The Life of Imam Al-hasan Al-mujtaba

Chapter Xxiii : To Damascus

The historians have unanimously agreed that Imam al-Hasan (a.s) came to Mu’awiya in Damascus. However they have differed over whether he traveled one time or more than one time. To elaborate on this topic is useless. The most important thing is to know the reason why he traveled. I (the author) think that he traveled to propagate the principles of Ahl al-Bayt and to display the Umayyad reality to those people Mu’awiya misled and turned away from the straight path. The proof for that is the Imam’s attitudes and debates with Mu’awiya, which we will mention. Through them he could expose him, showed his defects and shortcomings, and destroyed the thrones of his state. Suppose that he traveled to take the pay from Mu’awiya, as some people maintain.

It was said that how was it permissible for him to take the pay while most of it was usurped properties? The Muslim jurists have sufficed us the burden of the research on this problem. They have mentioned that the donations and gifts of an unjust ruler are permissible unless they include usurped properties and that the one who has usurped them is definitely known. Otherwise, it is not permissible to take them. If they are taken, it is obligatory to return them to their owners.[^1] Most properties which were taken from Mu’awiya were from the properties of the land taxes, zakat, and the like from among the properties that the state collected. Mu’awiya unlawfully controlled them because he was among the oppressive, tyrannical rulers. However the good Muslims had the right to save them and to return them to their owners. Besides, the Imam had a general authority over the Muslims.

As for those who maintain that Imam al-Hasan traveled to take the pay, they have depended on a fabricated narration, as we think. It was narrated that he went to Mu’awiya every year, and he gave him a hundred thousand (dirhams). One year he did not go, so Mu’awiya forgot him and did not send him the pay. The Imam intended to write to him. However he saw Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, in his sleep (and heard him) say to him: “O Hasan, why are you going to write to a creature to ask him for your need and leave asking your Lord?”

“What shall I do?” asked al-Hasan. Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, taught him this supplication: “O Allah, I ask you for every affair toward which my strength is [^1] Al-Shaykh al-Ansari, al-Makasibin

weak, to which my desire does not come, which does not come to my mind and does not run through my tongue. That is from among the things You give to any of the creatures. The first are the Muhajireeen, and the last are the Ansar.”

Al-Hasan woke up and memorized the supplication. He supplicated with it. Shortly after that Mu’awiya sent him the pay after one of his special associates had reminded him that Imam al-Hasan had not come to him in that year.[^1] None can depend on this narration because the Imam was famous for glory, sense of honor, and self-esteem. So how did he yield to Hind’s son (Mu’awiya), intend to write to him to ask for the pay, and Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, had prohibited him from that? It is worth mentioning that Imam al-Hasan was in no need of Mu’awiya’s gifts. That is because he had in Yathrib many country estates that produced him enormous properties as well as the good, righteous Muslims who sent him legal dues. As for the properties he received from Mu’awiya, he did not spend them on himself or on his family. It has been mentioned that he did not take from them the amount the riding animal carried with its mouth.[^2] Imam Musa bin Ja’far (a.s) narrated: “Surely al-Hasan and al-Husayn refused to accept the gifts of Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan.”[^3] Therefore, it was not permissible for Imam al-Hasan to travel to Mu’awiya to take the pay from him.

His Debates

Mu’awiya was unable to stand Imam al-Hasan when he was in Damascus. He saw the people come and welcome him. He was displeased with that. So he held meetings and filled them with the forces that deviated from Ahl al-Bayt and showed enmity toward them such as Amr bin al-‘Aas, al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba, Marwan bin al-Hakam, al-Waleed bin ‘Aqaba, Ziyad bin Abeeh, and Abdullah bin al-Zubayr. He ordered them to have the audacity to Imam al-Hasan. He also ordered them to disparage him, that he might induce the people to abstain from him and to satisfy himself for revenge on the (grand) son of the one who conquered Mecca and destroyed Quraysh’s idols. These rogues met Imam al-Hasan with bitter speech and obscene words. They went too far in showing recklessness and aggression toward him. However the Imam gave them strong answers of his flowing speech. He defeated them, made shame and disgrace follow them. He made them feel their evil deeds,

