The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba

The Policy of Ahl Al-bayt

We are trying to explain the reasons for the peacemaking. So we have to deal with some sides of the policy of Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet’s Household), peace be on them, to know the extent of the originality of their constructive policy and to understand the high objective they wanted to achieve through their government. That is because explaining these sides, as we think, gives us lights about Imam al-Hasan’s peacemaking with the tyrannical one of his time (Mu’awiya) and shows us the reasons that made the rebellious forces unite to fight against him as they had done to his father before. We will mention that to readers. [^1] Al-Jahiz, al-Bayan wa al-Tabiyin, vol. 3, p. 359.

The Constructive Policy

Surely the policy that prevails all over the country, in the viewpoint of Ahl al-Bayt, should be constructive. It should guarantee the interests of society, find some sound means necessary for its progress, and reach its objectives and hopes. It should protect people from oppression and aggression, establish just equality in their areas, and find equal opportunities to their children to protect them from misery and deprivation.

Surely the policy of Ahl al-Bayt was based on pure justice and truth. It represented the Islamic viewpoint and objectives in the world of policy and government. That is because it is the most developed policy the people have ever known and the most meritorious (of all policies) in achieving political and social justice among people. That is because their policy seeks tranquility free from upset, security free from fear, and justice void of oppression. It, in all its aspects, differs from the Umayyad tyrannical policy, which raised the slogan of oppression and tyranny, used as means tricks and deception to bargain for the interests of the peoples, to strip them of their abilities and to overcome them.

Surely the original policy of Ahl al-Bayt is that which does not depend on cunning, equivocation, deception, propaganda, misguidance, and the like from among the ways that have no side of reality. Besides it should be frank and clear in all its objectives and principle features that it may establish justice in the countries. Because of their firm and strict policy in respect of the truth and justice, the opportunists and the devious revolted against them and demanded them to follow a way that did not oppose their interests and ambitions. If they had responded to them, the caliphate would not have reached other than them. However they, peace be on them, preferred Allah’s pleasure, followed the clear way, and were far from the crooked plans the religion did not accept.

Their Viewpoint of the Caliphate

Surely the caliphate with them was the shadow of Allah in the earth, so it was obligatory that, in its shadow, exclusive justice should be established, welfare should spread, and security should spread over all the citizens. When authority was void of these goals, then they had neither ambitions nor aims in it. While Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) was mending his sandals at Dhi Qar, he asked Ibn Abbas about them: -O son of Abbas, how much do you value them (the shoes)? -They have no value.

-By Allah, they are more beloved to me than these affairs of yours but for the fact that I must establish what is true and ward off what is false.

His shoes, which were made of coir, were more lovable to him than the authority through which what was true was not established and what was false was not warded off. For this reason he refrained from the oppressive authority that lost justice, gave life to tyranny, and deadened the truth. In some of his words, Imam Ali (a.s) has disclosed the secret for his turning away from pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr. In this connection he has said: “O Allah, surely You know that that which issued from us was not for a competition for authority, nor was it for seeking anything of the remainder of the vanities, but that we may return the principle features of Your religion and show righteousness in Your earth, so the oppressed from among Your servants is safe, and the suspended one from among the punishments prescribed by You is put into effect.”[^1]

For these firm reasons the Imam declared his displeasure with Abu Bakr and refrained from paying homage to him. He put before him a shower of proofs for his being worthier of the caliphate than him (Abu Bakr). However he did not fight against him. He came to know that it was incumbent on the community to yield to him as Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family had commanded. In respect of that Allah’s Apostle had ordered, saying to him: “O Ali, you are of the same rank with the Kaaba; people come to you, but you do not go to them. So if these people came to you and handed it (the caliphate) over to you, then accept it from them. And if they did not come to you; therefore do not go to them until they come to you.”[^2]

Surely it was incumbent on the Muslims to yield to the family of their Prophet and to resort to them, that they might judge among them with what Allah had revealed and to return them to the clear truth and to the straight path. However the world deceived the people, and the authority cheated them. So they followed their ambitions and their mean desires, and they turned away the authority from its men and placed it in a place other than its place, and that led to hard ordeals and black misfortunes with which the Muslims were afflicted throughout their ages.

The Ideals

As for the high objectives and ideals that Ahl al-Bayt raised and adopted in all the fields, they are as follows:

[^1] Muhammed ‘Abda, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 2, p. 18. [^2] Asad al-Ghaba, vol. 4, p. 31.


