The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba
Chapter Xvii : the Reasons of the Peacemaking Part 2
When Mu’awiya became a caliph after the peacemaking, he spared no effort to give life to the beliefs of those who lived before Islam, to put and end to the word of ‘Islam’, to destroy the Islamic foundations, and to abolish the Islamic texts. These deeds clearly issued from him when the affairs went well with him, and when he alone possessed the kingdom. He feared none and paid attention to none in respect of showing his intentions, his trend, and his enmity toward Islam and the Muslims. Thus through making peace with him, Imam al-Hasan made clear his reality and removed from him that thin cover he used in the name of Islam. We will mention to readers a brief account of Mu’awiya’s deeds.
His Hostility to the Prophet
Mu’awiya harbored strong malice toward the Prophet and his progeny. He spared no effort to put an end to ‘Islam’ and to efface it. He mentioned that through his talk with al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba. That was when his (al-Mughira) son narrated on his authority, saying: “My father, al-Mughira, and I visited Mu’awiya. My father went to him frequently and talked with him. Then he came and told me about Mu’awiya and his reason, and admired what he saw from him. One night he came and did not have dinner. He was very grieved. I waited for him for an hour and I thought that (he was grieved) for something happened to us or to our work. So I asked him:
-“Why do I see you grieved this night? -“O My little son, I have come from the most wicked of all people. -“And what is that? -“I was alone with Mu’awiya and said to him: ‘You have attained your wishes, O Commander of the faithful. Therefore, if you show justice and spread good. You have become an old man. So take care of your brothers from among the Banu (the tribe of) Hashim and their relatives. By Allah, today, they have nothing of which you are afraid. And he said to me: ‘How far! How far! The brother of Taym (Abu Bakr) ruled and acted justly. He did what he did. But when he perished, his name perished except that a sayer says: ‘Abu Bakr!’ Then the brother of ‘Adi (‘Umar) ruled. He strove and undertook (the office of the caliphate) for ten years. But when he perished, his name perished except that a sayer says: ‘Umar!’ Then our brother Uthman ruled. He ruled as a man. None was like him in lineage. He did what he did, and (the people) did what they did to him. But when he perished, his name perished. What had been done toward him is mentioned. As for the brother of the Banu Hashim (Prophet Muhammad), he is mentioned five times a day (in the azan when it is said ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah). So all deeds after this (azan), may your mother lose you, will be completely buried!’”[^1]
This speech clearly indicates Mu’awiya’s unbelief, atheism, and strong malice toward the Prophet. He became displeased when he heard the Prophet’s name mentioned five times a day during the azan. If he had found a way to remove that, he would have done it. An example of his strong hatred toward the Prophet’s progeny is that he did not call down blessing upon the Prophet for forty Fridays. That was during the period of his reign. He was asked about that, and he answered: “Nothing prevents me from mentioning him (the Prophet) except that some men turn up their noses (at me)!”[^2] The historians have said: “He (Mu’awiya) heard the caller of azan say: ‘I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah’. He said: ‘How great, O son of Abdullah! You have a high determination! You are not satisfied with anything except that you are compared to the Name of the Lord of the world!’”[^3]
Abolishing the prescribed Penalties
Mu’awiya paid no attention to the Islamic prescribed punishments and to administering them. That was when he pardoned those on whom the prescribed punishments had be to administered. Some thieves were brought before him. He ordered their hands to be cut off. Then he ordered a thief to be pardoned. The thief reciuted some verses of poetry that invaded Mu’awiya’s heart, and he said to him: “What shall I do to you? We have cut off the hands of your companions!”
The thief’s mother replied him: “O Commander of the faithful, place it among your sins of which you will repent!” Accordingly, Mu’awiya ordered the thief to be released. So this was the first punishment to be abolished in Islam.
Regarding Usury as lawful
Islam has strongly prohibited usury and regarded it as among offences and major sins. It has cursed the one who gives usury, the taker, the mediator, and the witness. However Mu’awiya paid no attention to what Islam had prohibited. It has been reported on the authority of Atta’ bin Yasar that
[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 2, p. 357. [^2] Al-Nasaa’ih al-Kafiya, p. 97. [^3] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 10, p. 101.