[^1] Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh. Mashariq al-Anwar. Noor al-Abbsar. [^2] Jama‘ Asrar al-‘Ulama’. A hand-written book available in the Public Library of Kashif al-Ghita’. [^3] Hayat al-Imam Musa bin Ja‘far, vol. 2, p. 332.

the deviation and corruption for which they were famous. He unwillingly answered them. He refuted their obscenity and said: “By Allah, were it not for that the Umayyads ascribed me to feebleness of speech, I would refrain from debating with them as a sign of neglecting them.” Because of his wonderful speech and his strong proofs, Ibn Abbas kissed him between his two eyes and said to him: “May I die for you, O cousin! Your sea is still full, and you assault until you satisfied me (for revenge on) the children….”

In all these debates the Imam was successful and victorious. His opponents were weak. Submission, defeat, and astonishment befell them. Their leader Mu’awiya advised them to refrain from debating with him after he had seen their defeat.[^1]

Anyway the texts of these debates with eloquent forms and literary values are worthy of presentation as an Arabic original inheritance indicating by itself the correctness of its ascription, and give us through his style and formation a picture of the literature of the debates at his time. The clubs and assemblies in Damascus were busy repeating the debates. They admired and respected the Imam. In the meantime they made light of his opponents and disrespected them. The following are the texts of the debates:

Mu’awiya came to Imam al-Hasan (a.s) and said to him:

-O Hasan, I am better than you. -How is that, O Hind’s son. -Because the people have unanimously agreed on me, and they have not unanimously agreed on you.

As authority in Islam does not bring about distinction and pride, rather piety and good deed bring them about, Imam al-Hasan (a.s) refuted Mu’awiya’s claim, saying: “How far! The thing through which you have become high is evil, O son of the woman who ate the (Hamza’s) liver. Those who have unanimously agreed on you are two men. They are either obedient or forced. The one who is obedient to you is disobedient to Allah, and the one who is forced is excused according to Allah’s Book. Allah forbids that I say that I am better than you, for you have no good. Surely Allah has cleared me from vices as He has cleared you from virtues.”[^2]

[^1] Al-Zarkali, A‘lam, vol. 2, p. 215. [^2] Abu Ali al-Nisaburi, Roudat al-Wa‘izeen.

This is the speech of the free who condemn oppression and resist forbidden things; this is not the speech of the one who wants pay and properties.

  1. Imam al-Hasan came in to Mu’awiya. When Amr bin al-‘Aas saw the Imam’s great veneration and dignity, he became displeased, burst with rage, and said: “The feeble one who cannot express himself has come to you!”

Abdullah bin Ja‘far was present. He was displeased with his speech, so he shouted at him: “Stop! By Allah, you have meant a solid rock from which floodwater flows down, of which ibexes fall short, and which the arrows do not reach. Be careful of al-Hasan! For you are still reveling in the flesh of a man from Quraysh. You shot, but your arrow did not leave. You struck, but your flint did not kindle.”

Imam al-Hasan heard the speech. When the assembly of Mu’awiya was full of people, the Imam (a.s) addressed Mu’awiya, imposed on him the guilt of his minister Amr bin al-‘Aas. Then he threatened him with declaring war against him if he did not refrain from his deception and error, and he mentioned to him the high qualities standing in his noble personality, saying: “O Mu’awiya, you have a servant who is still reveling in the fleshes of the people. By Allah, if you willed, there would be between us something because of which the affairs became aggravated and the hearts became narrow.”

Then he recited:

O Mu’awiya, you have ordered ‘Abd Sahm to curse me. The people from us are witnesses. When Quraysh take their assemblies, they will come to know what you want. You will foolishly go on cursing me because of a rancor that does not end and perish. You do not have a father like my father, that you may compete with those who compete or plot. Nor do you, O son of Harb, have a grandfather like my grandfather, Allah’s Apostle, when the grandfathers are mentioned. Nor do you have a mother from Quraysh like my mother when the old ancestry occurs. So you, O son of Harb, do not mock at the like of me, nor does the threat frighten the like of me. Slowly! Do not move, from us, affairs that make the newborn child white-haired out of fear of them.[^1] [^1] Al-Jahiz, al-Mahasin wa al-Azdad, p. 95. Al-Bayqahi, al-Mahasin wa al-Masawi’,

Imam al-Hasan (a.s) has showed his excellence and achievements, spread Mu’awiya’s bad deeds and disgraceful acts through this wonderful speech in which appeared his eloquent, miraculous nature, marvelous brevity, quick-wittedness, and strong proof. Through it he degraded Mu’awiya’s immoderation and hit the most prominent of his elements from among his known ancestry and lineage. Therefore, where is the feebleness and incapability of expressing himself, O Amr bin al-‘Aas?

