The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba
Chapter Ii : the Newborn Child
The Light of Imamate towered over the world from the houses which Allah has permitted to be exalted and that His name may be remembered in them. A good, pure branch came out of the great tree of the prophethood and Imamate. Through this branch Allah made exalted the entity of Islam, built the edifice of faith and made peace between two great parties.
The grandson of the Prophet (a.s), the master of the youths of the Garden, came to the world of existence in the month of Ramadan when the Qur’an was revealed. It was in the second or the third year of hijra.[^1] The appearance of
[^1] Al-Isaba, vol. 1, p. 328. Al-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, p. 368. Al-Sayuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa’, p. 73. Al-Bustani, Da’irat al-Ma‘rif, vol. 7, p. 38. In these books it has been mentioned that he was born in the middle of the month of Ramadan, in the third year A. H. In the book Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol. 1, p. 10, it has been mentioned that his birth was on the fifth day of the month of Sha‘ban.
This is a clear mistake. Perhaps, the author has meant Imam al-Husayn, peace be on him, who was born on the fifth day of the month of Sha‘ban. Some authors thought that he, peace be on him, was born in the second year A. H. In the book Mir’at al-‘Uqool, p. 390, it has been mentioned: “There is no contradiction in the dates of the birth. For each of them is based on a term in the principle of history other than the term on which the another is based. We can detail it in three terms: The first is that the beginning of the birth was in the month of Rabee‘ al-Awwal; that is because the emigration (of the Prophet) was in it. The companions (of the Prophet) depended on it until the year sixty A. H. The narration that al-Hasan was born in the second year A. H., it is based on this meaning. The second is that the beginning of the birth was in the month of Ramadan before the Month of Rabee‘ al-Awal when the emigration took place; that is because it is the beginning of the Hijri year. As for the narration that al-Hasan, peace be on him, was born in the third year A. H., it is based on this meaning. The third, which is the beginning of the birth was in the month of al-Muharram, is that which ‘Umar devised.”
As for the narration of the author of the book Mir’at al-Uqool, it removes the contradiction between the two statements. As for the report of the professor Fareed Wajjdi in his book Daa’irat al-Ma‘arif, vol. 3, p. 443, that the birth of al-Hasan, peace be on him, was six year before the emigration, it opposes the unanimous agreement of the historians. That is because Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, did not marry Fatima, the truthful one, before the emigration, as we have already explained. As for how Fatima, the truthful, gave birth to Imam al-Hasan, peace be on him, it has been mentioned in the book Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 470. That is when the hour of her giving birth came, Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) sent to her Asma‘, daughter of ‘Umays, and Umm Ayman, and they recited to her the Verse of al-Kursi and the two verses called al-Mu‘awadhatayn (chapters 113 and 114). Asma’ narrated, saying: “Fatima, peace be on him, was pregnant with al-Hasan, peace be on him, but I saw no blood of her. So I said: ‘Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) I have seen no blood of Fatima during her menstruation and her childbed.’ He (a.s.) said: ‘Did you not Allah’s Apostle (a.s) was seen through the appearance of the newborn child. The Prophet’s merits and good qualities were present in him.
When the news of that Truthful Fatima gave birth to the blessed newborn child, waves of delight and rejoicing covered the heart of the Prophet (a.s). He hurried to the house of his daughter, the dearest one to him from among his children. He congratulated her on her blessed newborn child, congratulated his cousin Imam Ali, and gave the newborn child some of his noble qualities, whose scent covered the whole world. When the, Prophet (a.s) reached Imam Ali’s house, he called out: “O Asma’, give me my (grand) son!”
Asma’ hurried and handed him the baby warped in a yellow piece of cloth, so he said to her: “Did I not tell you not to wrap the newborn child with a yellow piece of cloth!”
