The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba

Ascribing Ziyad To His (mu’awiya) Father

Allah’s Apostle (a.s) has said: “The child belongs to bed; and the prostitute is to be stoned.”

Certainly Mu’awiya turned away from the speech of Allah’s Apostle (a.s) without fear and care. He openly opposed his speech and refused his decision to strengthen his domain and establish his authority. As a result, he added Ziyad bin Abeeh (the illegitimate) to himself (considered him as his brother from his father Abu Sufyan) according to the procedures before Islam.

Allah, the Most High, says: “Is it then the judgement of (the times of) ignorance that they desire? And who is better than Allah to judge for a people who are sure?”[^1] Certainly Mu’awiya wanted the time of those who lived before Islam and enlivened their laws. That was when he added Ziyad bin Abeeh to himself, while Ziyad was the son of a prostitute. For surely Sumayya, Ziyad’s mother was among the women of flags (openly prostitute) in al-Ta’if. She gave tax to al-Harith bin Kildah[^2] from her prostitution. She went to the place where the prostitutes went outside al-Hadar, in a district called Harat al-Baghayaa (the district of the prostitutes).[^3] This was Ziyad’s mother in dirtiness and dissoluteness. As for Mu’awiya, he did not feel shame in joining this illegitimate to him.

The historians have mentioned the reasons of joining Ziyad, saying: “Imam Ali (a.s) had appointed Ziyad (as a governor) over a district of Persia and chose him for himself. When the Imam (a.s) was martyred, Ziyad went on practicing his work. Mu’awiya was afraid of his side, came to know of the difficulty of his district, and feared his inclination to al-Hasan bin Ali (a.s) so he wrote him this letter:

‘From the Commander of the faithful Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan, to Ziyad bin ‘Ubayd. Now then, surely you are a salve; you have been ungrateful for the blessing and you called for the vengeance. Most certainly gratefulness is more

[^1] Qur’an, 5, 50. [^2] Al-Harith bin Kildah bin ‘Umar al-Thaqafi was a famous physician among the Arabs and he was a poet. This has been mentioned (in the book) Mu‘jam al-Shu‘ara’, p. 172. [^3] Al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 310.

appropriate for you than ungratefulness; surely the tree takes root and branches from its origin. You are motherless; rather you have no father. You have perished and destroyed (others). You have though that you can come out of my grip, and that my authority does not reaches you. How far! Not all the possessors of mind are correct in opinion, nor all the possessors of opinion are loyal in their advice. Yesterday you were a slave; and today you are the commander of a plan none like you has ever ascended, O son of Sumayya! When this letter of mine comes to you, then urge the people to obey and to pledge allegiance to me. Respond (to me) quickly! For surely if you did, you would spare your blood and set right yourself; otherwise I would kidnap you with the weakest feather and obtain you with the easiest effort! I have taken an oath that I will bring you among flutes and make you walk bare-footed from the land of Persia to Sham. I would show you in the marketplace, sell you as a salve, return you to where you were and bring you out of it! With Greetings.”

In his letter Mu’awiya has ascribed Ziyad to ‘Ubayd and acknowledged his slavery. He said that if he had captured him, he would have sold him in the marketplaces of Damascus and returned him to his origin. When this letter reached Ziyad, he became angry. He ordered the people to gather. He made speech before them. He praised and lauded Allah. Then he said: “(Mu’awiya)-the son of the woman who ate (Hamza’s) liver and killed the lion of Allah (Hamza), the one who showed the difference, hid hypocrisy, the head of the allies and who spent his money on putting out Allah’s Light-has written (a letter) to me. He thundered and lightened from a waterless cloud; shortly the wind will change the cloud into rack. The thing that shows me his weakness is his threat before the power (over me). Is it an act of mercy on me that he warns and excuses (me)? No! But he has followed another way. He has clattered to one who grew up among Tuhama thunderbolts! How shall I fear him and there is between me and him (al-Hasan), the son of the daughter of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. (There is between him and me) the cousin of his uncle with whom there are one hundred thousand (people) from among the Muhajireen and the Ansar. By Allah, if he (al-Hasan) permitted me in respect of him or summoned me to him, I would show him the stars during the daylight and make him snuff mustard water! The speech is before him today; the meeting is tomorrow; and the consultation is after that, Allah willing!”