  1. The Imam’s affair in Sham became great. The people successively came to visit him and listen to his speech. So he (a.s) possessed the hearts, the feelings, and the sentiments. The clubs and the assemblies talked about his great excellence and talents. Mu’awiya’s hirelings were Amr bin al-‘Aas, al-Waleed bin ‘Aqaba, ‘Utba bin Abi Sufyan, and al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba. When they saw that, they were afraid that something dangerous would happen, the authority would escape them, and the thrones of the Umayyad government would be destroyed. So they held a meeting in the royal court. They mentioned to Mu’awiya that the people welcomed Imam al-Hasan, honored him, overcrowded to visit him, and that his (Imam al-Hasan)existence was dangerous to the Umayyad state. They thought that the best way to degrade his dignity and to make the people turn away from him was to summon him, to accuse his father of killing ‘Uthman, and to curse him because of that. This is the text of their speech: “Surely al-Hasan has enlivened his father and his name. He said, and the people believed him. He commanded them, and they obeyed him. They hurried to him. That will raise him to that which is greater than he is. What displeases us still reaches us from him.”

So Mu’awiya asked them: “What do you want?”

They said: “Send for him and let him come, that we may curse him, curse his father, revile and rebuke him, and tell him that his father had killed ‘Uthman, and make him acknowledge that. He will change nothing of that.”

It was well known to Mu’awiya that their opinion was silly and their thinking was far from correctness. That is because he had come to know that the Imam would defeat and succeed in disgracing them. So he said to them: “I do not see that and do not do it.” “We have determined, O Commander of the faithful, to do that.”

“Woe unto you!” retorted Mu’awiya, “Do not do! By Allah, whenever I see him sitting with me I am afraid of his position.” vol. 1, p. 62. Ibn Abi al-Hadeed, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 2, p.102. Jamharat al-Khutab, vol. 1, p. 428. “Anyway send for him!” they demanded.

“Surely if I sent for him, I would treat him fairly,” stipulated Mu’awiya. So Ibn al-‘Aas said: “Are you afraid that his falsehood will put an end to our right or his speech will exceed ours?” When Mu’awiya saw that they insisted on him, he said to them: “Surely if I sent for him, I would command him to speak with the whole of his tongue.” “Command him to do that,” they said.

Mu’awiya responded to what they wanted. He commanded them to follow a special plan during their speech with the Imam, saying: “If you disobeyed me and sent for him and refused (all things) except that, then do not be weak in speaking with him. Know that he belongs to the members of a House with whom none can find fault or on whom can fasten shame. But throw a stone at him through saying to him: ‘Surely your father killed ‘Uthman and disliked the caliphate of the caliphs before him.’”

Then he sent for Imam al-Hasan. The Imam rose, asked for his clothes, and put them on. He knew the purpose for this summons. So he went out supplicating with this supplication: “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from their evil, repel through You in their throats, and seek help from You against them! Therefore, suffice me against them however You will and whenever You will through might and strength from You, O Most Merciful of the merciful!”

Then Imam al-Hasan (a.s) walked until he reached Mu’awiya. When Mu’awiya saw him coming towards him, he welcomed and honored him. Then he turned to him and apologized to him: “O Abu Muhammad, surely these (people) sent for you and disobeyed me.”

However the Imam explained to him that his apology was not real, saying: “Glory belongs to Allah! The house belongs to you, and asking permission to enter it belongs to you. By Allah if you responded to what they wanted and to that which was in their souls, then I feel shame for you of the obscenity. If they overcame your opinion, then I feel shame for you of weakness. Therefore which of them do you acknowledge? And which of them do you deny? If I had come to know their place, I would have brought a number equal to them from among the Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib, that I might not feel lonely because of you and them. Surely my guardian is Allah, and He befriends the good.”