The Islamic policy in all its concepts has adopted justice, absolutely believed in it and focused on its lights in respect of all its aims. It has demanded the rulers and the governors to establish it on the arena of life, and that the decision that issues from them should not result from a mean desire and the rest of purposes that has nothing to do with justice. Allah, the Most High, has said: “And that when you judge between people you judge with justice”[^1] and “O Dawud, surely we have made you a ruler in the land; so judge between men with justice and do not follow desire, lest it should lead you astray from the path of Allah.”[^2]

The Muslims have unanimously agreed that if the judge deviated in respect of his judgement, it is incumbent on the ruler to remove him from the office. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, removed one of his governors when Soda, daughter of ‘Imarah al-Hamadaniya, told him that the judge was not just in his decision. The Imam wept and said: “O Allah, You bear witness as to me and as to them that I have not commanded them to wrong Your creatures or to leave Your right!”

Then he immediately removed him.[^3] Imam al-Sadiq has said: “Fear Allah and be just, for you criticize the people for their being unjust.”[^4] Surely the happiness and progress of a community depend on the justice of their rulers. When the rulers turn away from justice and become unjust in their decisions, the country is liable to crises, chaos and trends spread over it. Islam takes great care of that the government should be in the hands of the righteous and the trustworthy. That is because government seduces people, and none escapes it except those with pure, noble souls, and such people are few. We have talked in details about the aspects of justice in our book al-Nizam al-Siyasi fi al-Islam (the Political System in Islam). So we think that there is no need to deal with these researches. We only want to say that the policy of Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, was based on inclusive justice and all its goals were built on it.

[^1] Qur’an, 4, 58. [^2] Ibid., 38, 26. [^3] Al-Iqd al-Fareed, vol. 1, p. 211. [^4] Usool al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 147.


Islam has bestowed the blessing of equality on mankind in a peerless manner in the history of the world society. It has declared the just equality among individuals and communities and among races. Therefore, the white have no excellence over the black, and the Arabs have no excellence over the non-Arabs. So people are equal and like the teeth of a comb. Some of them have no excellence over some others except through fear of Allah and good deeds. Professor Jeep says: “Surely Islam is still the only religion that, through its power, wonderfully succeeds in uniting human different elements and races in one front whose foundation is equality. And if the disputes between the east and the west thoroughly studied, then there is no escape from resorting to Islam.”[^1]

Imam Ali, the commander of the faithful, inclusively put into effect the just equality during his reign. He commanded his governors to treat the people equally even if in glance and look. In one of his letters, he has mentioned: “And lower your wing in gentleness to the subjects. Have a cheerful face to them, and make them equal in glance and look, gesture and greeting, that the great may not crave after your injustice, and the weak may not despair of your justice.”[^2]

This just policy moved spites and hatred against him, made the rebellious forces unite and fight against him. This has been mentioned by al-Mada’ini, who has said: “The most important reason for that the Arabs deserted Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s) was his following the principle of equality among the people. He did not prefer the noble to the humble, nor did he prefer an Arab to non-Arab, nor did he flatter the chiefs of the tribes.”[^3]

Most surely the Qurayshi tyrants and their followers from among the tyrannical Arabs did not understand the original objectives Islam brought such as generalizing equality, spreading justice, and putting an end to injustice. Surely they wanted distinctions, possessing alone the Muslims’ properties, and showing arrogance toward the poor and the weak. That was contrary to the behavior of Imam Ali (a.s), the pioneer of social justice on earth. As for Imam al-Hasan, he followed his father’s way and behavior. He did not turn away from his method, and this was the reason of that the people harbored malice and hatred against him.

[^1] Al-Nizam al-Siyasi fi al-Islam, p. 319. [^2] Muhammed ‘Abda, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 85. [^3] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p.180.


Islam has adopted general freedom for all citizens and made it incumbent on the state to protect it and to put it into effect on the arena of life. It has adopted the freedom of thought, thinking, opinion, and the rest of the political fields. It has regarded freedom as among man’s natural and necessary rights. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, put into practice freedom in all its aspects during the time of his caliphate. He did not force the people to pay homage to him or to obey him. Rather he left them with their affair to enjoy their freedom. He did not subject them to any harm and detested thing. Similarly, he treated the Kharijites. That was when he did not fight against them until he warned them and discussed with them to refute their vague errors. When they insisted on their thought, he released them. However, when they made mischief in the land and disturbed the peace, he battled against them. It was according to these words of Allah, the Exalted: “And if two parties of the believers quarrel, make peace between them; but if one of them acts wrongfully toward the other, fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah’s command.” When he had finished the battle against them, there were many Iraqi people embracing their beliefs, but he did not subject them to any detested thing nor did he deprive them of booty (fayya’) nor did he prevent any of them to go out (to battle) if he wanted that. He granted them a complete freedom. So the authorities did not watch them nor did they follow them or punish any of them. He also gave a freedom to the Umayyad party. He did not interfere with them through any kind of harm or a detested thing, though he knew well that they were his opponent and enemy.

