The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba

Mediators Are Sent To Mu’awiya

Before the bell of the battle was rung, Imam Ali sent some mediators to Mu’awiya to make peace with him and spare blood just as he had done at the Battle of al-Jamal. The meiators sent to meet Mu’awiya were Adi bin Hatem, Shibith bin Rib‘i, Yazid bin Qays, and Ziyad bin Hafsa. ‘Adi bin Hatem said to Mu’awiya: “We have come to invite you to an affair through which Allah will unite our word and our community and spare the Muslims’ blood. And we invite you to the best of the community in precedence and deeds in Islam[^2] . The people have gathered for him. Allah has guided them through what they

[^1] Abu al-A‘war al-Salami is Amr bin Sufyan. Abu Hatam al-Razi has said: “He (Abu al-A‘war al-Salami) is not regarded as one of the companions (of the Prophet), nor his narration is authentic. He was present at the Battle of Hunayn while he was an infidel. Then he became Muslim. He was the strictest of people against the Imam at the Battle of Siffin. And the Imam invoked Allah against him during his private prayer (Qunut) in the Morning Prayer.” Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 4, p. 14. [^2] It has been mentioned in Tarikh al-Tabari: “Most surely, your cousin the master of the Muslims is the best of it (the community) in precedence and deeds in Islam.”

have seen. None has remained except you and those with you. Therefore, O Mu’awiya, put an end (to your rebellion) before Allah inflicts on you and your companions something like that of the Battle of al-Jamal.”

This was a summons to the truth. If Hind’s son (Mu’awiya) had understood and responded to it, he would have spared the Muslims’ blood and united their word. However, he preferred his interest to the nation’s interests. He said to Adi: “It seems that you have come to threaten and not to make peace! How far, O Adi! No, by Allah, I am a son of war, and I am not frightened. By Allah, you are from those who provoked people against (Uthman) bin Affan, and most surely you are among those who killed him. I hope that you will be among those whom Allah will kill! How far, O Adi! You have milked with the strongest arm!”

Certainly Mu’awiya showed him error, mutiny, and preferring of war, for he enjoyed military forces and had the ability to fight against Imam Ali. Then Yazid bin Qays said to Mu’awiya: “We have come to inform you of that for which we have been sent to you and to carry out on your behalf what we hear from you. We will not leave advising you, and that we have to mention what we think that we have a proof against you or that which return you to the unity and the community. Our leader is he whose merits you and the Muslims have known well. And I do not think that this is not clear to you. The men of religion and virtue do not regard you as equal to Ali and do not prefer you to him. Therefore, fear Allah, O Mu’awiya, and do not oppose Ali. We have never seen a man more pious, ascetic, and of high qualities than him.”

Mu’awiya knew Imam Ali’s outstanding merits. However, it was his spites and ambitions that came between him and the truth. So he preferred fighting against him. He answered the people, saying: “You have summoned to obedience and unity. As for the unity to which you have summoned (me), it is the best. And as for the obedience to your leader, we do not believe it. Your companion killed our Caliph (Uthman), divided our community, and lodged those who revolted against us. Your leader claims that he had not killed him. So we do not refuse that. Have you seen those who killed our leader (Uthman)? Do you not know that they are the companions of your leader? Therefore, he should give them to us to kill them for him (Uthman). And we will respond to you for obedience and unity.”

The speech of Mu’awiya was full of lies and fallacies. He accused Imam Ali of murdering Uthman while he knew well that he was innocent of that. Indeed, the good Muslims had killed him, because he had deviated from the truth and altered Allah’s Book-just as we have previously mentioned. Shibth bin Rib‘i opposed Mu’awiya[^1] , saying: “Does it please you, by Allah, O Mu’awiya, that you catch Ammar bin Yasir and kill him?”

Shibth bin Rib‘i gave Ammar bin Yasir as an example to Mu’awiya. It is worth mentioning that Ammar bin Yasir was the greatest personality who revolted against Uthman. Would he have killed him if he had found him? Mu’awiya said to him: “And what prevents me from doing that? By Allah, if your leader let me catch Sumayya’s son (Ammar), I would not kill him for Uthman; rather I would kill him for Na’il, Uthman’s servant!”