Mu’awiya sold a gold container for more than its weight. Abu al-Darda’[^1] said to him: “I have heard that Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, had prohibited that except tit for tat!” Mu’awiya opposed him and showed him that he paid no attention to the things made prohibited and forbidden by Allah’s Apostle, saying: “I can see no harm in doing such a thing!” As for Abu al-Darda’, he became displeased with Mu’awiya’s imprudence. He became angry and sorrowful. He said to him: “Who excuses me from Mu’awiya? I tell him about Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, but he tells me about his own viewpoint! May Allah do not make you live in the land where you are!”
Then he left Sham and went to the capital of the Prophet (Medina). He was excited and angry. He resigned his office.[^2] The azan in the Eid Prayer The Islamic Law has decided that the azan and the Iqama should be performed before the daily obligatory prayers. As for the azan and Iqama before the recommended prayers such as the superfluous or before the obligatory prayers such as those of the two eids or those of the signs (aayaat), they should be left according to the Islamic Law. In this respect Allah’s Apostle (a.s) has said: “There is neither azan nor Iqama in the two Eids Prayer[^3] ”[^4] The Caliphs after Allah’s Apostle followed this sunna.[^5] However
[^1] It has been differed over the name of Abu al-Darda’. It was said that his name was ‘Aamir or ‘Uwaymir. It has also been differed over his father’s name. It was said that his name was ‘Aamir or Malik or Abdullah. His lineage goes back to Ka‘b bin al-Khazrajj al-Ansari. Abu al-Darda’ became Muslim at the Battle of Badr. He took part in the Battle of Uhd. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said in respect of him: “Abu al-Darda’ was the wise man of my community.” Abu al-Darda’ was a merchant before Islam. When he became a Muslims, he abandoned commerce. Mu‘awiya appointed him over Damascus judgeship during the caliphate of ‘Umar. He died two years before the end of ‘Uthman’s reign. It was said that he died in the year 32. It was said that he died at (the Battle of Siffin). This has been mentioned in (the book) al-Isaba. In (the book) al-Kuna wa al-Qaab, 72, it has been mentioned: “Most surely Abu al-Darda’ narrated from Allah’s Apostle that he said: ‘Most surely the heaviest thing in the scale of the believer’s moral traits is the good manner; and Allah detests the one who is obscene.”
[^2] Al-Nasaa’ih, p. 94. [^3] The two ‘Ids are the Lesser Bairam (1st of Shawwal) and the Greater Bairam, Feast of Immolation. [^4] Al-Sha‘rani, Kashif al-Ghumma, vol. 1, p. 123. [^5] Abu Dawud, Sunan, vol. 1, p. 79.
Mu’awiya did not pay attention to that. He innovated the azan and Iqama before the Eid Prayer.[^1] In this manner he opposed Allah’s Apostle and turned away from what had been narrated from him. So he was innovator in his legislation.
The Sermon before the Eid Prayer
The Islamic Sunna required the Imam to deliver a sermon after the ‘Id prayer. That is because the Prophet (a.s) performed the Eid ul-Fitr Prayer, and then he delivered the sermon before his companions. The Prophet’s deed is a sunna just as his word. It is obligatory to follow it. The Caliphs after him did as he had done.[^2] However, Mu’awiya paid no attention to that. That was when he delivered the sermon before the Eid Prayer; then the Umayyads followed his deed.[^3] In this manner he abandoned the Prophet’s Sunna.
Imposing Zakat on Gifts
Islam has imposed zakat on certain incomes that the religious jurists have mentioned. Zakat is not obligatory on other things. However Mu’awiya turned away from that. He imposed zakat on gifts while it was not legislated in this concern according to the unanimous agreement of the jurists. Mu’awiya did that because either he was ignorant of the religious precept or he deliberately did that to oppose the Sunna. The latter is more appropriate for his line of conduct.[^4]
It is incumbent on him who has entered the state of ritual consecration to refrain from perfuming himself as long as he is in this state. When he has finished his ihram[^5] , it is permissible to him to perfume himself. However Mu’awiya opposed that and perfumed himself during the ihram.[^6] He was either obstinate to Islam or ignorant of its teachings and duties.
Using silver and gold Wares
It is religiously forbidden to use silver and gold containers. Yet Mu’awiya intentionally opposed that. He used them for his eating and drinking. When the tradition of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, in
[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p. 470. [^2] Abu Dawud, Sunan, vol. 1, p. 178. [^3] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p.470. [^4] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 207. [^5] Ihram means the state of ritual consecration during the ‘umra (minor hajj) and hajj. [^6] Al-Nasaa’i, p. 100.
respect of making that forbidden was recited to him, he said: “I see no harm in that.”[^1] Wearing silk Garments Islam has made it forbidden for men to wear silk garments except during war. Nevertheless Mu’awiya turned away from that. He intentionally wore them.[^2] He paid no attention to what Islam prohibited and forbade.
