 79th verse of Surah Nisa this is mentioned in another way. The Almighty Allah says:

Whatever benefit comes to you, it is from Allah, and whatever misfortune befalls you, it is from yourself

In other words, this means that the deeds of man himself are responsible for his deviation and deprivation from Divine mercy.

The verse in question mentions the guidance (He guides whom He pleases) in the same sense. This guidance denotes the same favor and mercy of Allah which are for the righteous servants. These people act upon the heavenly laws

 and teachings and day by day they increase their ability and eligibility for receiving these bounties and they become more and more deserving of them.

The conclusion of this discussion is that divine guidance means divine assistance in good actions and righteousness. And it is only for those who tread the path of truth and those who strive in this way.

And (as for) those who strive hard for Us. We will most certainly guide them in Our ways. [Surah al-Ankabut 29:69]

Error means depriving from success and the breaking off of the Divine help and this is only for the sinful, the oppressors and the faithless people. Otherwise, the Almighty Allah neither guides anyone nor deprives anyone of His guidance without any reason.