Ziyad lightened, thundered, threatened, and promised. That is because he had no knowledge of that with which Imam al-Hasan’s army was afflicted with. He thought that the members of the army were still in their first condition, that they still had their activity and strength, and that they were one thousand (fighters) from among the Muhajireen and the Ansar. He did not know that they suffered from weakness and troubles that divided them and put an end to their activity. He also did not know that the great figures from among the Muhajireen and the Ansar were destroyed at the Battles of Siffin and al-Nahrawan, and that the army had few people from among those brave heroes. I (the author) swear by Allah that if Imam al-Hasan had summoned Ziyad, he would have betrayed him and would not have responded to him. The proof is that when he came to know about the weakness of the Imam’s army, he sided with Mu’awiya and deserted the Imam. How was he not deceived while he was among the shaky consciences? Then the time showed his wickedness and his bad intention. He became one of the bitterest enemies to Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, his children, and his followers (Shia). That was after Mu’awiya had added him to himself.

Anyway after his speech, Ziyad wrote a letter to Mu’awiya. This is the text of the letter: “Your letter came to me, O Mu’awiya. I have understood what is there in it. I have come to know that you are like the drowned one covered with waves who catches the weeds and clings to the frogs’ legs as a sign of carving after life. The one who is ungrateful for the blessing is he who turns away from Allah and His Apostle, and makes mischief in the land. As for your cursing me, were it not for the clemency that withheld me from you and for that I called foolish, I would move against you disgraces no water would wash. As for your reviling me because of Sumayya, then you are the son of a group (of men).[^1] As for your claiming that you can kidnap me with the weakest feather and capture me with the easiest effort, have you ever seen that a lark can terrify a falcon or have you ever heard that a lamb can eat a wolf? Now, carry out your plan and do your best, for I will not stop except at where you dislike, nor will I do my best except about that which displeases you! You will come to know who will yield to his companion! With Greetings.”

When Mu’awiya read Ziyad’s letter, he became terrified, so he summoned (al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba), the crafty person of the Arabs. He said to him: “O Mughira, I want to consult you about an affair that concerns me! Therefore, advise me in respect of the affair! Counsel me with the opinion of someone expert! Be for me, and I will be for you! I have singled you out with my own secrets and preferred you to my sons!”

[^1] He refers to that which history narrates that (his mother) Hind had become pregnant before she married Abu Sufyan. She married him to cover her crime. A group of the Bedouins were accused of that.

Al-Mughira said to him: “What is that? By Allah, out of my obedience to you, you will find me stronger than the water (running) from a slope and the sword in the hand of a brave hero!”

When al-Mughira yielded and submitted to Mu’awiya, the latter presented his affair, saying: “O Mughira, surely Ziyad has resided in Persia and rattled to us as snakes do. He is a man with a shrewd opinion, a strong determination, and wandering thinking. When he shoots, he hits (his target). I have become afraid of him. I am not safe from him if his companion (Imam Ali) was alive. I fear his inclination to al-Hasan. Therefore, how is the way to him? And what is the stratagem to set right his opinion?”

When the crafty person (al-Mughira) came to know Mu’awiya’s affair, he advised him to deceive Ziyad, make him desire, and to write to him a soft letter. His opinion was based on his studying Ziyad’s psyche and his knowledge of his trends and inclinations. Al-Mughira said to Mu’awiya: “Surely Ziyad likes honor, fame, and ascending pulpits. If you flattered him and wrote to him a soft letter, he would be lenient to you and have confidence in you. Therefore write (a letter) to him and I will be the messenger.”