Mu’awiya said: “Surely I disliked summoning you. However they urged me to do that though I disliked it. They and I will treat you fairly. We have summoned you to make you confess that ‘Uthman was unjustly killed, and that it was your father who had killed him. Therefore listen to and answer them. Your loneliness and their gathering should not prevent you from speaking with the whole of your tongue.”

When Mu’awiya kept silent, Amr bin al-‘Aas began speaking. He cursed Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful and accused him of cursing Abu Bakr. He said that he disliked the caliphate, took part in killing ‘Umar bin al-Khattab and unjustly killed ‘Uthman. He ascribed all bad qualities to him. Then he turned to Imam al-Hasan and said to him: “O Banu ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Allah does not give you the dominion for your killing the caliphs, your regarding as lawful what Allah prohibited from among the blood, your craving after the dominion, and your doing the unlawful. Then surely you, O Hasan, say to yourself that the caliphate will reach you while you have neither mind nor reason. How do you see that Allah, the Most High, has deprived you of your reason and made you as the most foolish of Quraysh and (made the people) mock at you? That is because of your father’s bad deed. We have summoned you to curse you and your father. As for your father, Allah was alone with him and sufficed us against him. As for you, you are in our hands, and we will choose the qualities regarding you. If we killed you, then we would commit no sin towards Allah, and the people would find no defect with us. Therefore can you refute us and accuse us of lying? If you thought that we told a lie regarding a thing, then refute us in respect of what we have said; otherwise, you should know that you and your father are unjust!”

There is nothing in this speech except slander and cursing that issued from a soul full of falsehood and enmity toward Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them.

After him, al-Waleed bin ‘Aqaba, a sinful person, said: “Surely you are ‘Uthman’s uncle. He was an excellent child to you. He knew your right. You are his sons-in-law. He was an excellent father-in-law to you. He honored you. However you were the first to envy him. Your father unjustly killed him; he has neither an excuse nor a proof. So how do you see that Allah avenged his blood and placed you in your position? By Allah, the Umayyads are better to the Hashimites than the Hashimites to the Umayyads, and Mu’awiya is better to you than yourself.”

Then he kept silent. After him, ‘Utba bin Abi Sufyan spoke. He showed his evil inners and enmity toward Ahl al-Bayt, saying: “O Hasan, your father was the wickedest of Quraysh to Quraysh, for he shed their blood, severed their blood relations, was long in sword and tongue, killed the living, and found fault with the dead. You were among those who killed ‘Uthman, and we will kill you because of him. As for your hope for the caliphate, you have not struck its flint nor are you outweighing in its inheritance. You, the Hashimites, killed ‘Uthman. It is an act of truth to kill you and your brother. As for your father, Allah sufficed us against his affair and killed him for ‘Uthman. As for you, there would be against us neither sin nor enmity if we killed you because of ‘Uthman.”

After him, al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba spoke. He started with cursing Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. Then he said: “By Allah, I find no fault with him regarding a matter he betrayed, but he killed ‘Uthman.”

Then they kept silent. Imam al-Hasan faced them. He debated with them. He spread their defects and their disgraceful acts. He lauded the excellence of his father Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him. In the first place he addressed Mu’awiya, saying: “O Mu’awiya, these (people) have not cursed me. But you have cursed me out of obscenity with which you are familiar, a bad opinion for which you are famous, a bad moral to which you have stuck, and aggression against us because of an enmity from you toward Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family. However, listen, O Mu’awiya, and you listen! I will say regarding you and them something less than you have. I adjure you before Allah, O people, did you know that the person you cursed today performed prayers towards both qiblas? As for you, O Mu’awiya, you disbelieved in them (the two qiblas). You thought that they were misguidance.