Seizing the People’s Properties as lawful
Islam has made it forbidden to take the people’s properties unjustly. But Mu’awiya did not conform to that. He took the properties of people without any recompense.[^3]
Buying the Religions
No vice in trade market is worse than buying the consciences of people and their religions. That shows the evil intention of the seller and the buyer. As for Mu’awiya, he was skillful in this trade. He openly did it without fear or caution. Narrators have mentioned that al-Ahnaf bin Qays, Jariya bin Qudama, al-John bin Qatada, and al-Hattat bin Yazid came to Mu’awiya. Mu’awiya gave one hundred thousand (dirhams) to each of them whereas he gave seventy thousand (dirhams) to al-Hattat. On their way home they mentioned their gifts. So al-Hattat angrily came back to Mu’awiya. Mu’awiya turned to him and asked him: “What has made you return?”
“You have exposed me among the Banu Tamim,” replied al-Hattat, “as for my lineage, it is correct. Am I not an old man? Am I not obeyed by my tribe?” “Yes,” answered Mu’awiya. “Then why have you excluded me from my people,” retorted al-Hattat, “You have given to those against you more than those with you?” He meant al-Ahnaf and Jariya who were with Imam Ali at the Battle of al-Jamal (the camel), while he did not fight for him. Mu’awiya said to him without any shame: “I have bought the people’s religion (for money) and entrusted you with your religion!”
“Buy my religion from me!” retorted al-Hattat. So Mu’awiya ordered a gift to be given to him.[^4]
[^1] Al-Nasaa’i, p. 101. [^2] Ibid., p. 101. [^3] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 207. [^4] Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 185.
His Dissoluteness and Impudence
Prostitution and impudence spread over the Islamic capital during the time of the Umayyads. That was when the poets celebrated in love poems and courted the women. Mu’awiya was the first to open a door to prostitution. They have narrated that Abdurrahman bin Hassaan bin Thabit[^1] celebrated in love poems with Mu’awiya’s daughter. Yazid (Mu’awiya’s son) heard of that and became angry. He came in to his father and sorrowfully said to him:
-O father, kill Abdurrahman bin Hassan! -Why? -He has wooed my sister! -What did he say?
-He said: “My night has lengthened and I have become aggrieved. I have become tired of residing at Jayrun!” Mu’awiya sneeringly replied to him:
-O my little son, his long night and his sadness do not concern us. May Allah send him far!
Yazid turned to his father and said to him:
[^1] ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hassan bin Thabit al-Ansari al-Khazraji was born during the time of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He was a poet and narrated few traditions. Ibn Ma‘een has regarded him as among the second generations in Medina. As for Ibn Hayyan, he has regarded him as among the trustworthy second generation. He (‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hassan bin Thabit) died in the year 104. This viewpoint was abolished by Ibn ‘Asakir, who said: “It was said that he (‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hassan bin Thabit) lived for forty-eight years. This means that he did not live to see his father, for he died at the age of fifty-four. It has been established that he was a grown-up during the time of his father. It has been established that his father said: So who will take care of rhymes after Hassan and his son? And who will take care of the oft-repeated (poetry lines) (al-Mathani) after Zayd bin Thabit?”
I (the author) said that if he was born during the time of the Prophet and lived until the year 104 A.H., then he lived for 98 years. Perhaps the forty years is distorted. This has been mentioned in the (book) al-Isaba, vol. 3, p. 67. In his (book) al-Kashif, al-Zamakhshari has mentioned: “‘Abd al-Rahman composed a poem in respect of Mu‘awiya, saying: “Oh! Inform Mu‘awiya bin Harb, the Commander of the oppressive, of my speech. “May Allah curse Mu‘awiya son of Hind and Sakhr! He is a thief! “We suffered from death through your authority while the generous, sons of the generous passed away. “Abu al-Hasan, the Commander of the faithful, split open your grandfather’s head with the sword. “We are patient and will respite you until the day of loss, gain, and dispute.”
-He said: “For this reason I have emigrated to Sham to the extent that my family had thought with much thinking!” -O my son, his family’s thinking does not concern us. -He said: “She is bright. She is like a pearl distinguished from hidden jewels!” -He is right, O my son, she is so! -He said: “If you trace back her lineage, you will not find her below the high rank of the noble traits!” -He is right, O my son. -He said: “Then I put my arm around her waist (and went with her) to the green dome! She was walking on marbles fashioned in shape!” -And not all of this, O my son!