Mu’awiya responded to al-Mughira’s advice. He wrote Ziyad a letter in which he displayed equivocation and deception. This is the text of the letter: “From the Commander of the faithful, Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan, to Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan. Caprice may throw man into the places of destruction. You are the one who has been set as an example (for others). You have cut off the relations and linked the enemy. Your bad opinion of me and your detestation toward me have urged you to disobey the kinship to me, cut off the relationships with me, turn away from my lineage, and to deprive me (of you).

It is as if that you are not my brother, Sakhr bin Harb (Abu Sufyan) is not your and my father. There is a great difference between you and me. I avenge the blood of Ibn Abi al-‘Aas while you are fighting against me. However, the weak race from women has reached you, and you have become “like that which has left its eggs in the open and covered with its wing the eggs of others.” I have seen that I have to sympathize with you and not to punish you because of your bad effort, to link your relations, and to seek a reward in respect of your affair. O Abu al-Mughira, know that if you waded into the sea for the obedience to the people through striking with the sword until its back is cut off, you would increase nothing except farness from them. That is because the Banu Shams are more detestable to the Banu Hashim than the blade to the ox which has been tied for slaughtering. Therefore, return, may Allah have mercy on you, to your origin and link your people. Do not be like al-mosool that flies with the feathers of other than it. Certainly you have become astray (because of losing your) lineage. By my life, nothing has done that to you except obstinacy; therefore, keep it away from you, for you have clearly understood your affair and your proof. If you liked my side and had confidence in me, then there would be an authority for an authority. And if you disliked my side and had no confidence in me, then there would be a good deed which was neither against you nor against me. With Greetings.”

Al-Mughira took the deceiving letter which Mu’awiya had written according to al-Mughira’s suggestion, and in which there was no ray of truthfulness. He left Damascus for Persia and came to Ziyad. When Ziyad saw him, he welcomed him and brought him nigh to his assembly. The crafty person (al-Mughira) talked with Ziyad through different ways and various styles, to the extent that he invaded his heart and dominated his feelings. So Ziyad responded to what he wanted.

After Ziyad had fallen into the snares of al-Mughira, he left Persia for Damascus. When he arrived in Damascus and was present before Mu’awiya, Mu’awiya welcomed him, brought him nigh, and ordered his sister Juwayriyah, daughter of Abu Sufyan, to invite him. When Ziyad was present before her, she uncovered her hair in his presence and said to him: “You are my brother. Abu Maryam has told me about that.” Then Mu’awiya took Ziyad to the mosque and ordered the people to come together, that he might declare before them that Ziyad was his brother. As for Abu Maryam al-Saluli, a vintner, he rose in front of the people and witnessed that Abu Sufyan had fornicated with Sumayya with a witness that disgraced Abu Sufyan and Mu’awiya, and inflicted shame on Ziyad. This is the text of the testimony: “I testify that Abu Sufyan came to us in al-Ta’if (at the time when) I was a vintner during the pre-Islamic period (al-Jahiliya). He said: ‘I want a prostitute.’ I came to him and said: ‘I have found (no prostitute) except al-Harth bin Kullidah’s slave girl called Sumayya.’ He said: ‘Bring her to me regardless of her stench and dirt.’” As for Ziyad, he became excited and interrupted Abu Maryam’s testimony saying to him with voice dripping anger: “Slowly Abu Maryam! You have been sent as a witness only! And you have not been sent as an abuser!”

So Abu Maryam said: “If you exempted me, then it would be more lovable to me! I only bear witness as to what I have seen!”

Then he went on explaining his testimony, saying: “By Allah, he took through you her breastplate. Then I closed the door for them. I sat down with astonishment. Shortly after that he came out to me rubbing his forehead, so I asked him: ‘What, O Abu Sufyan?’ ‘I had found none similar to her,’ he replied, ‘were it not for the flabbiness of her breasts and the stench of her mouth!”

This was Abu Maryam’s witness as to Sumayya’s dissoluteness. The face of mankind becomes moist because of its horribleness and disgrace. However Mu’awiya did not feel shame because of it. How did Mu’awiya (Hind’s son) feel shame of these bad deeds and scandals while he drew his tail on vices and deception, as he said[^1] , to the extent that vice was one of his elements and among his basics?