The Prophet (a.s) cut off the baby’s navel and pressed the baby to his bosom. Then he raised his hands towards the heaven and invoked Allah for him, saying: “O Allah, I commend him and his offspring into Your protection from the accursed Satan!”[^1]
Rites at the Birth of a Child
The Prophet (a.s) performed for his newborn child the ceremonies and rites, which are as follows:
1. The azan and the iqama
The Prophet (a.s) recited the azan in the baby’s right ear and the iqama in his left ear.[^2] It has been mentioned in a tradition: “Most surely performing such a rite protects the child from the accursed Satan.”[^3] The Prophet, the best one of Adam’s children (a.s) whispered wonderful words in the ear of his newborn child, that he might receive the world of existence through the highest thing know that Fatima was pure and purified? Her blood during her menstruation and her childbed is not seen.’” The period of her pregnancy with al-Hasan was six months. The author of the book al-Fusool al-Muhimma has mentioned something contrary to this narration. Accordingly, no baby other than him was born in six months and remained alive except ‘Isa, son of Maryam, peace be on him, just as the late al-Amini, may Allah have mercy on him, has mentioned in his book A‘yan al-Shi‘a, vol. 4, p. 3.
[^1] Al-Bustani, Da’irat al-Ma‘arif, vol. 7, p. 38. [^2] Ahmed, Musnad, vol. 6, p. 391. Al-Turmidhi, Saheeh, vol. 1, p. 286. Abu Dawud, Saheeh, vol. 33, p. 214. It was said that he did not do that by himself; rather he ordered Asma’, daughter of Umays and Umm Salama to perform that an hour after the birth. This has been mentioned by al-Shiblanji’s Noor al-Absar, p. 107. [^3] Al-Jawahir, a Chapter on Marriage.
in it. The first words to knock on his ear were those of his grandfather, the Prophet (a.s), the cause of beings and master of creatures. These words were: “Allah is great! There is no god but Allah!”
With these words full of faith Allah’s Apostle (a.s) received his grandson. He planted them in the depth of his soul and with them he supplied his feelings and sentiments, that they might be a hymn in his life in this world.
2. The Name
The Prophet (a.s) turned to Imam Ali, who was happy and delighted, and asked him: “Have you given a name to the blessed child?”
“I do not want to precede you, O Allah’s Apostle,” replied the Imam. The Prophet (a.s) said: “I do not want to precede my Lord!”
Some minutes later, the Revelation called out the Prophet (a.s) and carried to him the name from Allah, the Exalted. Gabriel said to him: “Name him Hasan!”[^1]
[^1] In the book Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 470, it has been mentioned: “The one entrusted with the revelation, Gabriel, came down to the Prophet (a.s.) and said to him: ‘I am reciting to you your Lord’s words. He says to you: Ali is in the same position with respect to you as Aaron (Harun) was to Moses (Musa) except that there is no prophet after you.’ Therefore, name this (grand) son of yours by the name of Harun’s son.’ So the Prophet (a.s.) said: ‘What was the name of Harun’s son, O Gabriel? ‘Shibr,’ replied Gabriel. ‘Most surely, my language is Arabic,’ retorted the Prophet. ‘Name it al-Hasan,’ explained Gabriel. Accordingly, the Prophet (a.s.) did that.’” A narration similar to this has been reported by al-‘Amili, may Allah have mercy on him, in his book A‘yan al-Shi‘a.
