The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba
Fabrication Against Imam Al-hasan
In his book al-Tarikh (history), al-Tabari has narrated a fabricated tradition in which there are some fabrications against Imam al-Hasan. We will mention the tradition to readers, and then we will explain that which refutes the fabrications therein. He has mentioned that al-Hasan walked towards his father after the mutiny of Talha and al-Zubayr and said to him:
-I had commanded you, but you disobeyed me. You will be killed today in loss, and you shall have no supporter.
-You still yearns (for Uthman) just as a slave girl does. What had you commanded me with, and I disobeyed you?
-I commanded you to leave Medina on the day when Uthman was surrounded, that he might be killed while you were not there. On the day when he was killed, I commanded you not to accept the pledge of allegiance until the delegations and the Arabs from the cities would come to you. When these two men (Talha and al-Zubayr) had done what they did, I commanded you to sit down in your house until they made peace with each other. If there had been corruption, it would have been done through the hand of someone other than you. You had disobeyed me in all of that.
-O my little son, as for your statement ‘if I had gone out of Medina when Uthman was surrounded’, we were surrounded as Uthman was surrounded. As for your statement ‘do not accept the pledge of allegiance until the pledge of
[^1] Thi Qaar was a water (well) belonged to Bakr bin Wa’il. It was near Kufa. It was between Kufa and Wasit. (This has been mentioned in) Mu‘jam al-Buldan, vol. 7, p. 8.
allegiance of the cities will come’, most surely the affair belonged to the people of Medina, and we hated to let this affair get lost. As for your statement ‘when Talha and al-Zubayr mutinied’, that was a weakness against the men of Islam. By Allah I have been defeated since I was appointed as a ruler, and wsa deprived that I could not reach anything I wanted.
As for your statement ‘sit down in your house’, what shall I do in respect of that which is obligatory on me? Or what do you want me to do? Do you want me to be like a hyena which is surrounded and it is said to it: Come out! Come out!?[^1] It is not here until its hock appears, and then it comes out. If I do not reflect on what is incumbent on and concerns me, so who will reflect on it? Therefore, refrain from me, O my little son.[^2] Al-Tabari has narrated this tradition on the authority of Sayf bin Umar al-Asadi al-Tamimi. The tradition is among his fabrications and the things created by him. Reliable traditionists have unanimously agreed on that Sayf was weak and none has relied on his traditions, for he was famous for lying, fabricating, and making up traditions.
Some of them have accused him of bad religion. They have explained his condition and reality. They have also showed his fabrications and the news created by him. Among them is the religious scholar Allama Sayyid Murtada al-Askari. He has mentioned that in his book Abdullah Bin Saba’ What clearly shows that the tradition has been fabricated is that it has been mentioned in it that Imam al-Hasan has said to his father: “I had commanded you, and you disobeyed me.” This is the ugliest and bitterest speech. How did al-Hasan receive his father with that, while he was knowledgeable of his reality and his great position? And he had already said in respect of him: “The first did not precede him, nor did the last reach him through a deed.” Without doubt this speech is contrary to the moralities of Imam al-Hasan, who avoided evil deeds and nonsense even if toward his enemies and opponents. Therefore, how did he address his father with that.
Abdul Wahab al-Najjar has commented on this fabricated tradition, saying: “It is as if that I hear him (Imam Ali) say Uthman’s statement in respect of this affair: ‘I will not take off the garment that Allah, the Great and Almighty, has clothed me with!’ This is the excuse which one who wants safety for him and the Muslims does not accept. Or it is like the excuse of the colonialist
[^1] Dubab is a ward said to a hyena, that it may come out.
states that say that there is no escape from undertaking the affairs of the nations which they occupy and dominate, and control their public utilities and the elements of their life.”[^1]
Abdul Wahab al-Najjar is famous for his siding with the Umayyads and his turning away from Ahlul Bayt (the Prophet’s Household). He is unsuccessful in many of his researches. He has depended on the fabricated traditions. He has not considered them carefully. Through these severe words he has showed impudence towards Imam Ali. He has likened him to the oppressive colonialist states that spread tyranny and oppression in the earth. As for Imam Ali (a.s), he established justice and equality, spread all humanitarian ideals during the period of his government. The history of mankind has never known a ruler like him in his justice and righteousness, and that he was not deceived by the appearances of power and authority. While the Imam was mending his sandals with his own hands, Abdullah bin Abbas came in to him. The Imam asked him:
-O son of Abbas, how much do you value them?