You worshipped al-Laat and al-‘Uzzaa[^1] out of error. I adjure you before Allah, did you know that he pledged two allegiances-the allegiance of al-fath (the conquest), and the allegiance of al-ridwan (the good pleasure)? As for you, O Mu’awiya, you disbelieved in one of them and broke the other. I adjure you before Allah, did you know that he was the most appropriate for faith? As for you, O Mu’awiya, and your father, you were among those whose hearts were reconciled (al-mu’alafatu qulubuhum). You concealed unbelief and showed Islam; and you were attracted with money. I adjure you before Allah, did you know that he (Imam Ali) was the bearer of the standard of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, at the Battle of Badr, and that the standard of the polytheists was with Mu’awiya and his father? Then he met you at the Battle of Uhud and of the Allies carrying the standard of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, while the standard of the polytheists was with your father. During all of that Allah granted him conquest, showed his proof, supported his summons, and confirmed his speech. In all those places Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless

[^1] Al-Laat and al-‘Uzzaa were two idols.

him and his family, was pleased with him and was displeased with you and your father. I adjure you before Allah, O Mu’awiya, did you remember the day when your father came riding a red camel that you drove, and your brother ‘Utba led? Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, saw you and said: ‘O Allah, curse the rider, the leader, and the driver!’ Did you, O Mu’awiya, forget the poetry you wrote to your father when he intended to be a Muslim and prohibit him from that? (You said:)

‘O Sakhr, do not be Muslim one day lest you should expose us after those who were torn at (the Battle of) Badr.

(They were) my maternal uncle, paternal uncle, granduncle, the third of them, and Hanzal of good who gifted us with sleeplessness…’ “By Allah what you have concealed from among your affair is greater than what you have manifested. I adjure you before Allah, O people, did you know that Ali abstained from pleasures among the companions of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family? So it has been revealed regarding him: O you who believe, do not forbid (yourself) the good things which Allah has made lawful.[^1] And that Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, sent the leading companions to Bani Qurayza. They approached their stronghold and were defeated. So he sent Ali with the standard, and he made them follow Allah’s judgment and that of His Apostle, and he did the like at Khaybar.

“O Mu’awiya, I think that you do not know that I know what Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said about you when he wanted to write a letter to Bani Khuzayma. He sent for you, and you did not come to him. So he invoked (Allah) against you with ‘O Allah,’ until you die. “And you, O people, I adjure you before Allah, did you not know that Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, cursed Abu Sufyan in seven places that you cannot refute: “Firstly, when he met Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, who was going out of Mecca to al-Ta’if to summon Thaqif to the religion. He (Abu Sufyan) attacked, cursed, stultified, abused, accused him of lying, and intended to assault him (the Prophet). So Allah and His Apostle cursed him and then the Prophet (a.s) went away.

“Secondly, on the day of the train of beasts of burden (youm al-‘eer) when Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, interfered with them [^1] Qur’an, 5, 87.

while they were coming from Sham. However Abu Sufyan drove them away and made them walk by the coast. So the Muslims did not obtain them. Allah’s Apostle cursed him and invoked (Allah) against him. Accordingly, the Battle of Badr took place. “Thirdly, at the Battle of Uhud when he (Abu Sufyan) stood at the foot of the mountain and Allah’s Apostle was on the top. He was calling out many times: ‘Exalt Hubal!’ So Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, cursed him ten times; and the Muslims cursed him. “Fourthly, on the day when he (Abu Sufyan) brought the allies along with Ghatafan, the Jews, so Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, cursed him and invoked Allah against him.

“Fifthly, on the day when Abu Sufyan brought Quraysh and prevented Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, from the Holy Mosque in Mecca, and the animals for immolation were ready to reach their place on the day of al-Hudaybiya. So Allah’s Apostle cursed Abu Sufyan. He cursed the leaders and the followers and said: ‘All of them are cursed. None of them will believe.’ It was said: ‘O Allah’s Apostle, is Islam not hoped for any of them? So how is the cursing?’ He said: ‘The cursing will befall none of the followers. As for the leaders, none of them will succeed.’ “Sixthly, on the day of the red camel.

“Seventhly, on the day when they stood in front of Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, to startle his she-camel. They were twelve men. Among them was Abu Sufyan. So this belongs to you, O Mu’awiya.” Through his speech, Imam al-Hasan (a.s) brought down Mu’awiya from his palace to his grave, from his throne to his coffin. He made sadness hurt him. Then he turned to Amr bin al-‘Aas and said to him: “As for you, O bin al-‘Aas, surely your affair is common. Your mother gave birth to you (while you were) unknown because of adultery. So four (men) from Quraysh sued one another about you. Her butcher overcame you. He was the meanest of them in lineage and the wickedest of them in position. Then your father rose and said: ‘I detest Muhammad, the childless.’ So Allah revealed regarding him what He revealed.