Certainly Mu’awiya added Ziyad to him that he might get rid of his hostility and to seek help through him to achieve his objectives and to strengthen his supreme authority.

The inclusive Displeasure

Mu’awiya’s adding Ziyad to himself created an inclusive displeasure in the Muslims’ souls, for they came to know that Mu’awiya intentionally opposed the Prophet (a.s) and abandoned his Sunna. They feared him for their religion. Accordingly, some free people and reformers hurried to declare their displeasure and their denial against him and Ziyad. We will mention some of those who denied and criticized him for his deed. They are as follows:

A. Imam al-Hasan

Imam al-Hasan (a.s) sent a letter to Ziyad in which he explained the corruption of his adding to Mu’awiya. He explained to him that Islam did not acknowledge that at all. This is the text of the letter: “From al-Hasan bin Fatima to Ziyad bin Sumayya. Surely Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: ‘The child belongs to the bed (is to be ascribed to the owner of the bed [the husband or the owner of the adulteress] where adultery is committed), and the prostitute is to be stoned.’”[^2]

He (a.s) said to Ziyad in the presence of Mu’awiya, Amr bin al-‘Aas, and Marwan bin al-Hakam: “O Ziyad, what is the relationship between you and Quraysh? I do not know that you have with them a correct origin, a growing branch, constant oldness, or a noble source. Rather your mother was a prostitute whom the Qurayshi men and the dissolute Arabs alternated. When you were born, the Arabs did not come to know of your father. So this (Mu’awiya) claimed that you (were his brother) after the death of his father. You have no pride! Sufficient unto you is Sumayya, and sufficient unto us is Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family.”[^3]

[^1] Al-Jahidh, al-Taj, p.103. [^2] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.4, p.73. [^3] Al-Bayqahi, al-Mahasin wa al-Masawi’, vol. 1, p. 58.

B. Imam al-Husayn

When Imam al-Husayn (a.s) came to know that Mu’awiya carried the destructive axe to destroy all the Islamic foundations, he hurried to revolt against him and to send him a letter in which he mentioned to him all his offences and presented in it his adding Ziyad to himself. This is the text of what he wrote in connection with that: “Have you not claimed Ziyad bin Sumayya who was born on the bed of ‘Ubayd Thaqif? So you have claimed that he is the son of your father where as Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: ‘The child belongs to bed; and the prostitute is to be stoned.’ So you have intentionally left the Sunna of Allah’s Apostle and followed your mean desire without any guidance from Allah.”[^1]

C. Yunus Bin Ubayd

Yunus bin ‘Ubayd was among those who attended this tragedy and witnessed its stages. So he hurried to oppose Mu’awiya and criticize him for it, saying: “O Mu’awiya, Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, has decided that ‘the child belongs to bed; and the prostitute is to be stoned,’ while you have judged that ‘the child belongs to the prostitute.’ This is an opposition to the Book of Allah, the Most High, and turning away from the Sunna of Allah’s Apostle according to Abu Maryam’s witness concerning Abu Sufyan’s fornication.”

So Mu’awiya threatened him with killing, saying: “By Allah, you should stop or I will kill you!”

“In the way of Allah?” asked Yunus. “Yes,” replied Mu’awiya.[^2]

D. Abdurrahman bin al-Hakam

Even the Umayyads were not satisfied with this ascription. They criticized Mu’awiya for that. Abdurrahman bin al-Hakam with a group of the Umayyads went to Mu’awiya. Abdurrahman said to him: “O Mu’awiya, if you had found (none) except the Negroes, you would regard them as too many against us.” He meant the Banu al-‘Aas, who were few in number and mean.

So Mu’awiya turned to Marwan and said to him: “Take this dissolute (person) away from us!”

“Yes, by Allah, he is dissolute! I cannot stand him!,” retorted Marwan.

[^1] Al-Kashi, Rijal, p. 33. [^2] al-Mas‘udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 311.