Yazid went on mentioning what Abdurrahman had said in respect of courting his sister, while Mu’awiya defended him. He showed Abdurrahman as innocent and did not deserve punishment. The celebration of Abdurrahman in love poem spread; and Mu’awiya’s daughter was exposed. Some people went to Mu’awiya and criticized him for this impudence toward his daughter, saying: “Punish him!” But Mu’awiya refused to respond to them. He said to them: “No, but I will treat him in a way other than that.” It happened that Abdurrahman visited Mu’awiya, and he received him with the best reception and made him sit on his chair. He turned to him and said:
-My other daughter is admonishing you! -For what? -For that you have praised her sister and left her! -She has the right to admonish me; it is an act of noble deed to mention her!
Accordingly, Abdurrahman began wooing Mu’awiya’s other daughter. When people came to know that, they said: “Certainly we thought that Hassaan courted Mu’awiya’s daughter for a certain thing, but suddenly we have come to know that he follows Mu’awiya’s opinion and command!”[^1]
This example indicates that Mu’awiya was dissolute and had bad manners. Through that he opened a door to corruption and enabled the dissolute to interfere with the Muslims’ daughters, to the extent that they extremely
[^1] Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, al-Aghani, vol. 13, p. 149. rushed upon pleasure during Mu’awiya’s reign and the reign of the other Umayyads. Yet another example on that was that Abu Dahbal al-Jahmi[^1] wooed Mu’awiya’s daughter, but the latter gently treated the former. He linked and gave him.[^2] The Umayyads followed this plan. They tried to change the world into a theatre of fun and dissolute. They made the people love debauchery and prostitution. They drove them to misguidance, falsehood, and corruption.
Another example of Mu’awiya’s dissoluteness is that he bought a beautiful, white slave girl. His retainer Khudayjj made the slave girl come in to him naked. Mu’awiya had a bar in his hand. He indicated with the bar to her enjoyment (lit. her private part). Then he said: “This is the enjoyment if I had an enjoyment!”[^3]
Then he ordered her to be given to his son Yazid. Then he changed his mind and ordered her to be given to Abdullah bin Mas‘ada al-Fazari.[^4] He said to him: “Take this Roman salve girl and whiten your children!”[^5]
The historians have mentioned many examples of Mu’awiya’s dissoluteness and recklessness which indicate that he was void of all human values.
[^1] His name is Wahab bin Zam‘a bin Usayd. He was a good poet. He was famous for praise. This has been mentioned in Mu‘jam al-Shu‘ra’, vol. 1, p. 117. A lot of his poetry has been mentioned in the British, Asian Magazine.
[^2] Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, al-Aghani, vol. 6, pp. 39-159. [^3] Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 140. [^4] Abdullah bin Mas‘ada bin Hikma al-Fazari was still young when he was taken as a prisoner of war. Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) granted him to his daughter Fatim. She released him while still young. Then he was with (Imam) Ali. Then he joined Mu‘awiya and was the most hostile of the people to (Imam) Ali. He was (a commander) over Damascus troops after the Battle of al-Hirrah. He lived until the reign of Marwan. It was said that he invaded in the year 49. ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Khalid bin al-Waleed was (a commander) over the Army. When he died in the land of the Romans, Abdullahal-Fazari took his place. This was the first authority he undertook. The poet says in respect of him:
O son of Mas‘ud, set up the straight spear just as Sufyan bin Awf set it up.
When he (Abdullah bin Mas‘ud) came in to Mu‘awiya, the latter asked him about poetry, and he said to him: “The poet added me to the one to whom I am not equal, who is Sufyan bin ‘Awf.” This has been mentioned in (the book) al-Isaba, vol. 2, p. 359. [^5] Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8, p. 140.
In His Holy Book, Allah, the most High, has said: “Only they forge the lie who do not believe in Allah’s communications, and these are the liars.”[^1] Mu’awiya brought nigh those who forged lie against Allah and His Apostle, and did not believe in Allah and the afterlife. He brought them nigh to him and gave them enormous properties. He commanded them to fabricate traditions and ascribed them to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. In these traditions he commanded them to mention his excellences, as well as of the Umayyads and the companions. In the meantime he commanded them to degrade the dignity of the pure family of the Prophet and to disparage them, especially as it concerns their master Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. He wrote a note concerning that to all his governors. In his note he has mentioned: “Search for those who are ‘Uthman’s followers who narrate his excellence and talk about his laudable deeds. Give generously to them and ennoble them. Write to me about what they narrate concerning him. Mention to me their names, their fathers’, and what they are.”