-They have no value. -By Allah, they are more lovable to me than these affairs of yours but for the fact that I must establish what is true and ward off what is false. This is the Imam’s viewpoint of government. In his viewpoint the government was a mere means for establishing what was true and warding off what was false. If he wanted government, Uthman would not have won it. We have mentioned that when we talked about the Consultative Committee. Then how is it correct that the Imam is compared to the infidel colonialist states, while he was as the Prophet’s self, his guardian, and the Gate of the city of his knowledge?
The Two Parties meet
The Imam’s regiments moved from Thi Qaar. They hurried and arrived in al-Zawiya.[^2] The Imam stopped there and offered four rak’as. Having finished his prayer, he covered his own cheek with dust while he was weeping. Then he raised his hands to supplicate Allah, saying: “O Allah, Lord of the heavens and what they shade, of the earth and what it carries, and Lord of the Great
[^1] Al-Kulafa’ al-Rashidun, p. 414. Al-Sayyid Sa‘eed al-Afghani has in detail refuted him in his book ‘Aa’isha wa al-Siyasa, p. 96.
[^2] Al-Zawiya is a place near Basrah. The famous battle between al-Hajjaj and Abdurrahman bin Muhammad bin al-Ash‘ath took place at it. (This has been mentioned in the book) Mu‘jam al-Buldan, vol. 4, p. 37.
Throne! This is Basra. I ask you (to grant me) some of its good. I seek refuge with You from its evil! O Allah, settle us in the best abode! O Allah, most surely, these people have disobeyed me, aggressed against me, and broken the pledge of allegiance to me! O Allah, spare the Muslims’ blood!”[^1]
When the Imam (and his troops) settled down, he immediately sent Ubaydillah bin Abbas, and Zayd bin Souhan to A’isha to summon her to spare the blood and unify the Muslims. He said to them: “Say to her: ‘Allah has commanded you to stay in your house and not to go out. Surely you know that, but a group of people has deluded you. So you have gone out of your house, and the people have fallen into the tribulation and the tiredness due to your agreement with them. It is better for you to go home and not to hover about dispute and fighting. If you do not go home and this discord is not extinguished, it will bring about fighting, and many people will be killed because of it. Therefore, fear Allah, O A’isha, and return to Allah in repentance. Allah accepts the repentance from His servants and pardons them. Beware of that the love for Abdullah bin al-Zubayr and the kinship to Talha will move you to an affair leading to the fire.”
If A’isha had understood this advice and given up her plot, she would have brought about general good for the community. But she paid no attention to that. She said to the two messengers: “I can not refute Ali bin Abi Talib with speech because I cannot reach him through arguing.”[^2]
She could not refute him with speech because she had no proof to defend herself. Then the Imam sent Talha and al-Zubayr a letter in which he summoned them to make peace and leave disagreement. This is the text of the letter: “You have come to know, even if you have concealed, that I did not go to the people until they came to me, and that I did not take allegiance from them until they pledged allegiance to me. You were among those who came and paid homage to me. The populace did not pledge allegiance to me for a victorious authority nor for an offer. If you willingly paid homage to me, then return and turn in repentance to Allah as soon as possible. If you unwillingly pledged allegiance to me, then you have placed for me a way against you through your showing obedience and keeping disobedience a secret. By my life, you were not worthier of the Muhajireen in the precautionary dissimulation and concealing. If this affair had moved you to enter it before, then it was wider to you than your coming out of it after your acknowledging it. You claim that I have killed Uthman, then between you and me is one who
[^1] Muruj al-Thahab, vol. 2, p. 254. [^2] Ibn A’them, Tarikh, p. 175.
fell behind you and me from among the people of Medina. Then it is incumbent on each one as much as he stands. Give up, O two Sheikhs, for your greatest affair is now disgrace, before the disgrace and the fire that will come together.”[^1]
However, they did not respond to the call of the truth; rather, they insisted on corruption, mutiny, and aggression. They declared resistance and fighting against the Imam.