This wide freedom Imam Ali gave to the opposing parties was the widest freedom history has ever known. His constructive policy required that the people should not be forced to show obedience to him and to do what they had disliked.

Frankness and Truthfulness

Surely the wise policy that Ahl al-Bayt had adopted was truthful and real. It did not depend on equivocation and hypocrisy. It did not seduce the people through false promises nor did it make them hope for honey wishes. Its was based on frankness and truthfulness. The policy of Ahl al-Bayt was full of frankness in all fields. Deception and hypocrisy were not of its logic. Imam al-Husayn (a.s) was the grandson of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and the representative of Islam. He frankly told the people who accompanied him from Mecca to Kufa about the murder of the great martyr Muslim bin ‘Aqeel (a.s) his messenger and representative to the Iraqis. He told them that Muslim had been killed, and the people of Kufa had deserted him and broken their promises and covenants. He also told them that he would head for the field of death. As a result, the ambitious and men of desires separated from him. During that terrible hour, he (a.s) told them about the fact, his plan and his objectives. He did so, that they might come to know their affairs and to act according to the commands of Islam, which required frankness and truthfulness, and did not regard as permissible all means of betrayal and deception.

Surely if all kinds of equivocation were permissible in Islam, Mu’awiya, the opponent of Islam, would not overcome Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. The Imam was able to bargain with Mu’awiya after the murder of ‘Uthman. He was able to let him remain as a governor over Damascus, and then he would remove him from the office and get rid of his evil and mutiny. However, Islam did not allow him to do that cheap bargain. So he refused to let him remain in the body of government even for a short time. Yet there is another affair that is more important in effect and further in the extent of the world of frankness than that. The affair is that Imam Ali refused to respond to Abdurrahman bin ‘Awf, a member of the Consultative Committee nominated by the Second Caliph (‘Umar) to elect the new caliph after him. Abdurrahman strongly insisted on Imam Ali to elect him and to pay homage to him for the Islamic great office of caliphate provided that he should follow the conduct line of the two Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar) and their policy. However, the Imam (a.s) refused to respond to this condition. He refused all things except following Allah’s Book and the Sunna of His Prophet in his policy, administrative works, and the like. He was able to accept this stipulation in the first place, and then he would be able to turn away from it and to follow his policy according to the objectives Islam had decided and to arrest all those who opposed him and his government, but he refused all things except frankness and truthfulness in word and act.

Surely Islam commands its followers to cling to truthfulness and it does not make it permissible for them to use crooked ways that have nothing to do with reality in making firm the government and strengthening authority. The Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, has said: “Stick to truthfulness, for truthfulness leads to kindness, and kindness leads to the Garden. Man still tells the truth and searches for truthfulness until he is written very truthful with Allah. Beware of lying, for sure lying leads to licentiousness, and licentiousness leads to the fire. Man still tells lies and look for lying until he is written a liar with Allah.”[^1]

[^1] It has been narrated by Muslim.

Surely Ahl al-Bayt built their policy on truthfulness and frankness. They avoided cunning and deception.

Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) has said: “Were it not for that cunning and deception lead to the fire, I would be the most cunning of the people.”

He (a.s) always sighed deeply because of the exhausting pain he met from his opponents and said: “Alas! They deceive me, and they know that I am knowledgeable of their deception and most knowledgeable of them in the kinds of cunning. However I have come to know that cunning and deception lead to the fire. Therefore, I am patient toward their cunning, and I do not commit the like of which they commit….”[^1] Concerning cunning he has also said: “Every perfidious has a standard through which he will be known on the Day of Resurrection.”[^2]

Betrayal issues from the soul that does not believe in human ideals and religious values. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, has described the perfidious, saying: “He, who knows how the return is, does not betray. We have become in a time whose most men have adopted betrayal as courtesy. In respect of it, the men of ignorance have ascribed them to good stratagem. What is the matter with them? May Allah fight them! The one with a skillful heart may seek a way to stratagem. But before it there is a deterrent from Allah’s command and prohibition, so he leaves it with his own eyes after the power over it, and he who does not stick to the religion seizes the opportunity of it.”