And what would have prevented Mu’awiya from killing Ammar if he had found him? He would have done that for authority and the rebellion against Islam. When Shibth bin Rib‘i heard Mu’awiya’s saying, he became excited and said to him: “No by Allah Who there is no god but Him, you cannot kill (Ammar) bin Yasir until the heads of men are cut off, and the vast earth becomes too narrow to you!” The men returned while they were unsuccessful in their mediation. Mu’awiya did not respond to them and he went too far in rebellion and mutiny. Accordingly, they summoned the people and urged them to fight against Mu’awiya.

Declaration of War

When all the means that Imam Ali had taken for making peace failed, he got ready for the battle. He gave his instructions to the commanders of his troops. He said to them: “Do not fight against them till they fight against you, for, praise be to Allah, you have a proof, and your giving up fighting against them is another proof. If you defeated them, do not kill those who turn back. Do not finish off the wounded. Do not disclose (anyone’s private parts). Do not maim the killed. If you reach their men, do not violate an honor, do not enter a house without permission from me, and do not take anything of their belongings except what you find in their camps. And do not excite the women even if they curse your honors, and defame your commanders and your righteous ones, because they have weak abilities, souls, and reasons.”

This was the plan that Imam Ali had made to his troops. It represents what he had in his soul of mercy, pity, and love for good even to his enemies and opponents. [^1] Shibth bin Rib‘i al-Tamimi was the caller of Sajah, who claimed that she was a prophet. Then he became Muslim and was among the companions of Imam Ali. Then he joined the Kharijites. Then he repented of that. This sinful person was among those who killed Imam al-Husayn, the master of martyrs. That was in about the year 70 A. H. al-Isaba, vol. 2, p. 163.

The Imam spread the standards and appointed some commanders. He appointed Ammar bin Yasir over the horsemen, and Abdullah bin Badeel over the infantry. He gave the standard to Hashim al-Mirqal. He appointed over the right wing al-Ash‘ath bin Qays, and over the left wing Abdullah bin Abbas. As for the standards of the tribes, he gave them to their prominent personalities. In the meantime, Mu’awiya gave the standards to his companions. He appointed Ubaydillah bin Umar over the horsemen, and over the infantry Muslim bin Aqaba al-Murri. He appointed over the right wing Ubaydillah bin Amr bin al-Aas, and over the right wing Habeeb bin Muslim al-Fihri. He gave the standard to Abdurrahman bin Khalid bin al-Waleed. He appointed over the people of Damascus al-Dhahhak bin Qays al-Fihri.

Some regiments of the Imam’s troops fought against some of the people of Sham. The two parties fought against each other for one full day or a part of it. As for Imam Ali, he did not want an inclusive battle to take place between the two parties that his opponent might respond to making peace or return to reason. This condition continued until the month of Muharram came. It is worth mentioning that this month is among the months where the people before and after Islam did not fight each other. They gave up fighting during this month.

They became reconciled throughout the month. They had the chance to meet each other safely. No battle happened between them, but there were heated arguments and disputes among them. The Iraqis summoned the people of Sham to unity, to put Allah’s Book into practice, and to pay homage to Imam Ali, the Prophet’s guardian. The people of Sham, summoned the Iraqis to avenge Uthman and break the pledge of allegiance to Imam Ali. When the month of Muharram passed, the two parties continued fighting each other just as they had done before it. Malik al-Ashtar looked at the standards of the people of Sham, and they reminded him of those of the atheists who went out to fight against Allah’s Apostle (a.s). So he addressed his people, saying: “Most of your standards were with Allah’s Apostle. As for the standards with Mu’awiya, they were with the polytheists during the time of Allah’s Apostle. Therefore, none has doubt about the fighting against these people except one who has a dead heart.”