You fought against Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, at all the battles. You satirized and harmed him in Mecca, and you plotted against him with all your scheme. You were the worst of all the people in accusing him of lying and enmity. Then you along with the owners of the ship went out intending (to go to) al-Nejashi (to ask him) to repatriate Ja‘far and his companions to the people of Mecca. When what you hoped escaped you, Allah returned you disappointed and proved you a lying informer, and you specified your punishment against your companion ‘Ammarah bin al-Waleed. So you informed al-Najashi against him as envy for what he committed with his wife. So Allah exposed you and your companion. Therefore, you are the enemy of the Hashimites during the pre-Islamic period and Islam. Then you and all these people have come to know that you satirized Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, with seventy verses of poetry. So Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said: ‘O Allah, surely I do not say poetry and I should not (say it). O Allah, curse him a thousand times for each letter. Therefore, there are countless curses on you from Allah. As for what you have mentioned regarding ‘Uthman’s affair, it was you who set the world with fire against him. Then you went to Palestine. When you heard of his murder, you said: ‘I am Abu Abdullah. When I hurt an ulcer, I make it bleed.’ Then you devoted yourself to Mu’awiya and sold your religion for your life in this world. Therefore, we do not blame you for hatred nor do we admonish you for affection. By Allah, you did not support ‘Uthman when he was alive nor did you become angry for him when he was killed. Woe unto you, O bin al-‘Aas! Did you not say regarding the Hashimites when you left Mecca for al-Najashi?

‘My daughter says: To where is this departure? And my going is not condemned. I said: Leave me! Surely I am a man (who) wants (to go to) al-Najashi as to Ja‘far. That I may burn him with a burning through which I set right the chivalry of the wry-necked. And my affair is Ahmed (Muhammad) from among them, and I will say as to him with the abominable. And I will run to ‘Utba diligently even if he was like the red gold. And I will not turn away from the Hashimites and as far as I can in absence and presence. If he accepted my admonition to him; otherwise, I will draw my sword towards him Therefore, this is the answer to you. Have you heard it.’

Imam al-Hasan (a.s) mentioned what was standing in Amr bin al-‘Aas from among the vices, the disgraceful acts, the violent malice against Islam and the Muslims, his taking part in shedding ‘Uthman’s blood, and his joining Mu’awiya as craving after his world. Then the Imam (a.s) turned to al-Waleed bin ‘Aqaba and said to him: “As for you, O Waleed, I do not blame you for detesting Ali. That is because he whipped you eighty times as to (your drinking) wine and he killed your father before Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. It is you whom Allah has called the transgressor and called Ali the believer. That was when you vied in glory with one another. You said to him: ‘O Ali, keep silent! I am braver than you in heart and longer than you in tongue.’ So Ali said to you: ‘Keep silent, O Waleed! I am a believer, and you are a transgressor.’ So Allah revealed His speech to confirm his speech: Is he then who is a believer like him who is a transgressor? They are not equal.[^1] Then He revealed to confirm his speech: If an evil-doer comes to you with a report, look carefully into it.[^2] Woe unto you, O Walled! Whatever you forget, do not forget the speech of the poet as to you and him.”

Then Imam al-Hasan (a.s) mentioned the verses of poetry on them:

“He who is believer, may Allah prolong your life, is not like him who is transgressor, traitor. Shortly after, al-Waleed and Ali will be openly summoned to the reckoning. Ali will be rewarded with gardens, and al-Waleed will be rewarded with disgrace.” There is no relationship between you and Quraysh. You are an infidel from among the people of Saforiya. I swear by Allah that you are older in birthday than what you claim.”