The slaves of pleasures and offices during his reign said: “He (Imam Ali) has no knowledge of political affairs. Mu’awiya is experienced in them and worthy of managing the government.”

The Imam (a.s) said: “By Allah, Mu’awiya is not craftier than I am, but he betrays and acts sinfully. Were it not for that betrayal is abominable, I would be the craftiest of all the people.”[^3]

The policy of Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, and the rest of the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt, in all its affairs, has expressed all the good political values Islam declared. It does not accept desertion, cunning, and deception, nor does it believe in any of the means of social hypocrisy even if timely

[^1] Jami‘ al-Sa‘dat, vol. 1, p. 202. [^2] Nahj al-Balagha. [^3] Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 2, p.206.

political success depends on it. That is because the Islamic caliphate is the most important of all the sensitive offices in Islam. Therefore, there is no escape from that it should be based on firm morals and deep faith in the rights of society and community.

As for Imam al-Hasan (a.s) he followed his father’s plans and decisions in the world of policy and government. He did not depend on any means the religion did not accept. He refrained from all the irregular ways that do not meet with the reality. If he had followed some of the ways Mu’awiya had followed, he (Mu’awiya) would not have overcome him. He (a.s) said to Sulayman bin Surad: “If I was resolute in respect of the affair of the world, acted and toiled for the world, Mu’awiya would not be braver or more powerful than I would. However my opinion is different from yours.”

This indicates that if he had worked for the world, then he would have been more powerful over it than his opponent, because overcoming events and obtaining government depend on using the means that did not agree with the religion, while he (a.s) was the greatest of Muslims in protecting Islam and taking care of it. He was the strongest of the people in piety and sticking to the affairs of the religion.

The Governors

Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, maintained that the officials of the body of government should be the best of men in merit, honesty, qualification, and ability to run the affairs of the country. They had to put before their eyes the general interest and to behave among the people with the behavior based on pure justice and truth. They had to be honest in what they collected from the people and what they spent on the public utilities, and they had to be, before everything, far from bribe and from that which was in the hand of the people, for bribe leads to the collapse of morals, spreading of falsehood and corruption in the earth. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) sent a letter to the commanders of his troops in which he said: “Those who were before you perished because they prevented the people from (getting) their right, and they bought it (for bribe), and because they treated them with falsehood...”[^1]

Surely among the most important reasons that lead to the destruction and removal of a government is that when the citizens are veiled from their rights, and so they are forced to take them for bribe. Of course such a deed leads the society into disorder, and makes oppression and tyranny spread. [^1] Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 1, p. 151.

Indeed Ahl al-Bayt thought of something greater and deeper than that. They made it incumbent on their governors to be far from the people through all kinds of link even if it brought about affection and sentiment for fear that it might have an effect on the course of justice. For this reason Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) wrote a letter to Sahl bin Hunayf, his governor over Basra, when he was invited to a banquet, and he attended it. This is the text of what he wrote to him: “O Ibn Hunayf, I have come to know that a young man from Basra invited you to a feast, and you leapt towards it. Foods of different colors were served for you and big bowls were put before you. I never thought that you would accept the feast of a people who turn away the beggars and invite the rich. Look at the morsels you take, leave out that about which you are in doubt and take that about which you are sure that it has been secured lawfully.”[^1]

Al-Ash‘ath bin Qays wanted to seek nearness to Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, and to communicate with him. He made him a good candy and offered the candy to him. Let him tell us about his attitude toward this affair. He says: “And more wonderful than that is a night visitor who came by night (and brought us) a wrapped up (candy) whose piece of meat was kneaded as it was kneaded with a snake’s saliva and vomit. So I said: ‘Is this a link, zakat, or alms?’ He said: ‘Neither this nor that, but it is a gift!’ So I said: ‘May your mother lose you! Have you come to me to deceive me through the religion of Allah? Are you mentally disordered, crazy, or delirious? By Allah, if I was given the seven regions and that which was under their orbits in order that I might disobey Allah through stripping an ant of a husk of grain of barely, I would not do. And surely your world with me is easier than a leaf in a locust’s mouth (and) it eats it. Ali is far away from the bliss that perishes and the pleasure that does not last. We seek refuge in Allah from the sleep of reason and the ugly slip! We ask Him for help!”[^2]

Through this constructive policy social justice is established, security and welfare spread, and all kinds of oppression and injustice come to an end.