Mu’awiya said: “Were it not for my clemency and tolerance, I would come to know that he was unbearable. Did his poetry about me and Ziyad not reach you?” Marwan said: “What has he said?” He says:

Oh! Inform Mu’awiya bin Harb that the hands have become narrow because of what he commits. Do you get angry when it is said that your father is chaste and you are satisfied when it is said that your father is a fornicator? I testify that your blood relationship with Ziyad is like the blood relationship between the elephant and the young of the female donkey. I witness that Sumayya gave birth to Ziyad while Sakhr did not approach her! Mu’awiya felt pain when he read this poetry and said: “By Allah, I will not be pleased with him unless he goes to Ziyad, pleases, and apologize to him!”

Mu’awiya became angry with Abdurrahman. So the latter went to Kufa and headed for Ziyad to apologize to him. He asked permission to come in to him, but Ziyad did not permit him. The Qurayshi great figures mediated in respect of his affair, and he permitted him to enter. When he came in to him, he turned away from him. Then he turned to him and asked him:

-Are you the sayer of what you said? -What did I say? -You said that which is not said! -May Allah set right the Commander. Surely he who admonishes has no crime but the pardon is for him who commits a sin. Therefore listen to what I say. -Give me what you have. Abdurrahman said,

Abu al-Mughira, I have repented to you of what had happened in Sham because of the nonsense of the tongue. I made the Caliph angry in respect of you to the extent that his excessive anger moved him to satirize me. I said to him who abused me about my apologizing to you: Go away! Your affair is other than mine. I have come to know the truth after the misguidance of my opinion and after the error (that issued) from the deviation of the heart.

Ziyad is a branch of Abu Sufyan swinging freshly among the gardens. I see that you are a brother, an uncle, a cousin but I do not know the defect through which you see me. Surely an addition to Harb’s family is more lovable to me than my middle finger. Oh! Inform Mu’awiya bin Harb, for I have obtained what the hands bring.

Ziyad said: “I can see that you are foolish and a poet with skilful tongue. Your saliva is savory to you whether you are pleased or displeased. However, we have heard your poetry and accepted your apology; therefore tell me about your need!” -Will you write to the Commander of the faithful (Mu’awiya) that you are pleased with me? -Yes. Then he summoned his secretary to write to him a letter about his pardon and pleasure. Abdurrahman took the letter and went to Mu’awiya. When the latter read the poetry lines, he said: “May Allah curse Ziyad! Why has he not paid attention to ‘the addition to Harb’s family’?” Then he was pleased with Abdurrahman and returned him to his first state.[^1]

E. Abul Aryan

Abu al-‘Aryan was a blind, old man of a sharp tongue. Ziyad passed by him in a procession, and he asked: “What about this noise?” “It is the procession of Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan,” was the answer. “By Allah, Abu Sufyan left (none) except Yazid, Mu’awiya, ‘Uttba, ‘Anbasa, Hanzalah, and Muhammad,” retorted Abu al-‘Aryan, “ so from where has come Ziyad?”

Adulators conveyed Abu al-‘Aryan’s speech to Ziyad. Some of his special associates advised him to gift him with money that he might withhold his tongue from him. He regarded their viewpoint as correct. Then he ordered two hundred dinars to be given to him. The messenger brought the money to him and said: “O Abu al-‘Aryan, your cousin Ziyad, the emir, has sent you two hundred dinars, that you may spend it.” When Abu al-‘Aryan heard of that, he became very happy. Then he said: “The link of the blood relationship! Yes, by Allah, he is really my cousin!”

[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.4, p.71. Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, pp. 552-554.

On the following day Ziyad’s procession passed by him, and Ziyad greeted him. So Abu al-‘Aryan wept, and it was said to him: “What has made you weep?” “I felt Abu Sufyan’s voice through that of Ziyad!” In this manner money moved the dirty consciences in which the thought was not impressed. As for Abu al-‘Aryan, he was void of faith. He changed through this little gift. When Mu’awiya heard of his speech, he wrote to him: Shortly after the dinars I sent, you have been changed into many colors, O Abul Aryan! Ziyad’s origin was unknown to you but now the one whom you had denied has become known!