Then Ammar bin Yasir explained to the Muslims Mu’awiya’s reality and urged them to fight against him, saying: “O people of Islam[^1] , do you want to look at one who has showed enmity toward Allah and His Apostle, rebelled against the Muslims, and helped the polytheists? When Allah wanted to manifest His religion and give victory to His Apostle, he (Mu’awiya) came to [^1] In another narration he has said: “O people of al-Sham,….”

the Prophet and became Muslim. He, by Allah, as he thinks, was unwilling and not willing; and Allah took His Apostle, and we, by Allah, have come to know him throw his enmity toward the Muslims and his affection toward the criminals. Indeed, he is Mu’awiya; therefore, curse him; may Allah curse him! And fight against him, for he is from those who want to extinguish Allah’s light and support the enemies of Allah!”

Before he became Muslim, Mu’awiya had antagonized Allah and His Apostle, and rebelled against the Muslims. He became Muslim just because he was afraid of the swords that took his family. He concealed polytheism, hypocrisy, and rebellion against Islam and the Muslims. When he found helpers, he rose to fight against Imam Ali, the brother of Allah’s Apostle, and the Gate of the city of his knowledge.

Al-Hasan with Ubaydillah

Mu’awiya tried to play some role with Imam al-Hasan. He sent to him Ubaydillah bin Umar[^1] to make him desire for the caliphate and to deceive him, that he might leave his father. Ubaydillah went to Imam al-Hasan (a.s) said to him:

-I have a need with you. -Yes. What do you want?

  • Your father has killed Quraysh from the beginning to the end. They have hated him. Can you depose him, and we will appoint you in this authority? Yes, Imam Ali had killed them for the sake of Islam, for they had tried to do away with it. Imam Ali had fought them and killed their tyrants, destroyed their arrogants, and defeated their troops. For this reason, they harbored malice and enmity against him. When Imam al-Hasan heard Ubaydillah’s saying, he shouted at him saying: “No, by Allah, that will not happen!”

Imam al-Hasan angrily and with displeasure looked at him. He told him that he would meet his death so soon. He said to him: “It is as if that I can see that you will be killed on this day or tomorrow! It is Satan who has adorned the [^1] Ubaydillah bin Umar bin al-Khattab was born during the time of Allah’s Apostle, and he narrated nothing from him. It was he who killed al-Hurmuzan and Jufayna. Imam Ali threatened him through administering against him the prescribed punishment if he could catch him. Ubaydillah bin Umar joined Mu‘awiya at the Battle of Siffin. During the days of the battle he came out wearing a silk jubbah and saying: “Ali will come to know when we meet tomorrow!” So the Imam said: “Leave him! For his blood is like that of a mosquito!” Ubaydillah bin Umar was killed at the Battle of Siffin. Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 2, p. 431.

world to and deceived you…the women of Sham see your situation, and Allah will knock you down on your face being killed.” Ubaydillah unsuccessfully returned to Mu’awiya and told him about his talk with Imam al-Hasan. Mu’awiya said: “, he is the son of his father!”[^1] On that day, Ubaydillah went out to the battlefield and fought with the front that showed spites toward Islam. He quickly met his death at the hand of a noble man from Hamadan. Imam al-Hasan (a.s) was pleased when Ubaydillah bin Umar was killed and he said; “Praise be to Allah for that!”[^2] Ubaydillah met his end while he was an enemy to Allah and His Apostle. He rebelled against Islam and revolted against the Imam of Muslims.

The Inclusive War

Skirmishes between the two parties continued for a long time. No inclusive battle took place between them. Each party was tired of this long, useless state. There was no hope for making peace and unity. Rather, it made the discord and evil extend and spread. When Imam Ali knew that, he mobilized his companions and got ready for the general war. When Mu’awiya saw that, he did as the Imam had done. The two parties met each other. Imam al-Hasan (a.s) hurried to attack the people of Sham. When Imam Ali saw him, he became astonished and terrified, and said to those around him: “Save this boy for me! (Do not let him) end me, for I am stingy with these two (al-Hasan and al-Husayn) lest the progeny of Allah’s Apostle would cease (after killing them)!”[^3]

The fire of the war flared up and its heat became intense. People were afraid; terror and death dominated them. The right wing of the Imam’s troops was defeated. The center of the troops became weak and the defeat appeared among them. Imam Ali summoned Sahl bin Hunayf and commanded him to go along with those with him to the right wing, and he did. However, the troops of Sham attacked them and made them retreat. They returned defeated to the left wing. The tribe of Mudhar was forced to leave the right wing, while the tribe of Rabee’a was steadfast there. One of them said: “O people of Rabee’a, you would have no excuse after today near the Arabs if Ameerul Mo’minin is struck while he is among you!”