The governors yielded to Mu’awiya’s command. They brought nigh the mercenary narrators and lauded them. They gave them a lot of money. They wrote down what the narrators fabricated in respect of ‘Uthman’s excellence and sent it to Mu’awiya. When the people came to know that the government encouraged the fabricators, welcomed them heartily, and gave them a lot of money, others hurried to fabricate traditions and took compensation from the responsible authorities. They narrated many traditions about Mu’awiya’s excellence. Examples of their fabricated traditions were that the Prophet said: “O Allah, teach him (Mu’awiya) the Book and reckoning, protect him from the chastisement, and cause him to enter the Garden!” Al-Tirmidhi has narrated that the Prophet said to Mu’awiya: “O Allah, make him a guide and rightly-guided!”
Al-Harith bin Usama has narrated that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said: “Abu Bakr is the gentlest of my community and the most merciful of them.” Then he mentioned the laudable deeds of the four Caliphs and of a group of other companions. Then he, may Allah bless him and his family, mentioned Mu’awiya saying: “And Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan is the most clement of my community and the most generous of them!”[^2]
[^1] Qur’an, 16, 105. [^2] Tatheer al-Jinan and al-Lisan printed on the footnote of al-Sawa‘iq al-Muhriqa, p. 24.
They narrated that the Prophet (a.s) praised the excellence of his companions, and then he said concerning Mu’awiya: “And Mu’awiya, the generous!”[^1]
Al-Maqdisi has narrated that he was in Wasit Mosque and suddenly he saw a man surrounded by the people. He approached the man and heard him reporting traditions on the authority of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, who said: “On the Day of Judgment Allah will bring Mu’awiya close to him, make him sit beside Him, and cover him with His hand. Then he will drive him away like a bride.” So al-Maqdisi asked him: “For what?” The man said: “For fighting against Ali!” So al-Maqdisi answered him: “You have told a lie, O you who are straying!” The man said: “Take this Rafidite!” So the people pushed each other to punish him, but a person who recognized him saved him from them.[^2]
Al-Maqdisi also narrated that he was liable to killing when he criticized the person for his saying that “Mu’awiya was a sent prophet!”[^3]
One of them narrated: “I have seen Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, (sitting) with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, Ali, and Mu’awiya. Then a man came and ‘Umar said: ‘O Allah’s Apostle, this (man) disparages us.’ It was as if that Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, rebuked him (the man). So he (the man) said: ‘O Allah’s Apostle, I do not disparage them but (I disparage) this (Mu’awiya).’ The Prophet (a.s) said: ‘Woe unto you! Is he (Mu’awiya) not among my companions?’ He said that three times. Then Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, took a sword and gave the sword to Mu’awiya and said to him strike him with it. Mu’awiya struck him with it. I went home and suddenly came to know that the man suffered from the stroke of the night and he died. The man was called Rasheed al-Kindi.”[^4]
[^1] Tatheer al-Jinan and al-Lisan, p. 26. Ibn Hajar has depended on the fabricated narrations about Mu‘awiya and regarded him as above the sins and offenses he had committed and as among the companions (of the Prophet) who conformed to their religion. Allah blinded Ibn Hajar’s inner sight and made him go astray from the straight path. So he lauded the enemies of Allah and the opponents of Islam, who are a page of shame and disgrace against the human community. The Muslims have been afflicted with such historians who do not look at the reality except through black binoculars. They committed crimes against Islam and Muslims through their fabrications and lies.
[^2] Al-Maqdisi, p. 126. [^3] Al-Muntazam, p. 60. [^4] Al-Ghadir, vol. 10, p. 138.