The reason behind al-Waleed’s detesting Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) and showing enmity toward him was that the Imam was the model of belief and al-Waleed was the model of unbelief. It is well known that the contradiction between belief and unbelief is self and natural. Besides, Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful, whipped him eighty times for his drinking wine. Indeed this brought about in himself hatred toward Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful. After Imam al-Hasan (a.s) had disgraced al-Waleed, he turned to Utba bin Abi Sufyan and said to him: “As for you, O ‘Utba, by Allah, you are not prudent to answer you nor are you sane to debate with and admonish you. You have no good to be hoped nor have you evil to be avoided. Your reason and that of your slave-girl are the same. If you openly curse Ali, that will not harm him. As for threatening me with killing, why did you not kill al-Lahyani when you found him in your bed? Do you not feel shame of the saying of Nasr bin al-Hajjaj as to you:

‘O men, occurring times, and the shame that has disgraced Abu Sufyan.

I have been informed that Utba betrayed him as to his wife. (He belongs to) a race ignoble in origin from Lahyan.’

[^1] Qur'an, 32, 18. [^2] Qur'an, 49, 6.

“After this I deem myself as above mentioning it because of its atrocity. So how can one fear your sword while you had not killed the one who exposed you? How can I blame you for your detesting Ali while he killed your uncle during a dueling at the Battle of Badr, helped Hamza in killing your grandfather Utba, and killed your brother Hanzala in one place?”

Imam al-Hasan (a.s) has explained that Utba was foolish, had no reason, and void of honor, that Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) killed with his sword his grandfather, his uncle, and his brother at the Battle of Badr. For this reason he harbored malice and hatred against him. Then Imam al-Hasan (a.s) turned to al-Mughira bin Shu‘ba and said to him: “As for you, O Mughira, you are not worthy of inflicting on me this and the like of it. You are like the mosquito that said to the date-palm: ‘Stand firm, for I am flying from you.’ The date palm said: ‘Did I feel that you had been sitting on me, that I might come to know that you were flying from me?’ We do not feel your enmity toward us nor do we grieve if we come to know of it. Your speech is not difficult to us. The punishment prescribed by Allah as to fornication is established against you. ‘Umar turned away from you a right about which Allah will ask him.

You asked Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family: ‘Can man look at the women he wants to marry?’ ‘There is no harm in it, O Mughira,’ he replied, ‘unless he had intended to fornicate her.’ That is because he had come to know that you were a fornicator. You are priding yourself on us through the authority. But Allah, the Most High, says (in this concern): And when We wish to destroy a town, We send Our commandment to the people of it who lead easy lives, but they transgress therein; thus the word proves true against it, so We destroy it with utter destruction.[^1] ” With this the Imam’s debates with his opponents came to an end. The Imam (a.s) showed them their defects, their mental and genealogical vices. He exposed their disgraceful acts. He stripped them of the garment of pride. He (a.s) made sorrow and sadness hurt them. When he wanted to go away, Amr bin al-‘Aas clung to his clothes and said (to Mu’awiya): “O Commander of the faithful, you have witnessed his speech as to slandering my mother. I demand him of the right of slandering.”

Mu’awiya shouted at him with rage: “Leave him! May Allah not reward you with good!”

Then Mu’awiya turned to his retinue. He condemned and blamed them for their disobeying and opposing him, saying: “I had told you that he was among those whose opposition was unbearable. I had prohibited you from cursing [^1] Qur'an, 17, 16.

him. However you disobeyed me. By Allah, he did not rise until he made the house dark to me. Go away from me! Indeed Allah has exposed and disgraced you because of your leaving determination and turning away from the opinion of the compassionate adviser. And Allah is He Whose help is sought.”[^1] 4. Mu’awiya met with his retinue. They prided themselves on each other and had the audacity to one another. Mu’awiya wanted to mock at them. He said to them: “You have prided yourselves on each other very much. If al-Hasan bin Ali (a.s) and Abdullah bin Abbas were present, they would shorten your long reins.”

Ziyad bin Sumayya hurried to say: “How is that, O Commander of the faithful? They will not challenge Marwan bin al-Hakam because he has a strong speech, nor will they challenge us because we are proud and audacious. So send for them tomorrow, that you may hear our speech.” Mu’awiya turned to his minister Amr bin al-‘Aas to consult with him as to that: “What do you say?” “Send for them (to come) tomorrow,” replied Amr.