In the books Usd al-Ghaba and Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 470, it has been mentioned that the name al-Hasan was not known in the pre-Islamic period. In the book Tarikh al-Khamees it has been mentioned that Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) gave it this name after the seventh day of its birth. This narration is incorrect, for giving the name took place immediately after the birth according to the unanimous agreement of all the historians. In the books al-Isti‘ab, vol. 1, p. 368 and al-Adab al-Mufrad, p. 120, it has been mentioned that when al-Hasan, peace be on him, was born, Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) and said: “Show me my (grand) son! What have you named it?” “Harb,”
they answered. “Rather, it is al-Hasan,” he (a.s.) retorted. When al-Husayn was born, he said: “Show me my (grand) son! What have you named it?” “Harb,” they answered. “Rather, it is al-Husayn,” he (a.s.) retorted. When the third grandson was born, he asked “What have you named it?” “Harb,” they answered. “Rather, it is al-Muhsin,” he (a.s.) retorted. Then he (a.s.) said: “I have given them names of Harun’s sons, Shubbar and Shubayr.” It could be said that this narration was fabricated. Firstly, the enmity between the Hashimites and Harb’s family is very clear. Therefore, why did the members of the House (Aal al-Bayt) approve of naming their children by the names of Harb, to whom belonged the Umayyads? Secondly, that the Prophet (a.s.) turned away from the name Harb is a sufficient proof of making Aal al-Bayt turn away from Indeed, it was one of the best names. It is sufficient for the name to be beautiful and good is that the Wise Creator has chosen it. Its beautiful utterance might be a proof of its beautiful meaning.
Seven days after the birth, the Prophet (a.s) headed for the house of Imam Ali (a.s) that he might honor his grandson. He ordered a ram[^2] to be sacrificed for his grandson and ordered a leg of it to be given to the midwife. His community has followed his deed after him.
4. Shaving the Hair
The Prophet (a.s) shaved the hair of his blessed grandson with his own hand. Then he silver as much as the weight of the cut hair to the poor.[^3] Then he perfumed al-Hasan’s hair with al-khuluq[^4]. Indeed, we have not seen affection giving such a name to al-Hasan, al-Husayn and al-Muhsin. Thirdly, al-Muhsin was not born during the lifetime of the Prophet (a.s.). These reasons indicate that the narration mentioned by the author of al-Isti‘ab is incorrect. In his book al-Musnad, Ahmed bin Hanbel, has reported on the authority of Ali, peace be on him, who said: “When al-Hasan was born, I gave him the name of my uncle al-Hamza. When al-Husayn was born, I gave him the name of my brother Ja‘far. So Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) summoned me and said: ‘Most surely, Allah has commanded me to change the names of these two (grandsons of mine).” Then he gave them the names of al-Hasan and al-Husayn.’” This narration is also weak, for Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) gave these names to his two grandsons after their birth. No one has mentioned what Ahmed has mentioned.
[^1] It is among the most recommended acts. Some jurists have thought that it is obligatory. When the Prophet (a.s.) slaughtered the ram, he said: “In the name of Allah, this is the aqiqa of al-Hasan. O Allah, its flesh (i.e., the flesh of the sacrifice of the aqiqa) for his flesh, its blood for his blood, its bone for his bone, its hair for his hair, its skin for his skin. O Allah, let it be a protection of the family of Muhammed (a.s.).”
[^2] Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 470. Mushkil al-Aathaar, vol. 1, p. 456. Al-Hulya, vol. 1, p. 116. Al-Turmidhi, Saheeh, vol. 1, p. 286. A‘yan al-Shi‘a, vol. 4, p. 108. In al-Shiblanji’s Noor al-Absar, al-Tahawi’s Mushkil al-Aathaar, vol. 1, p. 456, and al-Hakim’s Mustadrak, vol. 1, p. 237, it has been mentioned that the Prophet (a.s.) offered two sacrifices on behalf of al-Hasan and two on behalf of al-Husayn. This narration is weak, for Shams al-Deen al-Dhahabi has criticized it in his book Talkhees al-Mustadrak. He has said: “Firstly, Sawar, the reporter of the narration, is weak in reporting traditions. Secondly, the leading jurists have mentioned that only one sacrifice should be offered.”
[^3] Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 470. Noor al-Absar, p. 107. Al-Turmidhi, Saheeh, vol. 1, p. 286. In them it has been mentioned that the weigh of al-Hasan’s hair was a dirham and some.
[^4] Al-khuluq is a perfume composed of saffron and other things. In the book al-Bihar, vol. 10, p. 68 it has been mentioned that the people in the pre-Islamic period used to put blood on the child’s hair, so the Prophet (a.s.) said: “(Putting ) blood (on the and kindness similar to that (of the Prophet toward his grandson).