The men of Rabee‘a allied with each other for death. They were steadfast in the battlefield. They were calm and they paid no attention to death. They

[^1] Bihar al-Anwar. [^2] Waqi‘at Siffin, p. 334. [^3] Muhammad ‘Abda, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 2, p. 212.

supported the truth and promised to sacrifice their lives for the Imam. Imam Ali was among them. He attacked his enemies while they were showering him with arrows. His sons protected him with their own lives, and none of them separated himself from him. A servant of the Umayyads’ called Ahmar bin Kaysan saw the Imam during the clashes of swords. He hurried like a dog towards the Imam. He swore by Allah that he would kill the Imam, saying: “By the Lord of the Kaaba, may Allah kill me if I do not kill you or you kill me!” The Imam’s servant called Kaysan attacked him. But the attacking dog (Ahmar bin Kaysan) killed him. This wicked person began attacking the Imam. But the Imam took him with his hand and carried him on his shoulders, and then he hit him to the ground. He broke his shoulder and two arms. Then al-Hasan and Muhammad attacked and killed him.

Imam Ali approached the people of Sham. Al-Hasan was afraid that the enemy might assassinate his father, so he said to him: “You would better walk to be among those who are steadfast before your enemy from among your companions (the people of Rabee’a).”

The Imam understood the meaning of Imam al-Hasan’s speech, and he said to him with gentleness and leniency: “O my little son, your father has a day (of death) that he will not exceed, nor will walking delay it (from reaching) him, nor will days hurry it to him. By Allah, your father does not care whether he falls upon death or death falls upon him.” Malik al-Ashtar came towards the Imam running. He was astonished and surprised when the regiments escaped out of fear of death. When the Imam saw him, he said:

-O Malik! -Here I am!

-Go to those people and say to them: “Whereto do you escape from death that you cannot disable? To the life that will not last for you?” Malik al-Ashtar went to the people and recited the Imam’s statement to them, and so their fear calmed down. Then he introduced himself to them, saying: “I am Malik bin al-Harith! I am Malik bin al-Harith!” It came to his mind that this name was not enough to make them recognize him. He introduced himself with that for which he had become famous, saying: “I am Malik al-Ashtar!” Some people hurried to him, and he said to them with enthusiasm and determination: “O people, you have followed you fathers’ bad habits! How bad your fighting today is!” Then he said to them again: “Madhhaj, be loyal to me!”

The tribe of Madhhajj hurried to him, and he said to them: “You bit the sold rocks! You have not pleased your Lord nor have you been loyal to Him! How is that while you are the children of the battles, leaders of the assaults, boys of the morning, knights of pursuit, and the killing of the equals? Madhhajj of fighting, who are not preceded in respect of avenging their blood, nor are their bloods shed, nor are they famous for abasement in a place! You are the boundary of the people of your city and the readiest of your people! What you do today will be narrated after this day! Therefore, beware of that the talks will be narrated tomorrow! Be truthful in meeting your enemy, for Allah is with the truthful! By Whom in Whose Hand Malik’s soul is, none of those (he pointed with his hand to the people of Syria) is equal to Muhammad (a.s) (even in a thing as small as) a wing of a mosquito! You have not fought well! Remove the blackness from my face! Cling to the great majority, for if Allah, the Great and Almighty, ended it (the battle), those who are on his (the Imam) two sides would follow him just as the end of flood following its beginning!”