Ibn al-Zubayr’s Speech
Abdullah bin al-Zubayr was too extreme in instigating discords and shedding blood. He spoiled all the means that Imam Ali (a.s) made to make peace. He addressed the masses of Basra and urged them to fight against the Imam. This is his speech: “O people, most surely, Ali bin Abi Talib killed the true Caliph, Uthman. Then he has prepared the armies to attack, control you, and take your city. Therefore, be men of avenging the blood of your caliph, to keep your sacred things, and fight on behalf of your women, children, ancestries, and lineage. Are you satisfied that the people of Kufa enter your country? Be angry, for you have been made angry! Fight, for you have been fought. Ali can see none other than him in this matter. By Allah, if he won a victory over you, he would destroy your religion and your world.”
Ibn al-Zubayr’s speech is full of fallacies, lies, and provoking of religious fanaticism and party spirit against Imam Ali. He knew, without doubt, that he told lies. However it was his own soul that enticed him to do that out of craving after power and authority.
When Imam Ali (a.s) heard al-Zubayr’s speech, he commanded his son al-Hasan to refute him. Imam al-Hasan rose and made a speech. He praised and lauded Allah, and then he said: “We have heard Ibn al-Zubayr’s speech in respect of my father and his saying that he (Imam Ali) had killed Uthman. You, O people of the Muhajireen and the Ansar and other Muslims, have come to know Ibn al-Zubayr’s speech about Uthman and what his name was with him and the blame he unjustly laid on him. On that day, Talha hoisted his flag on his (Uthman) public treasury while he was still alive. Therefore, how do they accuse my father of killing him and dispraise him? If we wished the speech against them, we would say.
[^1] Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 122.
“As for his speech that Ali has extorted the affair of the people, it is the greatest proof of his father that he claimed that he pledged allegiance to him with his hand and not with his heart. Certainly he admitted the pledge of allegiance while he claimed the innermost thoughts. Therefore, he must give a proof on what he has claimed. And how can he do that?!
“As for his wonder at the coming of the people of Kufa to the people of Basra, then what is his wonder at the people of the truth when coming to the people of falsehood? “As for the supporters of Uthman, we have neither war nor fighting against them, but we fight against the rider of the camel and her followers…”[^1] Certainly Imam Abu Muhammad (al-Hasan) has confuted Ibn al-Zubayr’s claims and refuted his fabrications. It was Ibn al-Zubayr, Talha, and A’isha, who kindled the fire of the sedition against Uthman. As for Imam Ali (a.s), he had no role in that. We have already explained that.
The Summons to Allah’s Book
Imam Ali spared no effort to strengthen peace, avoid war, and summon people to put into practice what Allah’s Book had commanded. He raised the Qur’an with his right hand and walked through his companions. He had a ray of hope in making peace. He said to them: “Which one of you can show them the Qur’an and what there is in it? If his hand is cut off, he must take it with the other. If it is cut off, he must take it with his teeth. He will be killed.”
A Kufan young man rose zealously and nobly and said to him: “I will do, O Ameerul Mo'minin.” The Imam turned his face away from him for a while. He walked through his companions and asked them to achieve this task. But none responded to him except that noble young man. So he gave him the Qur’an and said to him: “Show them this Qur’an, and say that it is between you and us. You should take Allah into consideration concerning our and your bloods.”
The young man proudly set off. Neither fear nor terror was in his heart. He waved the Qur’an before A’isha’s troops. He summoned them to do according to the Qur’an. In the meantime he summoned them to cling to brotherhood and peace. However, they turned away from him. Their selfishness and their hating the truth moved them to attack him. They cut off his right arm, and he took the Qur’an with his left hand and summoned them to follow Allah’s Book. They attacked him again and cut off his left hand, and he took the [^1] Al-Jamal, pp. 158-159.
Qur’an with his teeth. He drowned in blood. In the moments of his life, he summoned them to peace and to spare their blood, saying: “You should take Allah into consideration in respect of our and your blood.” Nevertheless, they attacked him and insisted on their error and obstinacy. They showered him with arrows, and he fell to the ground a martyr. After this excuse, the Imam found no means except war. He said to his companions: “Now, it is lawful for you to fight against them and it is good for you to strike them!”[^1]
The Declaration of the War
After the murder of his messenger, Imam Ali summoned the leaders of his army. He specified for them their places. He mobilized the fighters for war. Then he gave them some moral instructions on virtue, mercy, and justice. He said to them: “O people, if you defeated them, do not finish off the wounded, do not kill the captives, do not follow those who turn back, do not seek those who retreat, do not disclose private organs, do not maim a killed one, do not violate an honor, do not approach their belongings except that which you find in their camps such as weapons, horses, mules, slaves, and bondmaids. Other than that is inheritance belongs to their inheritors according to Allah’s Book.”