Military Service

The policy of Ahl al-Bayt did not require forcing the people in respect of the military service. It has not been reported from them that they forced the people to go out for war; rather they summoned them to perform jihad as one of the religious duties imposed by Allah. So whoever wished to go out for

[^1] Muhammed ‘Abda, Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 3, p. 78. [^2] Ibid., vol. 2, p. 244.

jihad went out to perform the duty imposed on him, and whoever (refrained from going out for jihad) refrained and did not yield to that which Allah made obligatory on him with being liable to punishment, displeasure, and terrorism. This was the plan of Imam al-Hasan (a.s) when he wanted to battle against Mu’awiya. He did not force anyone to do that; rather he summoned them to jihad. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, had done that before at the Battles of al-Jamal (the Camel), Siffin, and al-Nahrawan. He wanted the people to go to jihad out of their thought and faith in that which Allah had made obligatory on them. As for the Umayyads, they were on the contrary to that. They imposed severe punishments on those who refrained from war. History has told us about the behavior of Ubaydillah bin Ziyad when he went out to battle against Imam al-Husayn, the master of the youths of the Garden, peace be on him. He killed Shami because he was not among those who did not command the people to go out to the battle. He also killed al-Hajjaj bin Amr bin Daabi al-Barjami because he did not respond to joining the Army of al-Muhallab bin Abi Suffra. About that a poet says:

Choose, either you visit ‘Umayr bin Daabi or you visit al-Muhallab.

This terrorist plan forced the people to respond to them unwillingly. If Imam al-Hasan had forced his Army to obey him, severely punished the rebels, the weak, and other people because of suspicion and accusation, his Army would not have stricken by those shocks and defeats. However he, the peace of Allah be on him, followed the clear path in which there was neither complexity nor crookedness. He preferred Allah’s pleasure to all things.

Fiscal Policy

Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) followed a certain financial policy. They made it incumbent on the rulers to spend the money in the central treasury on general interests such as establishing foundations, finding vital projects through which life would be regulated and through which the ghost of poverty and deprivation would come to an end. It was not permissible with them to spend even one dirham on things that did not bring about profit and interest to the community. They took great care of this affair. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, put out the candle in the public treasury when Talha and al-Zubayr came to him and discussed with him about their personal affairs. That is because the candle in the public treasury belonged to the Muslims, so it was not permissible to use it except for their interests.

This strict policy moved against him the Arabs’ spites and the hatred of Quraysh. A group of his companions came and asked him to change his policy. They said to him: “O Commander of the faithful, give these properties, prefer these noble people from among the Arabs and Quraysh to the non-Arab Muslims and the non-Arabs, and attract the people of whose opposition you are afraid.”

This cheap speech hurt him, and he said to them: “Are you commanding me to seek victory through tyranny?”[^1] Surely preferring the Arabs to the non-Arab Muslims and giving properties to the great figures were regarded as tyranny and aggression in the viewpoint of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib, the pioneer of equality and justice in the earth.

Surely the Muslims’ properties should be spent on their interests and on satisfying their needy and deprived ones. The leader of the state has no right to choose anything of Muslims’ wealth for himself or to prefer his relatives to others. Doing so is treason to Allah and the Muslims. Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, put this policy into practice on the arena of life when he became the caliph. He had neither houses nor country estates. He did not amuse himself nor did he pay attention to his worn out garment. He did not eat delicious food nor did he enjoy any of the pleasures of life. Rather he led the life of the poor and the miserable. Harun narrated on the authority of his father ‘Antara, who said: “I came in to Ali when he was at al-Khuwarnaq and wearing an old short garment. It was very cold. I said to him: ‘O Commander of the faithful, surely Allah has appointed a share of this property to you and to your family, while you do this to yourself!”