How good Ziyad is! If he had given it (the money) sooner, it would have been a sacrifice for him for what he had feared. When these verses were recited to Abul Aryan, he answered:

You have created for us a link through which the people live while you O Ibn Abi Sufyan was about to forget us! As for Ziyad, his lineage has become correct with me, so I do not seek slander in respect of the truth! Whoever does good, he obtains it. When he does evil, he gets it wherever it is![^1]

E. Abu Bakra

Among those who criticized Mu’awiya for adding Ziyad to himself was Abu Bakra[^2] , Ziyad’s brother. He strongly rebuked his brother. He boycotted him

[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4, p.71. [^2] Abu Bakra’s name is Nufay‘ bin al-Harith bin Kulidda. It was said that his father’s name was Masruh. He was al-Harith’s servant. So al-Harith added him, Ziyad’s brother, to himself. He was given the nickname of Abu Bakra because he descended from the stronghold of al-Ta’if to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, with a pulley. So he was called with this name. He and a group of his companions had committed a crime. So ‘Umar bin al-Khattab whipped them. Then they repented, and ‘Umar accepted their witness after the repentance except Abu Bakra, for he did not regard his testimony as permissible. Ibn Sa‘d has said: “He (Abu Bakra) died in Basrah during the reign of Ziyad.” Al-Mada’ini has said: “Abu Bakra died in the Year 50 A. H.” It was said that he died in the year when al-Hasan, peace be on him, died. This has been mentioned in (the book) Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 10, p. 469. In (the book) al-Isti‘ab printed on the footnote of (the book) al-Isaba, vol. 3, p. 537, it has been mentioned that he told his children when he was about to die: “Surely, my and did not communicate with him. When Ziyad intended to go to the Sacred House of Allah (the Kaaba), Abu Bakra came to him. When some bodyguards saw him, they quickly went to Ziyad and said to him: “O Emir! That is your brother Abu Bakra. He has entered the palace.”

-Woe unto you, have you seen him? -That is he. He has come forward.

Abu Bakra came and stopped beside Ziyad, who had embraced a boy of his. He addressed the boy and did not address Ziyad as a sign of pride and disrespect to him. He said to the boy: “O boy, surely your father has committed a great sin in Islam. He fornicated his mother and disowned his father. By Allah, I have never seen that Sumayya saw Abu Sufyan. Then your father wants to commit something greater than that. He wants to come to the season (of hajj) tomorrow and to come to Umm Habiba, daughter of Abu Sufyan, who is among the mothers of the faithful. If he came to ask permission to enter her house, and she permitted him, then it was a fabricated lie to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. If she prevented him, then it would be a great scandal against your father!”

Then he left him and went away. Ziyad said: “My brother, may Allah reward you with good for the advice, whether you are pleased or displeased!”[^1]

G. Yazid bin al-Mufarragh

This genius poet satirized Ziyad with two verses of poetry that were as disgrace and shame on him throughout generations and times.

Think! There is a lesson in that if you thought. Have you obtained a laudable deed but with being a commander? Sumayya lived what she lived and did not come to know that her son was from Quraysh in the masses. Ziyad became afraid and sad because of this satire. So he said: “No satire is severer against me than these two verses of poetry!”[^2] This unique poet did not confine himself to that. He composed the best of all kinds of poetry in bitterness, criticism, and satire against Ziyad and Mu’awiya because of their committing this crime through which the sacredness of Islam

father is Masruh al-Habashi.”

[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.4, p.550. In Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, p. 550, it has been mentioned in a little difference. [^2] Nihayat al-Irab fi Funun al-‘Arab, vol. 3, p. 281. In another narration: “I have never become sad at a thing severer than Ibn al-Mufarragh’s speech!”

was violated. We will mention to you some of what his talent and his rich imagination did well: I have borne witness that your mother, who wore the mask, did not sleep with Abu Sufyan. But it was an affair in which was confusion with strong caution and fear. When Mu’awiya was perished, then convey good news to your people of division.