The leader, Malik, dominated their souls through his enthusiastic, wonderful speech. He gave a new spirit of activity and determination to the troops, and they said at the top of their voices from all directions, expressing their obedience and yielding to him: “Take us to wherever you like!”

They hurried to him and competed with each other towards death. They were steadfast before the enemy. Some brave leaders of Hamadan troops had been killed at the battle. The last of them to take the standard was Wahab bin Kurayb. Some of those who loved him hurried to him and said: “May Allah have mercy on you! The notables of your people have been killed around it (the standard). Do not kill yourself and those with you from your people!” Accordingly, Wahab and those with him left the battlefield while they were seeking a strong front to join it. In front of the masses, they said: “Would that we had a number of the Arabs who would ally with us for death, then they and we would advance until we would be killed or win a victory!”

They passed by Malik al-Ashtar and he heard their call. He welcomed their opinion and said to them: “I will ally with you and make a contract with you provided that we should never return until we will win a victory or be killed!”

They became delighted with al-Ashtar’s speech and they joined his standard. In this respect, Ka‘b bin Ju‘ayl has said: “And (the people of) Hamadan… looking for someone to to ally with!” Malik al-Ashtar headed those brave people and attacked the armies of Sham, who were before their sharp swords like ashes on which the winds blow hard on a stormy day. Weakness appeared among Mu’awiya’s troops, and his companions were about to reach his tent. As for Mu’awiya, he had thought of escape were it not for that he had remembered the saying of Ibn al-Atnabah:

My chastity, the modesty of my soul, and my advance towards the enthusiastic hero have prevented me (from escaping),

and my giving my property unwillingly and taking praise through a profitable price, and my saying when I and it (my soul) are agitated: “(Stay at) your place, that you may be praised or get rest!”

This poetry returned him to patience and steadfastness just as he said during the days of wellbeing.

Ammar is martyred

When Ammar bin Yasir, the great companion (of the Prophet), saw the heads falling down and the ground being colored with blood, he addressed himself, saying: “Allah’s Apostle (a.s) is truthful. They are the oppressive. It is the day that Allah’s Apostle had promised me of. I am over ninety years old; therefore, what am I waiting for? My Lord, have mercy on me! I have yearned for my brethren who preceded me to You! I will walk to meet my Lord through struggling against His enemies before His friend (Imam Ali) and the guardian of His Apostle and the successor after him. I think it is the day that Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had promised me of!”

Ammar looked at Mu’awiya’s standards for a long time, and then he said: “Our positions are like the positions of the standards of Allah’s Apostle at the Battles of Badr, Uhud, and Hunayn. And these (people of Sham) are in the positions of the standards of the polytheists from the allies….” [^1]

Some pages of his far and near history appeared before him on that day. The picture of his parents, Yasir and Sumayya, appeared before him. It reminded him of the time when they were severely tortured, and when he was a young man with them meeting what they met of tiredness at the hands of the Qurayshi tyrants till his parents passed away, and he escaped the torture. He remembered what he suffered during his old age of the severe punishments and torture at Uthman’s hands. All that was for the sake of his doctrine and thought. These memories made him yearn for meeting Allah. He burst into tears. He addressed Allah, saying: “O Allah, You know that if I know that Your good pleasure (is obtained) through putting the edge of my sword [^1] Ibn Abi al-Haddeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p. 506.

against my chest, and then I bend against it until it comes out of my back, I would do. If I know that Your good pleasure (is obtained) through throwing myself into this river, I would do. If I know that Your good pleasure (is obtained) through throwing myself from this mountain and I fall down, I would do. I know that today there is no deed pleasing you more than struggling against these sinful people. And If I know that there is a deed pleasing more than this, I would do it.”

Then he went to Imam Ali (a.s) weeping. When the Imam saw him, he rose for him, embraced, and welcomed him. Ammar turned to the Imam and asked him: -O brother of Allah’s Apostle, would you permit me to fight? The Imam was terrified by his speech, for he was his right arm with which he assaulted. So he said to him with a shacking voice: -Slowly! May Allah have mercy on you! Ammar went away. Shortly after that, those memories appeared before him and urged him to meet his Lord, so he came back to the Imam and asked him: -Would you permit me to fight? -Slowly! May Allah have mercy on you!