The Imam (a.s) answered: “By Allah, I will not oppress you in anything. It is my old short garment I brought from Medina.”[^2]

The Imam had no garment to protect him from cold except a worn out garment he brought from Medina. Of course he was able to wear embellished silk garments. However he refused to choose any of the Muslims’ properties. He also did not prefer anyone of his family and children to others. Abu Rafi‘[^3] , who was the treasurer of the public treasury, said: “Ali, the Commander of the faithful, came in to me. I had given his daughter a pearl from the properties in

[^1] Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.1, p.182. [^2] Al-Kamil, vol. 8, p. 173. [^3] It was said that the name of Abu Raafi‘ was Ibrahim. It was said that it was Aslam. He was a Coptic. It was said that he was the retainer of al-‘Abbas, so he granted him to Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. When al-‘Abbas became Muslim, Abu Raafi‘ gave good news to Allah’s Apostle about his being Muslim. So he released him. He (Abu Raafi‘) died during the caliphate of ‘Uthman. It was said that he died during the caliphate of Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful. Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 4, p. 70.

the public treasury. When he saw the pearl, he knew it. He turned pale and shook all over with fear. Then he asked: ‘From where has she taken it? By Allah, I am going to cut off her hand!’”

When Abu Raafi‘ came to know that the Imam was serious and determined to do that, he said to him: “By Allah, O Commander of the faithful, it is I who have given it to her! It is a guaranteed, simple loan.” So the Imam’s fear calmed down, and his anger abated. Then he said to him: “I married Fatima and I did not have any bed except a skin of a ram. We slept on the skin by night and on it we gave food to our camel that was used for watering by day. I have no retainer other than her.”[^1] Surely his high ideals did not permit him to prefer his daughter to the Muslims’ daughters. This is the utmost justice none other than he established. Another example on his treating the Muslims with equality and on his taking great care of their properties was what ‘Aasim bin Kulayb[^2] narrated that his father had said: “A property came to me from Isbahan (Isfahan). He (Imam Ali) divided the property into seven parts. Then he summoned the commanders of the one-seventh and made them choose by lot, that he might see who would be the first to be given.”[^3]

Al-Hakam said: “I saw Ali coming to a lane, summoning the orphans and saying to them: ‘Drive away (the flies) and lick.’ To the extent that I wished that I was an orphan.” He also said: “I saw Ali bringing pomegranates. He divided them among the people. Our mosque got ten pomegranates.”[^4] Imam Ali used to perform the prayer in the public treasury, and then he ordered it to be swept. He would say: “Praise belongs to Allah Who has taken me out of it as I had come into it.”[^5]

[^1] Al-Kamil, vol. 8, p. 173. [^2] ‘Aasim bin Kulayb bin Shahab al-Jarmi al-Kufi narrated (traditions) on the authority of a group of the leading companions (of the Prophet). Another group narrated on his authority. Ibn Ma‘een and al-Nisaa’i have said: “He is trustworthy.” Ibn Shahab has said: “He was among the worshippers and among those best of the people of Kufa. He was accused of al-Murji’a, and them he was regarded as far above that.” Ibn Hayyan has regarded him as among the trustworthy. He said: “Surely he is trustworthy and reliable. He died in the year 137 A. H.” Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, vol. 5, p.55. [^3] Al-Kamil, vol. 8, p. 173. [^4] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 1, Q1, p. 161. [^5] Ibid.

The historians say: “Imam Ali came into the public treasury and divided (the properties in) it. There was a small girl with him. The girl belonged either to al-Hasan or to al-Husayn. She took some of the properties. The Imam went after her and took it from her hand. So his companions said to him: ‘O Commander of the faithful, surely she has a right in it.’

“He (a.s) said: ‘When her father gets something of it, then let him give her whatever he pleases.’”[^1]

Surely this is the justice that people have not established in all the stages of history. Despite their experiences, progress, and creation in the techniques of government, they never form a political regime through which the greatest justice is established in a manner similar to that followed by Imam Ali and his sons after him.

With this point we will end our speech on some high ideals sought by Ahl al-Bayt during their reign. Imam al-Hasan (a.s) did not deviate from these ideals nor did he follow during his policy the way of those who worked for the world. He did not follow the way of those who wanted domain and authority nor did he dodge and flatter. He did not spend money on things other than the lawful things. If he had done all these things, then the authority would not have come to (Mu’awiya) Hind’s son, who followed all the means to reach the government. However he (a.s) preferred protecting Islam, and keeping its fates and morale. Generally speaking, he followed the behavior of his grandfather and of his father, who did not accept all the ways opposing the religion.

Yet there is something mentioned by those who criticized Imam al-Hasan for his making peace with Mu’awiya. The thing is that Imam al-Hasan did not die a martyr as his brother Imam al-Husayn (a.s) died. We will mention the answer in detail when we speak about the attitude of Imam al-Husayn (a.s) toward the peacemaking.

[^1] Ansab al-Ashraf, vol. 1, p. 160.