He has also said:

Surely Ziyad, Nafi‘, and Abu Bakra are among the most wonderful wonder with me. They are three men created in a female’s womb; and all of them belong to one father. This is a Qurayshi, as you say. This is a retainer; and this is (the man) whose cousin is an Arab. In his book Muruj al-Dhahab, al-Mas‘udi has mentioned that these poetry lines belonged to Khalid al-Najjari, and that he said them in satirizing Ziyad when he added ‘Abbad to himself:

O ‘Abbad, meanness is not removed from you. You have neither mother nor father from Quraysh. And say to Ubaydillah: You do not have a real father; and none knows how to trace back your ancestry. Certainly Ziyad added ‘Abbad to himself as Mu’awiya had added Ziyad to himself. He opposed the Sunna of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, who has said: “Whoever claims, in Islam, a father other than his own father, then it is forbidden for him (to enter) the Garden.” It was Mu’awiya who encouraged Ziyad to commit such a sin. It was he who opened a door to corruption. He opposed the Islamic percepts, teachings, and duties without any fear and caution.

H. Al-Hasan al-Basri

Among those who criticized and rebuked Mu’awiya (for his adding Ziyad to himself) is al-Hasan al-Basri[^1] . He regarded this adding as one of Mu’awiya’s

[^1] Al-Hasan al-Basri’s father was Abu Yasar. He was the retainer of Zayd bin Thabit al-Ansari. His mother Khayyarah was the female servant of Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He was born in Medina two years before the end of the caliphate of ‘Umar bin al-Khattabin It was said that he was born as a slave. He was among the masters and the leading figures of the second generation. He died in Basrah at the beginning of the month of Rajab, in the year serious offences and among his bad deeds. He said: “Mu’awiya had four qualities. If he had had only one of them, it would have been a grave sin. He controlled this community through the fools. So he usurped its affair (the caliphate) without asking people whether there were among them the remainder of the companions (of the Prophet) and the men of virtue. He appointed his son Yazid as a successor while he drank wine, wore silk (garments), and played the lutes. He claimed that Ziyad was his brother while Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: ‘The child belongs to bed; and the prostitute is to be stoned.’ Woe unto him from Hajar and his companions twice.”[^1]

These four crimes, which are some of Mu’awiya’s grave sins, are regarded as among the greatest sins he had committed and for which he will be severely reckoned by Allah. That is because of the bad complications with which the Muslims have been afflicted.

I. Al-Saktwari

Allama al-Saktwari has said: “The first affair of those of Allah’s Apostle to be openly refused was that Mu’awiya claimed (that) Ziyad (was his brother). However Abu Sufyan had disowned him (Ziyad), claimed that he was not among his sons, and decided his ancestry to be cut off. However when Mu’awiya became a caliph, he brought him nigh and appointed him as a governor. So Ziyad bin Abeeh did what he did just out of tyranny and damage toward the Prophet’s Household.”[^2]

These are some people who criticized and rebuked Mu’awiya for his adding Ziyad to himself. Without doubt they did that because of faith and zeal for Islam. They came to know that Mu’awiya deliberately gave life to the laws 110. The people overcrowded in a peerless way to escort him to his final resting -place. Hameed al-Taweel has said: “Al-Hasan died on Thursday evening. When we enter upon morning on Friday, we finished his affair. We carried him after Friday prayer and buried him. All the people followed his coffin and were busy with him, to the extent that the afternoon payer was not performed in the mosque.

As far as I know that the prayer was not left from the advent of Islam to that day. That is because all of them followed his coffin. None was in mosque to perform the afternoon prayer. Ibn Sireen did not attend his funeral procession because there was a thing between them.” This has been mentioned in Wafayat al-A‘yan, vol. 4, p. 124. Al-Hasan (al-Basri) was among those who supported the Banu Marwan, to the extent that they said about him: “Were it not for al-Hasan’s tongue and al-Hajjajj’s sword, the Marwani state would be buried in its grave and was taken from its den.” Al-Hafiz has mentioned that al-Hasan was fraud in his (reporting) traditions.