The naïve and simple-minded sided with Mu’awiya and went too far in respecting him because of these fabricated traditions and false rumors. The historians have mentioned that Abdurrahman al-Nisa’i entered Damascus and asked about Mu’awiya and what was narrated about his excellence. They have said that he said: “Is Mu’awiya not satisfied that he brings out a head for a head that he may be preferred?!” In another narration Abdurrahman said: “I have not come to know that Mu’awiya has an excellence except that (may Allah do not satisfy his stomach!).” So the people revolted against Abdurrahman and walked on him. Accordingly, he was carried to al-Ramlah, and he died because of that.[^1] The people of Sham went too far in their fanaticism that they killed Muhammad bin Maslama al-Ansari when he refused to take part in Mu’awiya’s battles.[^2]
Through these traditions issued by the Committees of Fabrication, Mu’awiya wanted to give himself a garment of sacredness and faith, that the community might grant him confidence and yield to him because of the thought. However he failed in that, for the Muslims had doubt about him and his Islam. That is because he belonged to the cursed tree in the Qur’an; his family fought against the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and led the troops to battle against him. Besides he committed great incidents such as his fighting against the Prophet’s guardian, may Allah bless him and his family, and the Gate of the city of his knowledge (Imam Ali). He killed many good people, pursued the righteous, and created innovations in Islam. Moreover he committed other major sins and offences through which he had blackened the face of history. Of course these rumors and lies could not efface from him the shame and disgrace.
Anyway the traditions the swindlers fabricated about Mu’awiya’s and ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan’s excellence were many. Mu’awiya feared that he would miss his purpose, his affair would be exposed, and he would not reach his own objective, which was rebellion against the pure family (of the Prophet), so he wrote a note to his governors. In the note he commanded them that the fabricators had to refrain from (fabricating traditions about him) and had to fabricate traditions on the excellence of the two Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar), for it was among the nearest ways and one of the most important means to fight against the progeny of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and to degrade their importance. This is the text of what he wrote. “Most surely the traditions about me have become many and spread all over
[^1] Al-Sabaki, Tabaqat, vol. 2, p. 84. Wafayat al-A‘yan, vol. 1, p. 37. [^2] Tahdhib al-Tahdhibin
the countries and districts. If this letter of mine comes to you, then summon them (the fabricators) to narrate (traditions) about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. That is because their excellence and precedence are more lovable and delightful to me and more refuting to the proof of this house (the Prophet’s Family) and more intense to them than ‘Uthman’s laudable deeds and his excellence.” The judges and the commanders recited his letter to the people. Accordingly, the fabricators hurried to fabricate traditions about the laudable deeds of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. Then Mu’awiya ordered the traditions to be written down and to send copies of them to all the leaders and the governors to read them to the people from the pulpits and in the mosques. He also commanded them to send them to the teachers to adopt them as programs in their lessons and to force the children to memorize them. The local governments took great care of that. They forced children and the rest of classes to memorize those fabricated traditions to the extent that children, women, and servants memorized them.[^1] Imam al-Baqir (a.s) mentioned and criticized the traditions during his talk with Aban. The latter asked the former: “May Allah set you right, mention to me some of that?”
The Imam (a.s) said: [They have narrated:]
“Most surely the two masters of the middle-aged of the Garden are Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”[^2] “Most surely the angels talk with ‘Umar.” “The angel teaches ‘Umar.” “Most surely tranquility utters on ‘Umar’s tongue.” “Most surely the angels are ashamed of ‘Uthman.”[^3]
Then Imam al-Baqir went on mentioning the fabricated traditions to the extent that he mentioned more than a hundred traditions the people regarded as true.[^4]
[^1] Saleem bin Qays, p. 29. Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p.15. [^2] The mercenaries fabricated the tradition to oppose the authentic tradition narrated from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, concerning his two grandsons: “Al-Hasan and al-Husayn are the two masters of the youths of the Garden.” Imam al-Jawad was asked about the fabricated tradition, and he refuted it saying: “By Allah there are no middle-aged in the Garden; rather all of them are beardless young men.” [^3] The sign of fabrication in this tradition is clear. Why were the angels ashamed of ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan? Did he pass by them and see them do ugly deeds and commit something abominable, and so they were ashamed of him? Or did he do that, and they were ashamed of him? I (the author) think that this claimed shame is meaningless! [^4] In a narration: “To the extent that he mentioned more than two hundred traditions.”