A’isha rode her camel called Askar. She asked her men to give her a handsome of pebbles. She threw these pebbles against Imam Ali’s followers and said, ‘How ugly faces!’ A man from Imam Ali’s companions cried at her, ‘O A’isha, and you did not smite when you smote, but it was Satan who smote.’ She was the commander-in-chief. It was she who organized the troops and gave commands. Her troops aimed their arrows at Imam Ali’s camp. They killed some of his companions. After that, the Imam found no escape from fighting against them. He girded himself with his own sword and gave the standard to his son Muhammad[^2] . He said to al-Hasan and al-Husayn: “I have given the standard to your brother and left you due to your position with Allah’s Apostle.” Muhammad set off to the field of the battle with a firm determination. He sought success and victory, but the people showered him with their arrows from all directions.
[^1] Al-Tabari, vol. 5, p. 204. [^2] Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Talib al-Hashimi, known as Ibn al-Hanafiya. His mother was Khawla al-Hanafiya, daughter of Ja‘far. Ibrahim bin al-Junayd has said: “We not know that there is anyone better and more accurate than Muhammad in narrating traditions on the authority of Ali.” Abu Na‘eem has said: “He (Muhammad) died in the year 80 A. H.” (This has been mentioned in the book) Tahdhib al-Kamal, p. 21.
Imam Ali attacked the people while he was carrying the standard in his left hand and showed in his right hand his sword Thul Faqar, with which he fought against the infidels and the polytheists, and with which today he fought against those who reneged their religion and deviated from Islam. The leading Muhajireen and Ansar surrounded him. All the enemies before them were like ashes on which the winds blow hard on a stormy day.
Al-Zubayr is killed
Imam Ali (a.s) went out unarmored among the troops and shouted at the top of his voice: -Where is al-Zubayr? Al-Zubayr walked towards him while he was heavily armed. When the Imam saw him, he embraced him and said: -O Abu Abdullah, what has made you come here? -I have come to avenge Uthman! The Imam looked at him and asked: -Avenge Uthman?
- May Allah kill whoever killed Uthman!
The Imam gently began talking with him and reminded him of his support to him, saying: -I adjure you before Allah, O Zubayr! Did you know that you and Allah’s Apostle (a.s) passed by me, while he was leaning on your hand? Allah’s Apostle greeted and smiled at me. Then he turned and said to you: “O Zubayr, you will unjustly fight Ali!” Al-Zubayr bowed his head. His face turned pale. His heart melted out of sorrow and regret. He felt remorse for what he had neglected. He said to the Imam:
-O Allah, yes! -Then, why do you fight against me? -I have forgotten it, by Allah! If I had known it, I would not have fought against you.[^1] [^1] Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, vol. 1, p. 73.
-Return! -How can I return while the misfortune has become great and the matter has become intense? -Go back before that the disgrace and fire come together! Al-Zubayr decided to withdraw from this discord, but he wanted to get rid of it peacefully. So he said to A’isha: “O mother of the faithful, by Allah, I did not take a situation, unless I knew where to put my foot except this one. I do not know whether I am coming forwards or going backwards!” A’isha knew his hidden intention and what he wanted through his speech. She understood that he wanted to withdraw. She sneeringly said to him: -O Abu Abdullah, you are afraid of the swords of the children of Abdul Muttalib. This mockery played with his soul, and his wicked son Abdullah increased his upset and worry, and made him come back to the battlefield. He said to him:
-You were aware of your coming out, but when you saw the standards of (Ali) bin Abi Talib and knew that death is behind them, you have become cowardly. His son accused him of weakness and cowardice which was a disgrace, abasement, and a defect. The father said: -Woe unto you! I swore (by Allah) before him (Imam Ali) that I should not fight against him! -Expiate your oath by setting free your slave Sarjas. So he freed his slave[^1] . Then he wandered in the battlefield to show his bravery to A’isha and to his son. He wanted to show them that he paid no attention to death. He attacked the left wing of the Army. Then he returned and attacked the middle of the Army. Then he returned to his son and said to him: “Is the one who does so cowardly?”