[^1] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 157. Abu al-Fida’, Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 196. [^2] Muhadarat al-Awaa’il, p. 136.

and heresies of the pre-Islamic era. In the meantime he tried to deaden the Islamic duties. He responded to his urgent sentiments in controlling the Muslims and to make the opposing forces yield to him with all means and styles.

Anyway Ziyad used all means to establish his ancestry that he might join the Umayyad race. An example on that is that he wrote a letter to ‘A’isha and started the letter with: “From Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan!” He thought that she would acknowledge his ancestry when he would use that as a proof on the his lineage. That was clear to ‘A’isha, so she wrote to him: “From ‘A’isha, mother of the faithful, to her son Ziyad.”[^1] Thus, his effort failed, and he got nothing except failure and disgrace. When he became a governor over Kufa, he said to its people:

-I have come to you for an affair! I have demanded the affair for none except for you! -Summon us to whatever you will. -You have to add my ancestry to Mu’awiya!

The free and the believers refused to respond to him, saying:

-No to the false witness![^2]

The Arabs refused to add this bastard (Ziyad) to them. However, the Umayyad authorities wrote down his name in the Qurayshi Divan. So he and his children remained so. When the Umayyad state came to an end and the state of the the Abbasids came, the Caliph al-Mahdi cancelled this adding and ordered Ziyad’s family to be omitted from the Qurayshi Divan and from the Arabs. That was in the year 159 A. H. Through that Ziyad’s family returned to their early grandfather ‘Ubayd al-Roomi (the Roman).

His Governors

During the days of Mu’awiya, the Muslim peoples suffered from terrible kinds of ordeal and misfortunes. The standing government was based on violence, tyranny, severe punishment, exhaustion, using up wealth, and refusing all the human values, to the extent that the society was full of oppression, tyranny, and dictatorship. So fear, terrorism, and disorder included all the Muslim countries.

Among the aspects of that social oppression is that Mu’awiya empowered on

[^1] Al-Nasaa’ih, p. 58. [^2] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 6, p. 123.

the Muslims some ignoble people from among the devious headsmen and blood-shedders. They went too far in shedding blood, intentionally plundered the wealth of the people, and arbitrarily ruled the country according to their mean desires and pleasures. Accordingly, the people witnessed neither welfare nor justice. The Kharijites described the severity, deviation, and tyranny of that government, saying: “Surely the Umayyads were a sect; their punishment was severe. They punished according to suspicion, decided according to caprice, and killed according to anger.”[^1]

This is an exact description of the tyrannical Umayyad policy that followed a severe method in all fields. That is because the Umayyads did not believe in man’s rights, dignity, and his right to live. So they drove the citizens to massacres and prisons. They decided according to mean desires and pleasures. They did not depend on Allah’s Book and the Sunna of His Prophet in respect of their judgments. They killed according to rage and anger for the sake of their narrow interests and objectives.

Amr bin al-‘Aas, Mu’awiya’s minister and governor of Egypt, expressed what he harbored in his wicked soul from among recklessness and disdaining the Muslims’ rights, saying: “Al-Sawad (Iraq) is a garden belongs to Quraysh only!” Surely al-Sawad, which belonged to all the Muslims, and all the economic affairs, in his viewpoint, belonged to Quraysh. What right did they have in that, while they fought against the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, declared war against his objectives and teachings, strongly defended their pre-Islamic beliefs and their idols? So what right did they have in the Muslims’ properties? And what right did they have in controlling their rights?

Anyhow, Khousrow of the Arabs (Mu’awiya), as they say, enabled the criminals and the blood-shedders to control the Muslims. He entrusted them with an absolute government, and they freely acted in respect of the people’s lives of the countries. He accepted their tyranny and their oppression. He protected them, and they in return enslaved, abased, and exhausted the Muslims. We will give a brief account on the biographies of these blood-shedders along with an explanation to what issued from them from among the barbaric deeds. That is up to readers:

[^1] Al-Bayan, vol. 1, p. 95.