Then he (a.s) said: “All of them are untrue and false!”[^1]
The traditionist Ibn ‘Arafa, better known as Naftawayh,[^2] says: “Most surely most fabricated traditions about the excellence of the companions (of the Prophet) were innovated during the days of the Umayyads to seek nearness to them, for they thought that they would subdue the Hashimites.”[^3]
Mu’awiya was not satisfied with the many traditions fabricated about the laudable deeds of the two Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar); rather he encouraged the fabricators to innovate traditions against the members of the House (Ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. He spent a lot of money on them for that. He gave Samra bin Jundub, a criminal person, four hundred thousand (dirhams) provided that he should address the people of Sham and tell them that the following Holy Verses were revealed in connection with (Imam) Ali. The verses are: “And among the men is he whose speech about the life of this world causes you to wander, and calls on Allah to witness as to what is in his heart, yet he is the most violent of adversaries. And when he turns back, he runs along in the land that he may cause mischief in it and destroy the tilth and the stock, and Allah does not love mischief-making.”[^4] Samra narrated that to them[^5] and took money from the Muslims’ Public Treasury while Islam has made it incumbent on the ruler to spend the money in it on the Muslims’ interests. However Mu’awiya, son of Hind, spent it on fighting and plotting against Islam, and defaming the Muslim great figures who defended Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, during all the attitudes and battles, and forced Mu’awiya and his father to embrace Islam.
[^1] Saleem bin Qays, p. 45. [^2] His name is Ibrahim bin Muhammed bin ‘Arafa al-Azdi. He was born in Wasit in the year 244 A. H. He has good books. He was called Naftawayh because of his ugliness. He was likened to oil (naft). Some of his poetry are the following lines:
My heart is kinder to you than your two cheeks; and my strength is weaker than the strength of your eyelids.
Why do you not be gentle to him who unjustly tortures himself and makes his love sympathize with you? Abu Abdullah al-Wasiti satirized him saying: Whoever wants to be pleased not to see a dissolute one, let him do his best not to see Naftawayh! Allah has burnt him with the half of his name, and made the rest as crying over him! He (Naftawayh) died in the month of Safar, in the year 323 A. H. (This has been mentioned in the book) Wafayat al-A‘yan, vol. 1, p. 30.
[^3] Al-Nasaa’ih al-Kafiya, p. 74. Other sources have mentioned that. [^4] Qur’an, 1, 203-204. [^5] Al-Nasaa’ih al-Kafiya, p. 253. Other sources have mentioned that.
Anyhow the men of ambitions and the devious from Islam hurried to fabricate traditions to degrade the Prophet’s Household, that they might obtain money and wide wealth. Ibn al-‘Aas narrated to the people of Sham that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said in respect of Abu Talib’s family: “Most surely Abu Talib’s family are not my friends; rather my friends are Allah and the good believers.” [^1]
In this manner the fabrication committees innovated such traditions against the Household of the Prophet, whom Allah had kept away uncleanness from and thoroughly purified. Through that, they attempted to put out Allah’s Light, to turn the Muslims away from their real leaders whom the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, mentioned and appointed as successors after him over his community. Imam al-Baqir (a.s) talked about those false traditions saying: “They narrate ugly things about (Imam) Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. Allah knows that they have narrated falsehood, lying, and untruth.”[^2]
Ibn Abi al-Haddeed has said: “And our Sheikh Abu Ja‘far al-Iskafi has mentioned that Mu’awiya appointed a group of the companions and a group of the second generation (successors)) to narrate ugly traditions about (Imam) Ali (a.s) requiring defaming and renouncing him. He gave them money for that, and they innovated that which pleased him. Some of them are Abu Hurayra, Amr bin al-‘Aas, and al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba. Among the second generation was ‘Urwa bin al-Zubayr.”[^3]
Certainly these measures Mu’awiya took against the members of the the Ahlul Bayt (a.s) have spread division among Muslims and opened a door to lying against Allah and His Apostle. The good companions (of the Prophet) turned away from such traditions and did not listen to those who narrated them. The narrators have reported: “Bashir al-‘Adawi[^4] came to Abdullah bin Abbas and narrated to him: ‘Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, has said.’ However Ibn Abbas did not permit him nor did he look at him. He made
[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.3, p.15. [^2] Saleem bin Qays, p. 45. [^3] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.4, p.63. Printed by Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-‘Arabiya. [^4] His full name is Bashir bin Ka‘b bin Abi al-Himyari al-‘Adawi. It was said that his nickname was al-‘Amiri. Ibn Sa‘d has mentioned him as among the second class from among the people of Basrah. He said that he was trustworthy, if Allah willed. Al-Nisa’i has said: “He (Bashir al-‘Adawi) is trustworthy.” (This has been mentioned in the book) Tahthib al-Tahthib, vol. 1, p.471. I (the author) do not know how he is trustworthy while Abdullahbin ‘Abbas turned away from his tradition!
little of and disdained him. So Bashir hurried to ask: ‘Why do you not listen to my tradition? I am relating to you from Allah’s Apostle, while you do not listen!’