He went away. He remained for a while, and then he yearned for meeting his beloved ones who preceded him in faith, so he returned again to the Imam and asked him:

-Would you permit me to fight? I see that this is the day that Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had described. I have yearned for meeting my Lord and my brothers who had preceded me (to my Lord)! The Imam found no escape from responding to him. He rose for and embraced him. His soul melted away out of sorrow and regret. He said to him: “O Abul Yaqdhan, may Allah reward you with good on my behalf and on the behalf of your Prophet! You are the best brother and companion!”

Then the Imam wept, and so did Ammar who said: “By Allah, O Ameerul Mo’minin, I have not followed you except through insight and knowledge. I heard Allah’s Apostle saying at the Battle of Hunayn: ‘O Ammar, there will be a discord after me. If that happened, then follow Ali and his party, for he is with the truth, and the truth is with him. And he will, after me, fight against those who will break their pledge of allegiance (al-nakitheen) and the oppressive (al-qasideen).’ May Allah reward you, O Ameerul Mo’minin, with the best reward on behalf of Islam. You have carried out (the Islamic message), propagated it, and been loyal (to the community).”

Then, Ammar advanced to the field of honor and battle. He was delighted with meeting Allah. He regained his strength and activity. He said at the top of his voice: “The Garden is under the shade of the spears. Today I am going to meet the beloved ones; Muhammad and his party!” The Muhajireen, the Ansar, and the believing youths followed him. He took them to the commander-in-chief, Hashim bin Utba al-Mirqal[^1] . He asked him to undertake the leadership, and he responded to that. Hashim marched, and Ammar urged him to attack the foes, saying to him: “Advance, may my father and mother die for you!”

Hashim took the standard and began advancing slowly. Ammar could not stand that, for he had a strong yearning for meeting Allah and his beloved one Muhammad. He severely rebuked Hashim, saying to him: “O Hashim, you are one-eyed and cowardly!” Hashim was annoyed with this bitter rebuke, and he said to Ammar: “May Allah have mercy on you, O Ammar! You are a man of hastiness in battles! As for me, I am holding the standard and advancing slowly, that I may obtain my need through that. If I march quickly, I will not be safe from dangers!”

Ammar went on urging Hashim to attack the foes untill he attacked them. Hashim walked through the battlefield. While Ammar was fighting beside him, he looked at the standard of Ibn al-Aas and said: “By Allah, I fought against this standard for three times, and this (standard) is not the best of them!” He violently and actively fought against the army of Mu’awiya. Ammar was beside the Prophet when he fought against Quraysh to make them confess the word of Allah’s Oneness, and today he fought against them to make them believe in what was in the Qur’an and what Islam had brought.

[^1] Hashim bin Utba bin Abi Waqqas al-Zuhri, al-Qurashi. He was given the kunya of Abu Amr, better known as al-Mirqal. He became Muslim on the day when Mecca was conquered. He was among the men of virtue and religion. He was on top of the brave Arabs. His eye was knocked out at the Battle of al-Yarmuk, in Sham (Syria). It was he who conquered Jalawla’, part of Persia. Jalawla’ was called Fath al-Futooh (the Conquer of the Conquers). Its war booties were more than 18 million (dinars). Hashim bin Utba al-Mirqal was the commander over the infantry at the Battle of Siffin. Although his leg was cut off, he continued fighting all those who approached him. He was sitting and saying: “The stallion defends its she-camel even if it is hobbled!” In respect of him Abu al-Tufayl has said: “O Hashim of good, you have been rewarded with the Garden. You fought against the enemy of the Sunna for the sake of Allah.” Usd al-Ghaba, vol. 5, p. 49.