The Prophet (a.s) ordered his grandson to be circumcised on the seventh day of his birth.[^1] Circumcising a male baby at that time was good and it made a male child purer.[^2]
6. His kunya (surname)
The Prophet (a.s) gave him the kunya of Abu Muhammad.[^3] Al-Hasan had no kunya other than this. With this deed all the rites of birth the Prophet (a.s) performed for his eldest son ended.
Al-Hasan (a.s) was given the nicknames of al-Sibt (the grandson), al-Zakiy (the pure), al-Mujjtaba (the chosen), al-Sayyid (the master), and al-Taqiy (the pious).
As for his features, they were similar to that of his grandfather the Prophet (a.s). Anas bin Malik said: “No one was more similar to the Prophet than al-Hasan bin Ali.”[^4]he traditionists have mentioned al-Hasan’s form, which was child’s hair) was among the acts of those who lived before Islam.” He prevented Asma’ from doing that.
[^1] Noor al-Absar, p. 108. [^2] Jawahir al-Ahkam, Chapter on Marriage. In it, it has been mentioned that Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) has said: “Circumcise your male babies on the seventh day of birth. For it is the best, purest, and quickest (of all deeds) in making flesh grow, and for the earth becomes impure for forty days due to the urine of those uncircumcised.” [^3] Usd al-Ghaba, vol. 1, p. 9. A kunya is the name by which an Arab is usually referred to and which refers to him or her as the father or mother of someone, usually his or her eldest son. It is among the rites of birth. It has been narrated on the authority of Imam Muhammed al-Baqir, peace be on him, who has said: “We give kunyas to our children during their childhood for fear that nicknames may be given to them.”
[^4] Fada’il al-Sahaba, p. 166. In his book al-Saheeh, vol. 2, p. 307, al-Turmidhi has mentioned on the authority of Ali, peace be on him, who has said: “Al-Hasan was like Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) from his head to his chest, while al-Husayn was like him from his chest to his feet.” In the book al-Isaba it has been mentioned on the authority of al-Bahi, who has said: “We held a discussion about who was from among his family like him. Then Abdullah bin al-Zubayr came in to us and said: ‘I will tell you about who was from among his family similar to him and the most lovable to him; he is al-Hasan bin Ali.’” This narration has been narrated by al-Haythemi in his book al-Majjma‘, vol. 9, p. 175. In the book al-Mihbar, p. 469, it has been mentioned that Fatima, peace be on her, was dancing her child al-Hasan and similar to that of his grandfather (a.s). They have said: “He was white with black eyes. He had long, thick hair. His limbs were great. His shoulders were wide. His hair was curly and his beard was thick. His neck was as white as silver.”[^1] These features are similar to those of the Prophet (a.s) according to the features the narrators have mentioned. Al-Hasan was similar to his grandfather in form; likewise, he was similar to him in his noble moral traits.[^2]
The Prophet (a.s) saw that his grandson al-Hasan was a copy of him. He was similar to him in manner and high soul. He was a firebrand of his brilliance. He would guide his community after him to the way of the truth and direct people to the straight path. The Prophet (a.s) came to know that al-Hasan would achieve all his ideal aims in life. So he poured onto him a ray from his great soul. He took great care of him and honored him. He poured onto him love and kindness since his birth and childhood. In detail we will deal with all kinds of care and honor issued from the Prophet (a.s) toward al-Hasan during his childhood and youth.
saying to it: “I swear by my father, you are similar to my father and not to Ali.”
[^1] Tarikh al-Khamees, vol. 1, p. 171. In his book Da’irat al-Ma‘arif, vol. 7, p. 38, al-Bustani has mentioned some of these features. [^2] Al-Ya‘qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 201. In his book Ihya’ al-Uloom, al-Ghazali has mentioned: Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) said to al-Hasan: ‘You are similar to me in form and manner.’”