“So Ibn Abbas rebuked him saying: ‘When we heard a man saying that Allah’s Apostle says, we looked at him and listened to him. But when the people rode the disobedient and the obedient (she-camel), we take nothing from them except that which we have known.”[^1]
Most surely the people rode the disobedient and obedient she-camel, as Ibn Abbas stated, and followed all ways that opposed the religion. They did not refrain from lying against Allah nor did they abstain from sin in connection with fabricating traditions and ascribing them to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. Therefore, it is important for us to study the traditions carefully.
The greatest ordeal with which the Muslims were severely afflicted was that the traditions fabricated by the Fabrication Committees reached the trustworthy people and the memorizers (of the Qur’an), and they wrote them down in their books. Without doubt if they had come to know their reality, they would have abandoned them, disowned them, and would have not narrated them. Al-Mada’ini has mentioned that in his speech about the fabricators during the time of Mu’awiya. We will mention the text of his speech in respect of that. He has said: “Many fabricated traditions appeared and slander spread. The jurists, judges, and the governors followed that. The greatest of the people in that were the hypocrites from among the reciters (of the Qur’an) and those deemed weak who showed humbleness and worship. They innovated traditions, that they might seek nearness to their rulers, come near to their assemblies, to get through them money, country estates, and houses, to the extent that the traditions passed to the hands of the religious people who did not regard lying and slander as lawful. They accepted the traditions and narrated them. They thought that the traditions were true. If they had come to know that they were untrue, they would have not narrated them nor would have they followed them.”[^2]
The books are full of such traditions and are filled with the Israeli fables (Isra’iliyat)[^3] and Abu Hurayra’s traditions. Without doubt these traditions
[^1] Fajr al-Islam, p. 258. Other sources have mentioned that. [^2] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p.16. [^3] The Isra’iliyat are the fables made up by the hypocrites from among the Jews who became Muslims and affected Islam to put in it things of which it is innocent. Ka‘b al-Ahbar was on the top of those Jews who fabricated such fables.
damaged Islam, distorted its tolerant law, spoiled the Islamic beliefs, divided the Muslims and turned them into followers and parties.
Without doubt if the Caliphs had written down the traditions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, they would have protected the community from difference and turned them away from the troubles and misfortunes. But they did not do that. Abu Bakr collected some traditions, and then he burnt them.[^1] After him ‘Umar came and consulted the companions (of the Prophet) about writing down the traditions, and they all advised him to do that. He thought of the affair for a period of time but he gave up. He said to them: “Most surely I mentioned to you the writing down of the traditions, as you have come to know. Then I suddenly remembered that some people from among the people of the Book (Christians and Jews) before you wrote books along with Allah’s Book. They took care of them and left Allah’s Book. Most surely, by Allah, I will never mix Allah’s Book with anything.”[^2]
The proof does not help this justification. That is because the tradition of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, does not deviate from Allah’s Book nor does it oppose it at all. Besides, writing down the traditions does not bring about abandoning the Holy Qur’an nor does it require turning away from it. Most likely they refused to write them down because most of the traditions concerned the excellence of the pure family (of the Prophet), made it obligatory to show love for them and to resort to them in all affairs. It was impossible to divide the traditions; that is to say that the Sunna had to be written and the traditions in respect of the rights of the members of the House (Ahl al-Bayt) had to be left. Of course, writing them opposes usurping their rights, their unanimous agreement on wronging them and removing them from their ranks in which Allah had placed them. They harbored great malice against them to the extent that when they felt that the Prophet wanted to entrust them with the authority and to write a document on that, they refused to do that while the Prophet (a.s) was in his last hours. They said to him: “Sufficient unto us is Allah’s Book!”
It was reported from them that they said: “The Prophethood and the caliphate should not come together in one house!” After this how was it possible for them to write down the traditions of the Prophet (a.s) concerning his Household?
[^1] Tadhkirat al-Huffaz, vol. 1, p. 5. [^2] Taqyyid al-‘Ilim, p. 50. (A speech) similar to it (speech has been mentioned) in Ibn Sa‘d’s Tabaqat, 31, p. 206.
Anyway the greatest disaster with which the Muslims were afflicted was the fabricated traditions Mu’awiya undertook for they brought about division and disagreements to the Muslims. Without doubt they were among the greatest sins of Mu’awiya, son of Hind!