Then he went to Wadi al-Siba’. Al-Ahnaf bin Qays and his people had been there. His people said to him: “This is al-Zubayr. He has passed.” And he said: “What shall I do to al-Zubayr? He has brought together two great groups of people and made them kill each other.” Some people from the tribe of Tamim followed him. Amr bin Jarmuz preceded them to him. Al-Zubayr stopped to perform the prayer and said to Amr: “Shall you lead me (in prayer) [^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 5, p. 200.
or shall I lead you?” Al-Zubayr led him, and Amr bin Jarmuz killed him while praying.[^1] The end of al-Zubayr’s life was mixed with treachery, treason, and mutiny against the truth. Unfortunately, he had a brilliant past full of good deeds and merits. He was the leader of Hilf (alliance) al-Fudool whose slogan was supporting the oppressed. Then, what was the matter with him during that period of time? He turned away from Imam Ali and forgot the persecutions that he suffered. That was when Taym usurped his right for the first time, Adi for the second time, and Umayya for the third time. And then he (al-Zubayr) came to usurp his right. Unfortunately, al-Zubayr had such painful end though he had noble attitudes. Through his sword he removed the sadness from the face of Allah’s Apostle (a.s). After the Prophet (a.s) he stood beside Imam Ali. He protected his side and announced his merits and gave him precedence over others. So what made him rebel against the imam? Did Ali bin Abi Talib possess alone the Muslims’ properties? Did he save up something for himself and his family, that al-Zubayr might fight and mutiny against him?
A’isha is surrounded
Some Arab tribes regarded death as good and delicious for the sake of A’isha, so they offered sacrifices for her. They went too far in protecting and defending her. They are as follows:
The tribe of al-Azd adored A’isha and sacrificed their lives for her, to the extent that they took her camel’s dung and smelt it. They said: “The smell of the dung of our mother’s camel is like musk.”[^2] They hurried to defend her death-defying. They surrounded her camel “Askar” and caught its bridle. A’isha was astonished and she asked: -Who are you?
-We are al-Azd. She began moving inside them the spirit of enthusiasm and she urged them to die for her, saying: “The free are patient. I still see that victory comes from the Banu Dhabba!” These words kindled the fire of the revolt in themselves, and they rushed to death and fought severely for her sake.[^3]
[^2] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 97. [^3] Ibid., vol. 2, p. 81.
Banu Dabba were from the mean and low Arabs. They had rude hearts and natures. Their souls were full of the bad customs and vices of the pre-Islamic era. They cheaply sacrificed their lives for A’isha. They surrounded her camel death-defying. They stood steadfastly to the extent that their hands and heads were cut off. On that day, they used Uthman’s blood as a slogan for them. Forty men from them were killed around A’isha’s camel. In this respect A’isha said: “My camel was standing until I lost the voices of Banu Dhabba.” Banu Najiya From among the tribes who were fond of A’isha was the Banu Najiya. They hurried to the field of death for her sake. They held the bridle of her camel, and she asked about them, and it was said to her: “We are the Banu Najiya.” She urged them and threw them in the flame of the war, saying: “Be patient, O Banu Najiya! I know that the qualities of Quraysh are available in you!”[^1] These are some of the tribes who offered many sacrifices for the sake of A’isha. Certainly, their mother (A’isha) deluded them and threw them into a sedition because of her ambitions and spites.
The Camel is killed
A violent battle took place between the two parties. The companions of Imam Ali (a.s) wanted to protect the Imam of the Muslims and the guardian of their Prophet, while the companions of A’isha wanted to protect their mother and to die for her that many of them were killed. Imam Ali (a.s) thought that the battle would not end as long as the camel was there. Accordingly, he summoned Ammar and Malik al-Ashtar. When they were present before him, he said to them: “Go and kill that camel, for the flame of the battle will not go out as long as it is alive! They have used it as a qibla (direction) for them.”
Malik al-Ashtar, Ammar, and some young men from Murad set off. A young man named Mu’ammar bin Abdillah[^2] went to the camel. He hit it on the hock. The camel fell to the ground and cried in a way which none had ever heard.
[^1] Ibn al-Athir, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 81. [^2] And it was said that someone other than him killed the camel. In another narration it was mentioned that Imam Ali summoned his son Muhammad bin al-Hanafiya. He gave him a spear and said to him: “Go and kill the camel with the spear.” He went, but the people came between him and the camel. So he came back and was unsuccessful. Then al-Hasan took the spear from his hand. He went to the camel and stabbed it.