After a terrible struggle, Ammar fell on the ground. He was killed by the oppressive group[^1] whose hearts had deviated from the truth, who forgot Allah, and so they swam in utter darkness. When the news of Ammar’s murder was announced, the Imam was completely affected, and waves of worries and sorrows surrounded him, because in his murder, the Imam lost a group of helpers and supporters. He went to the place of his murder. He was very sad and was weeping. The commanders of the troops, the chiefs of the tribes, and the righteous remainders from the Muhajireen and the Ansar surrounded him. They shed tears and loudly wailed. The Imam stood beside him. When he saw him killed and covered with his blood, he praised him with words issued from a sad heart. He said: “Any Muslim, who does not regard the murder of Ammar as great and does not feel the painful misfortune, is not successful. May Allah have mercy on Ammar on the day when he became Muslim, may Allah have mercy on Ammar on the day when he was killed, and may Allah have mercy on Ammar on the day when he will be resurrected! I have seen Ammar! When four of the companions of Allah’s Apostle are mentioned, he must be the fourth, and when five are mentioned, he must be the fifth! All the old companions of Allah’s Apostle were sure that Ammar would enter the Paradise! Let Ammar be pleased in the Paradise!”

The Imam took Ammar’s head and put it in his lap and recited:

O death who does not leave me, relieve me, for you have destroyed all friends! I see that you are aware of those whom I love as if that you walk towards them with a guide! Imam al-Hasan silently stood up and wept for the murder of the great martyr, who took part in building Islam. He recited to the Muslims what he had heard from his grandfather the Prophet (a.s) in respect of Ammar’s excellences. He (a.s) has said: “Allah’s Apostle (a.s) said to his companions: ‘Build me a canopy like that of Moses.’ He began taking adobes from people, and he said: ‘O Allah, there is no good except that of the hereafter; therefore, forgive the Muhajireen and the Ansar.’ He took adobes from Amma, and then he said: ‘What a pity, O son of Sumayya! The oppressive group will kill you!’”

He has also said: “My grandfather has said: ‘The Garden yearns for three (persons): Ali, Ammar, and Salman!’”

[^1] Abul Aadiya killed him. He came to Mu‘awiya, and said to his chamberlain: “The killer of Ammar is at the door.” He permitted him. Usd al-Ghaba, vol. 5, 267. It has been narrated from the Prophet that he has said: “If the people of the earth killed Ammar, they all would enter the fire!” When the news of Ammar’s murder was announced, a discord and division took place among the armies of Mu’awiya. They had heard from Allah’s Apostle that he said: “The oppressive party will kill you!” Amr bin al-Aas narrated that to them. After Ammar’s murder, they knew that they were the rebellious group that Allah’s Apostle had meant. However through his trick and lies, Amr bin al-Aas could fabricate that to them and return the affairs to the natural course. He regarded Imam Ali as responsible for taking Ammar to the war and then to be killed. The ignorant from the armies of Sham yielded to that. They believed his statement and began saying: “Those, who brought Ammar, killed him!”

The murder of Ammar harmed Imam Ali too much. Distress and sorrow surrounded him. He called the tribes of Rabee’a and Hamadan, and they responded to him. He said to them: “You are my breastplate and spear!”

Twelve thousand fighters from them responded to him. He took them and angrily attacked the Syrians. He destroyed all their ranks to the extent that he arrived at Mu’awiya’s tent. Then he addressed Mu’awiya, saying: “Why are the people fighting between us? Come on so that I judge you before Allah, and whoever of us kills his companion, the affairs go well with him.”

Ibn al-Aas sneeringly said to Mu’awiya:

-The man has treated you with justice! -You are not right! You have come to know that he kills every one dueling with him! -Nothing makes you good except dueling with him! -You have craved after it (authority) after me!

The two parties violently fought against each other. They went on fighting with no rest. Weakness appeared in Mu’awiya’s troops. All his regiments were destroyed. All his forces were divided, to the extent that he intended to escape.

Raising Copies of the Qur’an

When Mu’awiya saw the courage of Imam Ali’s troops, the weakness of his ones, his incapability of resisting, and the end of his affair, he shook all over with fear. He summoned his cunning vizier, Amr bin al-Aas, and said to him: “Only this night and he is coming to us early in the morning along with the troops! What do you think?”