A’isha’s companions scattered. The idol (the camel) for which they offered sacrifices was destroyed. Then, Imam Ali ordered the camel to be burnt and to be scattered into the air lest some of it should remain and the simple people might be fond of it. Having finished that, he said: “May Allah curse this animal! It is similar to the calf of the children of Israel!” Then he looked at the ashes of the camel that the wind took. Then he recited this Qur’anic verse: “And look at your god to whose worship you kept (so long); we will certainly burn it, then we will certainly scatter it a (wide) scattering in the sea.”[^1]
A’isha is pardoned
Imam Ali (a.s) received A’isha with kindness and pardoning. He sent to her brother Muhammad to ask her about her conditions. Muhammad went to her. He entered his hand into her howdah. She was afraid of him, so she shouted at him, saying: -Who are you? -The most hated one of your family to you! She recognized him immediately. She said to him while her soul was full of hatred and malice towards him: -The son of al-Khath‘amiyya? -Yes, your dutiful brother! -Undutiful! She turned her face away from him. But he turned to her and asked her with kindness and leniency: -Has anything abominable befallen you? -An arrow that has not harmed me!
He removed the arrow from her. At the last part of the night, he led her camel and took her to Safiyya, daughter of al-Harith[^2] in the house of Abdullah bin Khalaf al-Khaza’i[^3] . She stayed there for some days.
[^1] Qur’an, 20, 97. [^2] Safiya, daughter of al-Harith bin Talha. Her father was killed as infidel at the Battle of Badr. She was the wife of Abdullah bin Khalaf and was the mother of Talha al-Talhat. Al-Isaba, vol. 4, p. 346. [^3] Abdullah bin Khalaf bin As‘ad al-Khaza‘i was the father of Talha al-Talhat. Abu Umar has said: “I do not know that he had companionship (with the Prophet). He was
Imam Ali gave a general amnesty to all of his enemies and opponents. As for A’isha, she asked the Imam to give security to her nephew Abdullah bin al-Zubayr, who was the bitterest enemy of the Imam. The Imam responded to her for that. Al-Hasan and al-Husayn talked to him about Marwan, and he gave security to and pardoned him. His caller called: “The wounded should not be finished off, those who turn back should not be chased, those who retreat should not be stabbed, those who lay down their weapons will be safe, and those who stay in their house will be safe.” Then he gave security to those black and red, as al-Ya‘qubi says.[^1] He did not punish any of his opponents. In this manner peace spread and tranquility included all the quarters of Basra.
**A’isha is released ** Imam Ali (a.s) sent Abdullah bin Abbas to A’isha to ask her to leave Basra for Medina, that she might stay in her house as Allah had commanded her. Abdullah bin Abbas asked permission to enter her house. But she refused to permit him. He came into her house without permission and took a pillow from her luggage and sat on it. She was angry with him and said to him: “By Allah, O Ibn Abbas, I have never seen (anyone) like you. You have entered our house and sat on our cushion without our permission.”
Abdullah bin Abbas said: “By Allah, it is not your house. Your house is that which Allah has commended you to stay in, but you did not do. Ameerul Mo'minin commands you to go back to your country which you had gone out of.” She showed her hidden malice and hatred towards the Imam, saying: -May Allah have mercy on the Commander of the Faithful, Umar bin al-Khattab. -Yes, and this is the Commander of the faithful, Ali bin Abi Talib. -I refuse! I refuse!
-Your refusal was but too short, and then you became in a state that you neither go nor come, and neither order nor prevent! the script of Umar bin al-Khattab over the Divan of al-Basrah. He was killed at the Battle of al-Jamal. He belonged to ‘Aa’isha’s party, and his brother Uthman was among the companions of Imam Ali.” Al-Isaba, vol. 2, p. 303. [^1] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 159.
His words hurt her, and she wept. Then she said to him: “Yes, I will go back because the most abominable country to me is that in which you are!” Ibn Abbas became excited by her speech, and he said to her: “By Allah, this is not to be our reward from you when we have regarded you as the mother of the believers and your father as truthful to them!” She answered him with the silliest speech, saying: “Do you remind me of (the favor) of Allah’s Apostle?” How far this speech is from faith! Had it not been for Allah’s Apostle, she would be nothing? Because of the Prophet (a.s), her star went high, and she had a reputation. Ibn Abbas said: “We remind you of him. If he had a position with you similar to his (the prophet) position with us, you would remind us of him (as favor)!”
Then he left her and went away. He told Imam Ali about his dialogue with her and her response to his speech. The Imam thanked him for that.[^1] When A’isha decided to depart, Imam Ali supplied her with the best of supply and prepared for her a full caravan that lacked nothing. On the day when she was to travel, he, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, came in to her. When the women saw the Imam, they cried and shouted before him. Safiya, the owner of the house, said to him: “O you who have killed the beloved ones! O you who have divided the communities! May Allah make your children lose you just as you have made the children of Abdullah orphans!”
The Imam answered her: “If I were the one who killed the beloved ones, then I would kill those who were in this house.” He indicated with his hand to a room where some of his enemies and opponents were hidden there. Those who were with the Imam wanted to attack them, but he prevented them from doing that. Then a speech took place between A’isha and the Imam. She said to him: “I want to stay with you, that I may go to fight against your enemy!” However, the Imam refused and commanded her to stay in the house where Allah’s Apostle had left her. If the Imam wanted the timely policy, he would respond to her for that. However, he was the source of piety and faith. He wanted to behave toward her according to the Islamic law, which makes it incumbent on woman to conform to her hijab and to educate her own soul and to set right her house; and she has at all no right to enter party affairs or political battles. At last, A’isha left Basra after she had filled its houses with lost orphans, sadness, tears, terrified Muslims, and murder everywhere. The number of the victims because of her was ten thousands; half of them was [^1] Al-Iqd al-Farid, vol. 3, pp. 103-104.
from the companions of Imam Ali, and the other half was from her companions.[^1] Through her rebellion against Imam Ali she destroyed the relationships among the Muslims, blew up the links of brotherhood the that Prophet had established, opened a door to discords and evil among the community of Muhammad (a.s). Besides, she paved the way for Mu’awiya and the Umayyads to mutiny against the Imam. She also paved the way to them to use Uthman’s blood as means to obtain government, to enslave, and abase the Muslims. The ulama of the Muslims have unanimously agreed on that those who made such mutiny were sinners, that they had no justification at all to do that.
They have also described them as the oppressive. They have said that the religious duty required fighting against them according to this Qur’anic verse: “And if two parties of the believers quarrel, make peace between them. But if one of them acts wrongfully toward the other, fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah’s command.”[^2] Abu Hanifa says: “No one ever fought against Ali, unless Ali was worthier of the truth than him. Were it not for what Ali followed among them, no one would know how to deal with the Muslims. Without doubt, Ali fought against Talha and al-Zubayr after they had paid homage to him and then they broke their homage. And at the Battle of al-Jamal, Ali treated them with justice. He was the most aware of Muslims, and the Sunna has decided to fight the men of oppression.”[^3]
Ibn Hajar has said: “The people who took part in the Battles of al-Jamal and Siffin accused Ali of colluding with those who killed Uthman, while he was innocent of that and was far from it.” He added: “It is incumbent on the Imam to fight against the oppressive. The companions (of the Prophet) had unanimously agreed on him. He had not to fight against them unless he should send to them someone trustworthy, clever, and loyal. He should ask them about the reason why they had harbored malice against the Imam just as Ali did when he sent Abdullah bin Abbas to the Kharijites at al-Nahrawan.”[^4]
Al-Huwayni has said: “Ali bin Abi Talib was a true Imam in respect of appointing him as a ruler. And those, who fought against him, were oppressive.”[^5]
[^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 5, p. 224. It has been said that the number of the killed was more than that. [^2] Qur’an, 49, 9. [^3] Al-Khawarizmi, Manaqib Abu Hanifa, vol. 2, pp. 82-83. [^4] Al-Nawawi, Tuhfat al-Muhtajj, vol. 4, p. 110. [^5] Al-Irshad fi Usool al-I‘tiqad, p. 433.
The Islamic law requires the Imam of Muslims to fight against those who rebel against the religious authority, for their mutiny divides the unity of the Muslims and destroys their brotherhood.
Imam al-Hasan witnessed this terrible event, and it made him know the people’s hatred and spites toward his father. During that event, he was a unique hero and an experienced leader. He could urge the people to fight against the forces who mutinied against his father. With this point we will end our talk about the problem that took place in Basra that we may meet with him at Siffin.